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Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
In Dilmun the raven was not yet cawing, the partridge not cackling. The lion did not slay, the wolf was not carrying off lambs, the dog had not been taught to make kids curl up, the pig had not learned that grain was to be eaten.
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
When a widow has spread malt on the roof, the birds did not yet eat that malt up there. The pigeon then did not tuck the head under its wing.
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
No eye-diseases said there: "I am the eye disease." No headache said there: "I am the headache." No old woman belonging to it said there: "I am an old woman." No old man belonging to it said there: "I am an old man." No maiden in her unwashed state …… in the city. No man dredging a river said there: "It is getting dark." No herald made the rounds in his border district.
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
(Enki answered Ninsikila:) "When Utu steps up into heaven, fresh waters shall run out of the ground for you from the standing vessels (?) on Ezen's (?) shore, from Nanna's radiant high temple, from the mouth of the waters running underground."
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
"May the waters rise up from it into your great basins. May your city drink water aplenty from them. May Dilmun drink water aplenty from them. May your pools of salt water become pools of fresh water. May your city become an emporium on the quay for the Land. May Dilmun become an emporium on the quay for the Land."
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
"May the land of Tukriš hand over to you gold from Ḫarali, lapis lazuli and ……. May the land of Meluḫa load precious desirable cornelian, meš wood of Magan and the best abba wood into large ships for you. May the land of Marḫaši yield you precious stones, topazes. May the land of Magan offer you strong, powerful copper, dolerite, u stone and šumin stone. May the Sea-land offer you its own ebony wood, …… of a king. May the 'Tent'-lands offer you fine multicoloured wools. May the land of Elam hand over to you choice wools, its tribute. May the manor of Urim, the royal throne dais, the city ……, load up into large ships for you sesame, august raiment, and fine cloth. May the wide sea yield you its wealth."
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
At that moment, on that day, and under that sun, when Utu stepped up into heaven, from the standing vessels (?) on Ezen's (?) shore, from Nanna's radiant high temple, from the mouth of the waters running underground, fresh waters ran out of the ground for her.
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
The waters rose up from it into her great basins. Her city drank water aplenty from them. Dilmun drank water aplenty from them. Her pools of salt water indeed became pools of fresh water. Her fields, glebe and furrows indeed produced grain for her. Her city indeed became an emporium on the quay for the Land. Dilmun indeed became an emporium on the quay for the Land. At that moment, on that day, and under that sun, so it indeed happened.
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
Enki cried out: "By the life's breath of heaven I adjure you. Lie down for me in the marsh, lie down for me in the marsh, that would be joyous." Enki distributed his semen destined for Damgalnuna. He poured semen into Ninḫursaĝa's womb and she conceived the semen in the womb, the semen of Enki.
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
Nintur said to Uttu: "Let me advise you, and may you take heed of my advice. Let me speak words to you and may you heed my words. From in the marsh one man is able to see up here, is able to see up here, he is; from in the marsh Enki is able to see up here, is able to see up here, he is. He will set eyes on you." (10 lines fragmentary) …… Uttu, the exalted (?) woman …… (3 lines fragmentary)
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
Enki made his face attractive and took a staff in his hand. Enki came to a halt at Uttu's, knocked at her house (demanding): "Open up, open up." (She asked): "Who are you?" (He answered:) "I am a gardener. Let me give you cucumbers, apples, and grapes for your consent." Joyfully Uttu opened the house. Enki gave Uttu, the exalted (?) woman, cucumbers in ……, gave her apples with their stems sticking out (?), gave her grapes in their clusters. { (1 line not in the ms. from Nibru:) He poured beer for her in the large ban measure. }
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
Uttu, the beautiful woman, cried out: "Woe, my thighs." She cried out: "Woe, my body. Woe, my heart." Ninḫursaĝa removed the semen from the thighs. (2 lines fragmentary)
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
"My master, the atutu plant," he said to him, cut it off for him and Enki ate it." My master, the aštaltal plant," he said to him, pulled it up for him and Enki ate it." My master, the …… plant," he said to him, cut it off for him and Enki ate it." My master, the amḫaru plant," he said to him, pulled it up for him and Enki ate it. Enki determined the destiny of the plants, had them know it in their hearts.
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
Ninḫursaĝa cursed the name Enki: "Until his dying day, I will never look upon him with life-giving eye." The Anuna sat down in the dust. But a fox was able to speak to Enlil: "If I bring Ninḫursaĝa to you, what will be my reward?" Enlil answered the fox: "If you bring Ninḫursaĝa to me, I shall erect two birch (?) trees for you in my city and you will be renowned."
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
(Ninḫursaĝa asked:) "My brother, what part of you hurts you?" "The top of my head (ugu-dili) hurts me." She gave birth to Ab-u out of it." My brother, what part of you hurts you?" "The locks of my hair (siki) hurt me." She gave birth to Ninsikila out of it." My brother, what part of you hurts you?" "My nose (giri) hurts me." She gave birth to Ningiriutud out of it." My brother, what part of you hurts you?" "My mouth (ka) hurts me." She gave birth to Ninkasi out of it.
Enki and Ninḫursaĝa: c.1.1.1
(She said:) "For the little ones to whom I have given birth may rewards not be lacking. Ab-u shall become king of the grasses, Ninsikila shall become lord of Magan, Ningiriutud shall marry Ninazu, Ninkasi shall be what satisfies the heart, Nazi shall marry Nindara, Azimua shall marry Ninĝišzida, Ninti shall become the lady of the month, and Ensag shall become lord of Dilmun."
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
In those days, in the days when heaven and earth were created; in those nights, in the nights when heaven and earth were created; in those years, in the years when the fates were determined; when the Anuna gods were born; when the goddesses were taken in marriage; when the goddesses were distributed in heaven and earth; when the goddesses …… became pregnant and gave birth; when the gods were obliged (?) …… their food …… dining halls; the senior gods oversaw the work, while the minor gods were bearing the toil. The gods were digging the canals and piling up the silt in Ḫarali. The gods, crushing the clay, began complaining about this life.
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
At that time, the one of great wisdom, the creator of all the senior gods, Enki lay on his bed, not waking up from his sleep, in the deep engur, in the subterranean water, the place the inside of which no other god knows. The gods said, weeping: "He is the cause of the lamenting!" Namma, the primeval mother who gave birth to the senior gods, took the tears of the gods to the one who lay sleeping, to the one who did not wake up from his bed, to her son: "Are you really lying there asleep, and …… not awake? The gods, your creatures, are smashing their ……. My son, wake up from your bed! Please apply the skill deriving from your wisdom and create a substitute (?) for the gods so that they can be freed from their toil!"
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
At the word of his mother Namma, Enki rose up from his bed. In Ḫal-an-kug, his room for pondering, he slapped his thigh in annoyance. The wise and intelligent one, the prudent, …… of skills, the fashioner of the design of everything brought to life birth-goddesses (?). Enki reached out his arm over them and turned his attention to them. And after Enki, the fashioner of designs by himself, had pondered the matter, he said to his mother Namma: "My mother, the creature you planned will really come into existence. Impose on him the work of carrying baskets. You should knead clay from the top of the abzu; the birth-goddesses (?) will nip off the clay and you shall bring the form into existence. Let Ninmaḫ act as your assistant; and let Ninimma, Šu-zi-ana, Ninmada, Ninbarag, Ninmug, …… and Ninguna stand by as you give birth. My mother, after you have decreed his fate, let Ninmaḫ impose on him the work of carrying baskets." (5 lines fragmentary)…… she placed it on grass and purified the birth.
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
Enki …… brought joy to their heart. He set a feast for his mother Namma and for Ninmaḫ. All the princely birth-goddesses (?) …… ate delicate reed (?) and bread. An, Enlil, and Lord Nudimmud roasted holy kids. All the senior gods praised him: "O lord of wide understanding, who is as wise as you? Enki, the great lord, who can equal your actions? Like a corporeal father, you are the one who has the me of deciding destinies, in fact you are the me."
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
Enki and Ninmaḫ drank beer, their hearts became elated, and then Ninmaḫ said to Enki: "Man's body can be either good or bad and whether I make a fate good or bad depends on my will."
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
Enki answered Ninmaḫ: "I will counterbalance whatever fate -- good or bad -- you happen to decide." Ninmaḫ took clay from the top of the abzu in her hand and she fashioned from it first a man who could not bend his outstretched weak hands. Enki looked at the man who cannot bend his outstretched weak hands, and decreed his fate: he appointed him as a servant of the king.
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
{ Third, she fashioned one with both feet broken, one with paralysed feet. Enki looked at the one with both feet broken, the one with paralysed feet and …… him for the work of …… and the silversmith and ……. } { (1 ms. has instead:) She fashioned one, a third one, born as an idiot. Enki looked at this one, the one born as an idiot, and decreed his fate: he appointed him as a servant of the king. }
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
Fifth, she fashioned a woman who could not give birth. Enki looked at the woman who could not give birth, { and decreed her fate: he made (?) her belong to the queen's household. } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… as a weaver, fashioned her to belong to the queen's household. }
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
{ Ninmaḫ threw the pinched-off clay from her hand on the ground and a great silence fell }{ (1 ms. has instead:) Enki threw all (?) the clay to the ground and was greatly …… }. The great lord Enki said to Ninmaḫ: "I have decreed the fates of your creatures and given them their daily bread. Come, now I will fashion somebody for you, and you must decree the fate of the newborn one!"
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
Enki devised a shape with head, …… and mouth in its middle, and said to Ninmaḫ: "Pour ejaculated semen into a woman's womb, and the woman will give birth to the semen of her womb." Ninmaḫ stood by for the newborn ……. and the woman brought forth …… in the midst ……. In return (?), this was Umul: its head was afflicted, its place of …… was afflicted, its eyes were afflicted, its neck was afflicted. It could hardly breathe, its ribs were shaky, its lungs were afflicted, its heart was afflicted, its bowels were afflicted. With its hand and its lolling head it could not not put bread into its mouth; its spine and head were dislocated. The weak hips and the shaky feet could not carry (?) it on the field -- Enki fashioned it in this way.
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
Enki said to Ninmaḫ: "For your creatures I have decreed a fate, I have given them their daily bread. Now, you should decree a fate for my creature, give him his daily bread too." Ninmaḫ looked at Umul and turned to him. She went nearer to Umul asked him questions but he could not speak. She offered him bread to eat but he could not reach out for it. He could not lie on ……, he could not ……. Standing up he could not sit down, could not lie down, he could not …… a house, he could not eat bread. Ninmaḫ answered Enki: "The man you have fashioned is neither alive nor dead. He cannot support himself (?)."
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
Enki answered Ninmaḫ: "I decreed a fate for the first man with the weak hands, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the man who turned back (?) the light, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the man with broken, paralysed feet, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the man who could not hold back his urine, I gave him bread. I decreed a fate for the woman who could not give birth, I gave her bread. I decreed the fate for the one with neither penis nor vagina on its body, I gave it bread. My sister, ……." (2 lines fragmentary)
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
(Ninmaḫ's answer continues) "You (?) entered ……. Look, you do not dwell in heaven, you do not dwell on earth, you do not come out to look at the Land. Where you do not dwell but where my house is built, your words cannot be heard. Where you do not live but where my city is built, I myself am silenced (?). My city is ruined, my house is destroyed, my child has been taken captive. I am a fugitive who has had to leave the E-kur, even I myself could not escape from your hand."
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
Enki replied to Ninmaḫ: "Who could change the words that left your mouth? Remove Umul from your lap ……. Ninmaḫ, may your work be ……, you …… for me what is imperfect; who can oppose (?) this? The man whom I shaped …… after you ……, let him pray! Today let my penis be praised, may your wisdom be confirmed (?)! May the enkum and ninkum …… proclaim your glory ……. My sister, the heroic strength ……. The song …… the writing (?) ……. The gods who heard …… let Umul build (?) my house ……."
Enki and Ninmaḫ: c.1.1.2
Ninmaḫ could not rival the great lord Enki. Father Enki, your praise is sweet!
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
Grandiloquent lord of heaven and earth, self-reliant, Father Enki, engendered by a bull, begotten by a wild bull, cherished by Enlil, the Great Mountain, beloved by holy An, king, meš tree planted in the Abzu, rising over all lands; great dragon who stands in Eridug, whose shadow covers heaven and earth, a grove of vines extending over the Land, Enki, lord of plenty of the Anuna gods, Nudimmud, mighty one of the E-kur, strong one of heaven and earth! Your great house is founded in the Abzu, the great mooring-post of heaven and earth. Enki, from whom a single glance is enough to unsettle the heart of the mountains; wherever bison are born, where stags are born, where ibex are born, where wild goats are born, in meadows ……, in hollows in the heart of the hills, in green …… unvisited by man, you have fixed your gaze on the heart of the Land as on split reeds.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
Counting the days and putting the months in their houses, so as to complete the years and to submit the completed years to the assembly for a decision, taking decisions to regularise the days: Father Enki, you are the king of the assembled people. You have only to open your mouth for everything to multiply and for plenty to be established. Your branches …… green with their fruit ……, …… do honour to the gods. …… in its forests is like a fleecy garment. Good sheep and good lambs do honour to ……. When …… the prepared fields, …… will accumulate stockpiles and stacks. …… there is oil, there is milk, produced by the sheepfold and cow-pen. The shepherd sweetly sings his rustic song, the cowherd spends the day rocking his churns. Their products would do honour to the late lunches in the gods' great dining hall.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
Your word fills the young man's heart with vigour, so that like a thick-horned bull he butts about in the courtyard. Your word bestows loveliness on the young woman's head, so that the people in their settled cities gaze at her in wonder. (2 lines unclear)
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
Enlil, the Great Mountain, has commissioned you to gladden the hearts of lords and rulers and wish them well. Enki, lord of prosperity, lord of wisdom, lord, the beloved of An, the ornament of Eridug, who establish commands and decisions, who well understands the decreeing of fates: you close up the days ……, and make the months enter their houses. You bring down ……, you have reached their number. You make the people dwell in their dwelling places ……, you make them follow their herdsman ……. (2 lines unclear)
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
You turn weapons away from their houses ……, you make the people safe in their dwellings …….
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
When Father Enki goes forth to the inseminated people, good seed will come forth. When Nudimmud goes forth to the good pregnant ewes, good lambs will be born; when he goes forth to the fecund cows, good calves will be born; whe he goes forth to the good pregnant goats, good kids will be born. If you go forth to the cultivated fields, to the good germinating fields, stockpiles and stacks can be accumulated on the high plain. If you go forth to the parched areas of the Land, (2 lines missing or unclear)
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
Enki, the king of the Abzu, rejoicing in great splendour, justly praises himself: "My father, the king of heaven and earth, made me famous in heaven and earth. My elder brother, the king of all the lands, gathered up all the divine powers and placed them in my hand. I brought the arts and crafts from the E-kur, the house of Enlil, to my Abzu in Eridug. I am the good semen, begotten by a wild bull, I am the first born of An. I am a great storm rising over the great earth, I am the great lord of the Land. I am the principal among all rulers, the father of all the foreign lands. I am the big brother of the gods, I bring prosperity to perfection. I am the seal-keeper of heaven and earth. I am the wisdom and understanding of all the foreign lands. With An the king, on An's dais, I oversee justice. With Enlil, looking out over the lands, I decree good destinies. He has placed in my hands the decreeing of fates in the place where the sun rises. I am cherished by Nintur. I am named with a good name by Ninḫursaĝa. I am the leader of the Anuna gods. I was born as the firstborn son of holy An."
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
After the lord had proclaimed his greatness, after the great prince had eulogised himself, the Anuna gods stood there in prayer and supplication:
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
In a state of high delight Enki, the king of the Abzu, rejoicing in great splendour, again justly praises himself: "I am the lord, I am one whose word is reliable, I am one who excels in everything."
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
"At my command, sheepfolds have been built, cow-pens have been fenced off. When I approach heaven, a rain of abundance rains from heaven. When I approach earth, there is a high carp-flood. When I approach the green meadows, at my word stockpiles and stacks are accumulated. I have built my house, a shrine, in a pure place, and named it with a good name. I have built my Abzu, a shrine, in ……, and decreed a good fate for it. The shade of my house extends over the …… pool. By my house the suḫur carp dart among the honey plants, and the eštub carp wave their tails among the small gizi reeds. The small birds chirp in their nests."
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
"The lords pay heed …… to me. I am Enki! They stand before me, praising me. The abgal priests and abrig officials who …… stand before me …… distant days. The enkum and ninkum officiants organise ……. They purify the river for me, they …… the interior of the shrine for me. In my Abzu, sacred songs and incantations resound for me. My barge 'Crown', the 'Stag of the Abzu', transports me there most delightfully. It glides swiftly for me through the great marshes to wherever I have decided, it is obedient to me. The stroke-callers make the oars pull in perfect unison. They sing for me pleasant songs, creating a cheerful mood on the river. Niĝir-sig, the captain of my barge, holds the golden sceptre for me. I am Enki! He is in command of my boat 'Stag of the Abzu'. I am the lord! I will travel! I am Enki! I will go forth into my Land! I, the lord who determines the fates, ……," (4 lines unclear)
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
The Anuna gods address affectionately the great prince who has travelled in his Land: "Lord who rides upon the great powers, the pure powers, who controls the great powers, the numberless powers, foremost in all the breadth of heaven and earth; who received the supreme powers in Eridug, the holy place, the most esteemed place, Enki, lord of heaven and earth -- praise!"
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
All the lords and rulers, the incantation-priests of Eridug and the linen-clad priests of Sumer, perform the purification rites of the Abzu for the great prince who has travelled in his land; for Father Enki they stand guard in the holy place, the most esteemed place. They …… the chambers ……, they …… the emplacements, they purify the great shrine of the Abzu ……. They bring there the tall juniper, the pure plant. They organise the holy …… in the great watercourse …… of Enki. Skilfully they build the main stairway of Eridug on the Good Quay. They prepare the sacred uzga shrine, where they utter endless prayers. (7 lines fragmentary or unclear)
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
For Enki, …… squabbling together, and the suḫurmaš carp dart among the honey plants, again fighting amongst themselves for the great prince. The eštub carp wave their tails among the small gizi reeds.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
The lord, the great ruler of the Abzu, issues instructions on board the 'Stag of the Abzu' -- the great emblem erected in the Abzu, providing protection, its shade extending over the whole land and refreshing the people, the pillar and pole planted in the …… marsh, rising high over all the foreign lands. The noble captain of the lands, the son of Enlil, holds in his hand the sacred punt-pole, a meš tree ornamented in the Abzu which received the supreme powers in Eridug, the holy place, the most esteemed place. The hero proudly lifts his head towards the Abzu. (6 lines missing or unclear)
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
Sirsir ……, the boatman of the barge, …… the boat for the lord. Niĝir-sig, the captain of the barge, holds the holy sceptre for the lord. The fifty laḫama deities of the subterranean waters speak affectionately to him. The stroke-callers, like heavenly gamgam birds, …….
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
The intrepid king, Father Enki …… in the Land. Prosperity was made to burgeon in heaven and on earth for the great prince who travels in the Land. Enki decreed its fate:
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
"Sumer, great mountain, land of heaven and earth, trailing glory, bestowing powers on the people from sunrise to sunset: your powers are superior powers, untouchable, and your heart is complex and inscrutable. Like heaven itself, your just matrix, in which gods too can be born, is beyond reach. Giving birth to kings who put on the good diadem, giving birth to lords who wear the crown on their heads -- your lord, the honoured lord, sits with An the king on An's dais. Your king, the Great Mountain, Father Enlil, the father of all the lands, has blocked you impenetrably (?) like a cedar tree. The Anuna, the great gods, have taken up dwellings in your midst, and consume their food in your giguna shrines among the unique and exceptional trees. Household Sumer, may your sheepfolds be built and your cattle multiply, may your giguna touch the skies. May your good temples reach up to heaven. May the Anuna determine the destinies in your midst."
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
"City which possesses all that is fitting, bathed by water! Sturdy bull, altar of abundance that strides across the mountains, rising like the hills, forest of ḫašur cypresses with broad shade, self-confident! May your perfect powers be well-directed. The Great Mountain Enlil has pronounced your name great in heaven and on earth. City whose fate Enki has decreed, sanctuary of Urim, you shall rise high to heaven!"
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
"Black land, may your trees be great trees, may your forests be forests of highland meš trees! Chairs made from them will grace royal palaces! May your reeds be great reeds, may they ……! Heroes shall …… them on the battlefield as weapons! May your bulls be great bulls, may they be bulls of the mountains! May their bellowing be the bellowing of wild bulls of the mountains! The great powers of the gods shall be made perfect for you! May the francolins of the mountains wear cornelian beards! May your birds all be peacocks! May their cries grace royal palaces! May all your silver be gold! May all your copper be tin-bronze! Land, may all you possess be plentiful! May your people ……! May your men go forth like bulls against their fellow men!" (2 lines unclear)
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He cleansed and purified the land of Dilmun. He placed Ninsikila in charge of it. He gave …… for the fish spawn, ate its …… fish, bestowed palms on the cultivated land, ate its dates. …… Elam and Marḫaši ……. …… to devour ……. The king endowed with strength by Enlil destroyed their houses, demolished (?) their walls. He brought their silver and lapis-lazuli, their treasure, to Enlil, king of all the lands, in Nibru.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
After he had turned his gaze from there, after Father Enki had lifted his eyes across the Euphrates, he stood up full of lust like a rampant bull, lifted his penis, ejaculated and filled the Tigris with flowing water. He was like a wild cow mooing for its young in the wild grass, its scorpion-infested cow-pen. The Tigris …… at his side like a rampant bull. By lifting his penis, he brought a bridal gift. The Tigris rejoiced in its heart like a great wild bull, when it was born ……. It brought water, flowing water indeed: its wine will be sweet. It brought barley, mottled barley indeed: the people will eat it. It filled the E-kur, the house of Enlil, with all sorts of things. Enlil was delighted with Enki, and Nibru was glad. The lord put on the diadem as a sign of lordship, he put on the good crown as a sign of kingship, touching the ground on his left side. Plenty came forth out of the earth for him.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He issued a challenge ……. Enki placed in charge of all this him from whose net no fish escapes, him from whose trap no living thing escapes, him from whose bird-net no bird escapes, (1 line unclear)-- ……, who loves fish.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
The lord established a shrine, a holy shrine, whose interior is elaborately constructed. He established a shrine in the sea, a holy shrine, whose interior is elaborately constructed. The shrine, whose interior is a tangled thread, is beyond understanding. The shrine's emplacement is situated by the constellation the Field, the holy upper shrine's emplacement faces towards the Chariot constellation. Its terrifying sea is a rising wave, its splendour is fearsome. The Anuna gods dare not approach it. …… to refresh their hearts, the palace rejoices. The Anuna stand by with prayers and supplications. They set up a great altar for Enki in the E-engura, for the lord ……. The great prince ……. …… the pelican of the sea. (1 line unclear)
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He filled the E-kur, the house of Enlil, with goods of all sorts. Enlil was delighted with Enki, and Nibru was glad. Enki placed in charge of all this, over the wide extent of the sea, her who sets sail …… in the holy shrine, who induces sexual intercourse ……, who …… over the enormous high flood of the subterranean waters, the terrifying waves, the inundation of the sea ……, who comes forth from the ……, the mistress of Sirara, …… -- Nanše.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He called to the rain of the heavens. He …… as floating clouds. He made …… rising at the horizon. He turned the mounds into fields ……. Enki placed in charge of all this him who rides on the great storms, who attacks with lightning bolts, the holy bar which blocks the entrance to the interior of heaven, the son of An, the canal inspector of heaven and earth -- Iškur, the bringer of plenty, the son of An.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He organised ploughs, yokes and teams. The great prince Enki bestowed the horned oxen that follow the …… tools, he opened up the holy furrows, and made the barley grow on the cultivated fields. Enki placed in charge of them the lord who wears the diadem, the ornament of the high plain, him of the implements, the farmer of Enlil -- Enkimdu, responsible for ditches and dykes.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
The lord called the cultivated fields, and bestowed on them mottled barley. Enki made chickpeas, lentils and …… grow. He heaped up into piles the early, mottled and innuḫa varieties of barley. Enki multiplied the stockpiles and stacks, and with Enlil's help he enhanced the people's prosperity. Enki placed in charge of all this her whose head and body are dappled, whose face is covered in syrup, the mistress who causes sexual intercourse, the power of the Land, the life of the black-headed -- Ezina, the good bread of the whole world.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
The great prince fixed a string to the hoe, and organised brick moulds. He penetrated the …… like precious oil. Enki placed in charge of them him whose sharp-bladed hoe is a corpse-devouring snake that ……, whose brick mould in place is a tidy stack of hulled grain for the ewes -- Kulla, who …… bricks in the Land.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He tied down the strings and coordinated them with the foundations, and with the power of the assembly he planned a house and performed the purification rituals. The great prince put down the foundations, and laid the bricks. Enki placed in charge of all this him whose foundations once laid do not sag, whose good houses once built do not collapse (?), whose vaults reach up into the heart of the heavens like a rainbow -- Mušdama, Enlil's master builder.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He raised a holy crown over the upland plain. He fastened a lapis-lazuli beard to the high plain, and made it wear a lapis-lazuli headdress. He made this good place perfect with greenery in abundance. He multiplied the animals of the high plain to an appropriate degree, he multiplied the ibex and wild goats of the pastures, and made them copulate. Enki placed in charge of them the hero who is the crown of the high plain, who is the king of the countryside, the great lion of the high plain, the muscular, the hefty, the burly strength of Enlil -- Šakkan, the king of the hills.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He built the sheepfolds, carried out their cleaning, made the cow-pens, bestowed on them the best fat and cream, and brought luxury to the gods' dining places. He made the plain, created for greenery, achieve prosperity. Enki placed in charge of all this the king, the good provider of E-ana, the friend of An, the beloved son-in-law of the youth Suen, the holy spouse of Inana the mistress, the lady of the great powers who allows sexual intercourse in the open squares of Kulaba -- Dumuzid-ušumgal-ana, the friend of An.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He filled the E-kur, the house of Enlil, with possessions. Enlil was delighted with Enki and Nibru was glad. He demarcated borders and fixed boundaries. For the Anuna gods, Enki situated dwellings in cities and disposed agricultural land into fields. Enki placed in charge of the whole of heaven and earth the hero, the bull who comes out of the ḫašur forest bellowing truculently, the youth Utu, the bull standing triumphantly, audaciously, majestically, the father of the Great City (an expression for the underworld), the great herald in the east of holy An, the judge who searches out verdicts for the gods, with a lapis-lazuli beard, rising from the horizon into the holy heavens -- Utu, the son born by Ningal.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
He picked out the tow from the fibres, and set up the loom. Enki greatly perfected the task of women. For Enki, the people …… in …… garments. Enki placed in charge of them the honour of the palace, the dignity of the king -- Uttu, the conscientious woman, the silent one.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
Then, alone lacking any functions, the great woman of heaven, Inana, lacking any functions -- Inana came in to see her father Enki in his house, weeping to him, and making her complaint to him:
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
"Enlil left it in your hands to confirm the functions of the Anuna, the great gods. Why did you treat me, the woman, in an exceptional manner? I am holy Inana -- where are my functions?"
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
"My illustrious sister, holy Ninisina, is to get the jewellery of šuba stones. She is to be the mistress of heaven. She is to stand beside An and speak to him whenever she desires."
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
"My illustrious sister, holy Nisaba, is to get the measuring-reed. The lapis-lazuli measuring tape is to hang over her arm. She is to proclaim all the great powers. She is to demarcate boundaries and mark borders. She is to be the scribe of the Land. The planning of the gods' meals is to be in her hands."
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
"Nanše, the august lady, who rests her feet on the holy pelican, is to be the fisheries inspector of the sea. She is to be responsible for accepting delectable fish and delicious birds from there to go to Nibru for her father Enlil."
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
"But why did you treat me, the woman, in an exceptional manner? I am holy Inana -- where are my functions?"
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
Enki answered his daughter, holy Inana: "How have I disparaged you? Goddess, how have I disparaged you? How can I enhance you? Maiden Inana, how have I disparaged you? How can I enhance you? I made you speak as a woman with pleasant voice. I made you go forth ……. I covered …… with a garment. I made you exchange its right side and its left side. I clothed you in garments of women's power. I put women's speech in your mouth. I placed in your hands the spindle and the hairpin. I …… to you women's adornment. I settled on you the staff and the crook, with the shepherd's stick beside them."
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
"Maiden Inana, how have I disparaged you? How can I enhance you? Amongst the ominous ocurrences in the hurly-burly of battle, I shall make you speak vivifying words; and in its midst, although you are not an arabu bird"(a bird of ill omen), I shall make you speak ill-omened words also. I made you tangle straight threads; maiden Inana, I made you straighten out tangled threads. I made you put on garments, I made you dress in linen. I made you pick out the tow from the fibres, I made you spin with the spindle. I made you colour tufted (?) cloth with coloured threads.
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
"Inana, you heap up human heads like piles of dust, you sow heads like seed. Inana, you destroy what should not be destroyed; you create what should not be created. You remove the cover from the šem drum of lamentations, Maiden Inana, while shutting up the tigi and adab instruments in their homes. You never grow weary with admirers looking at you. Maiden Inana, you know nothing of tying the ropes on deep wells."
Enki and the world order: c.1.1.3
"But now, the heart has overflowed, the Land is restored; Enlil's heart has overflowed, the Land is restored. In his overflowing heart of mankind," (4 lines unclear) "…… lapis-lazuli headdress …… is your prerogative, …… is your prerogative, …… is your prerogative, …… is your prerogative." (10 lines unclear)
Enki's journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
In those remote days, when the fates were determined; in a year when An brought about abundance, and people broke through the earth like green plants -- then the lord of the abzu, King Enki, Enki, the lord who determines the fates, built up his temple entirely from silver and lapis lazuli. Its silver and lapis lazuli were the shining daylight. Into the shrine of the abzu he brought joy.
Enki's journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
An artfully made bright crenellation rising out from the abzu was erected for Lord Nudimmud. He built the temple from precious metal, decorated it with lapis lazuli, and covered it abundantly with gold. In Eridug, he built the house on the bank. Its brickwork makes utterances and gives advice. Its eaves roar like a bull; the temple of Enki bellows. During the night the temple praises its lord and offers its best for him.
Enki's journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
Before Lord Enki, Isimud the minister praises the temple; he goes to the temple and speaks to it. He goes to the brick building and addresses it: "Temple, built from precious metal and lapis lazuli; whose foundation pegs are driven into the abzu; which has been cared for by the prince in the abzu! Like the Tigris and the Euphrates, it is mighty and awe-inspiring (?). Joy has been brought into Enki's abzu."
Enki's journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
"Your lock has no rival. Your bolt is a fearsome lion. Your roof beams are the bull of heaven, an artfully made bright headgear. Your reed-mats are like lapis lazuli, decorating the roof-beams. Your vault is a { bull } { (some mss. have instead:) wild bull } raising its horns. Your door is a lion who { seizes a man } { (1 ms. has instead:) is awe-inspiring }. Your stairway is a lion coming down on a man."
Enki's journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
"Abzu, pure place which fulfils its purpose! E-engura! Your lord has directed his steps towards you. Enki, lord of the abzu, has embellished your foundation pegs with cornelian. He has adorned you with …… and (?) lapis lazuli. The temple of Enki is provisioned with holy wax (?); it is a bull obedient to its master, roaring by itself and giving advice at the same time. E-engura, which Enki has surrounded with a holy reed fence! In your midst a lofty throne is erected, your door-jamb is the holy locking bar of heaven."
Enki's journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
"Enki's beloved Eridug, E-engura whose inside is full of abundance! Abzu, life of the Land, beloved of Enki! Temple built on the edge, befitting the artful divine powers! Eridug, your shadow extends over the midst of the sea! Rising sea without a rival; mighty awe-inspiring river which terrifies the Land! E-engura, high citadel (?) standing firm on the earth! Temple at the edge of the engur, a lion in the midst of the abzu; lofty temple of Enki, which bestows wisdom on the Land; your cry, like that of a mighty rising river, reaches (?) King Enki."
Enki's journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
"He made { the lyre, the alĝar instrument, the balaĝ drum with the drumsticks } { (some mss. have instead:) the lyre, the alĝar instrument, the balaĝ drum of your sur priests } { (1 ms. has instead:) your lyre and alĝar instrument, the balaĝ drum with the drumsticks } { (1 ms. has instead:) the lyre, the alĝar instrument, the balaĝ drum and even the plectrum (?) }, the ḫarḫar, the sabitum, and the …… miritum instruments offer their best for his holy temple. The …… resounded by themselves with a sweet sound. The holy alĝar instrument of Enki played for him on his own and seven { singers sang } { (some mss. have instead:) tigi drums resounded. }"
Enki's journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
"What Enki says is irrefutable; …… is well established (?)." This is what Isimud spoke to the brick building; he praised the E-engura { with sweet songs } { (1 ms. has instead:) duly. }
Enki's journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
As it has been built, as it has been built; as Enki has raised Eridug up, it is an artfully built mountain which floats on the water. His shrine (?) spreads (?) out into the reedbeds; birds brood { (1 ms. adds:) at night } in its green orchards laden with fruit. The suḫur carp play among the honey-herbs, and the eštub carp dart among the small gizi reeds. When Enki rises, the fish rise before him like waves. He has the abzu stand as a marvel, as he brings joy into the engur.
Enki's journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
Like the sea, he is awe-inspiring; like a mighty river, he instils fear. The Euphrates rises before him as it does before the fierce south wind. His punting pole is { Nirah } { (some mss. have instead:) Imdudu }; his oars are the small reeds. When Enki embarks, the year will be full of abundance. The ship departs of its own accord, with tow rope held (?) by itself. As he leaves the temple of Eridug, the river gurgles (?) to its lord: its sound is a calf's mooing, the mooing of a good cow.
Enki's journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
He directed his steps on his own to Nibru and entered the temple terrace, the shrine of Nibru. Enki reached for (?) the beer, he reached for (?) the liquor. He had liquor poured into big bronze containers, and had emmer-wheat beer pressed out (?). In kukuru containers which make the beer good he mixed beer-mash. By adding date-syrup to its taste (?), he made it strong. He …… its bran-mash.
Enki's journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
In the shrine of Nibru, Enki provided a meal for Enlil, his father. He seated An at the head of the table and seated Enlil next to An. He seated Nintur in the place of honour and seated the Anuna gods at the adjacent places (?). All of them were drinking and enjoying beer and liquor. They filled the bronze aga vessels to the brim and started a competition, drinking from the bronze vessels of Uraš. They made the tilimda vessels shine like holy barges. After beer and liquor had been libated and enjoyed, and after …… from the house, Enlil was made happy in Nibru.
Enki's journey to Nibru: c.1.1.4
Enlil addressed the Anuna gods: "Great gods who are standing here! Anuna, who have lined up in the Ubšu-unkena! My son, King Enki has built up the temple! He has made Eridug { rise up (?) } { (1 ms. has instead:) come out } from the ground like a mountain! He has built it in a pleasant place, in Eridug, the pure place, where no one is to enter -- a temple built with silver and decorated with lapis lazuli, a house which tunes the seven tigi drums properly, and provides incantations; where holy songs make all of the house a lovely place -- the shrine of the abzu, the good destiny of Enki, befitting the elaborate divine powers; the temple of Eridug, built with silver: for all this, Father Enki be praised!"
Enlil and Ninlil: c.1.2.1
There was a city, there was a city -- the one we live in. Nibru was the city, the one we live in. Dur-ĝišnimbar was the city, the one we live in. Id-sala is its holy river, Kar-ĝeština is its quay. Kar-asar is its quay where boats make fast. Pu-lal is its freshwater well. Id-nunbir-tum is its branching canal, and if one measures from there, its cultivated land is 50 sar each way. Enlil was one of its young men, and Ninlil was one its young women. Nun-bar-še-gunu was one of its wise old women.
Enlil and Ninlil: c.1.2.1
At that time the maiden was advised by her own mother, Ninlil was advised by Nun-bar-še-gunu: "The river is holy, woman! The river is holy -- don't bathe in it! Ninlil, don't walk along the bank of the Id-nunbir-tum! His eye is bright, the lord's eye is bright, he will look at you! The Great Mountain, Father Enlil -- his eye is bright, he will look at you! The shepherd who decides all destinies -- his eye is bright, he will look at you! Straight away he will want to have intercourse, he will want to kiss! He will be happy to pour lusty semen into the womb, and then he will leave you to it!"
Enlil and Ninlil: c.1.2.1
She advised her from the heart, she gave wisdom to her. The river is holy; the woman bathed in the holy river. As Ninlil walked along the bank of the Id-nunbir-tum, his eye was bright, the lord's eye was bright, he looked at her. The Great Mountain, Father Enlil -- his eye was bright, he looked at her. The shepherd who decides all destinies -- his eye was bright, he looked at her. The king said to her," I want to have sex with you!", but he could not make her let him. Enlil said to her," I want to kiss you!", but he could not make her let him." My vagina is small, it does not know pregnancy. My lips are young, they do not know kissing. If my mother learns of it, she will slap my hand! If my father learns of it, he will lay hands on me! But right now, no one will stop me from telling this to my girl friend!"
Enlil and Ninlil: c.1.2.1
Enlil spoke to his minister Nuska: "Nuska, my minister!" "At your service! What do you wish?" "Master builder of the E-kur!" "At your service, my lord!" "Has anyone had intercourse with, has anyone kissed a maiden so beautiful, so radiant -- Ninlil, so beautiful, so radiant?" The minister brought his master across by boat, bringing him over with the rope of a small boat, bringing him over in a big boat. The lord, floating downstream to …… -- he was actually to have intercourse with her, he was actually to kiss her! -- Father Enlil, floating downstream to …… -- he was actually to have intercourse with her, he was actually to kiss her! -- he grasped hold of her whom he was seeking -- he was actually to have intercourse with her, he was actually to kiss her! -- so as to lie with her on a small bank ……. He actually had intercourse with her, he actually kissed her. At this one intercourse, at this one kissing he poured the seed of Suen-Ašimbabbar into her womb.
Enlil and Ninlil: c.1.2.1
Enlil was walking in the Ki-ur. As Enlil was going about in the Ki-ur, the fifty great gods and the seven gods who decide destinies had Enlil arrested in the Ki-ur. { Enlil, the ritually impure, left the city. Nunamnir, the ritually impure, left the city. } { (2 mss. have instead:) "Enlil, ritually impure, leave the city! Nunamnir, ritually impure, leave the city!" } Enlil, in accordance with what had been decided, Nunamnir, in accordance with what had been decided, Enlil went. Ninlil followed. Nunamnir went, the maiden chased him.
Enlil and Ninlil: c.1.2.1
Enlil spoke to the man at the city gate: "City gatekeeper! Keeper of the barrier! Porter! Keeper of the holy barrier! When your lady Ninlil comes, if she asks after me, don't tell her where I am!" Ninlil addressed the city gatekeeper: "City gatekeeper! Keeper of the barrier! Porter! Keeper of the holy barrier! When did your lord Enlil go by?" She spoke to him; Enlil answered as the city gatekeeper: "My lord has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one. Enlil has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one." "I will make clear my aim and explain my intent. You can fill my womb once it is empty -- Enlil, lord of all the lands, has had sex with me! Just as Enlil is your lord, so am I your lady!" "If you are my lady, let my hand touch your ……!" "The seed of your lord, the bright seed, is in my womb. The seed of Suen, the bright seed, is in my womb." "My master's seed can go up to the heavens! Let my seed go downwards! Let my seed go downwards, instead of my master's seed!" Enlil, as the city gatekeeper, got her to lie down in the chamber. He had intercourse with her there, he kissed her there. At this one intercourse, at this one kissing he poured the seed of Nergal-Mešlamta-ea into her womb.
Enlil and Ninlil: c.1.2.1
Enlil went. Ninlil followed. Nunamnir went, the maiden chased him. Enlil approached the man of the Id-kura (river of the underworld), the man-eating river." My man of the Id-kura, the man-eating river! When your lady Ninlil comes, if she asks after me, don't you tell her where I am!" Ninlil approached the man of the Id-kura, the man-eating river." My man of the Id-kura, the man-eating river! When did your lord Enlil go by?", she said to him. Enlil answered as the man of the Id-kura: "My lord has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one. Enlil has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one." "I will make clear my aim and explain my intent. You can fill my womb once it is empty -- Enlil, lord of all the lands, has had sex with me! Just as Enlil is your lord, so am I your lady!" "If you are my lady, let my hand touch your ……!" "The seed of your lord, the bright seed, is in my womb. The seed of Suen, the bright seed, is in my womb." "My master's seed can go up to the heavens! Let my seed go downwards! Let my seed go downwards, instead of my master's seed!" Enlil, as the man of the Id-kura, got her to lie down in the chamber. He had intercourse with her there, he kissed her there. At this one intercourse, at this one kissing he poured into her womb the seed of Ninazu, the king who stretches measuring lines over the fields.
Enlil and Ninlil: c.1.2.1
Enlil went. Ninlil followed. Nunamnir went, the maiden chased him. Enlil approached SI.LU.IGI, the man of the ferryboat." SI.LU.IGI, my man of the ferryboat! When your lady Ninlil comes, if she asks after me, don't you tell her where I am!" Ninlil approached the man of the ferryboat." Man of the ferryboat! When did your lord Enlil go by?", she said to him. Enlil answered as the man SI.LU.IGI: "My lord has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one. Enlil has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one." "I will make clear my aim and explain my intent. You can fill my womb once it is empty -- Enlil, king of all the lands, has had sex with me! Just as Enlil is your lord, so am I your lady!" "If you are my lady, let my hand touch your ……!" "The seed of your lord, the bright seed, is in my womb. The seed of Suen, the bright seed, is in my womb." "My master's seed can go up to the heavens! Let my seed go downwards! Let my seed go downwards, instead of my master's seed!" Enlil, as SI.LU.IGI, got her to lie down in the chamber. He had intercourse with her there, he kissed her there. At this one intercourse, at this one kissing he poured into her womb the seed of Enbilulu, the inspector of canals.
Enlil and Ninlil: c.1.2.1
You are lord! You are king! Enlil, you are lord! You are king! Nunamnir, you are lord! You are king! You are supreme lord, you are powerful lord! Lord who makes flax grow, lord who makes barley grow, you are lord of heaven, lord plenty, lord of the earth! You are lord of the earth, lord plenty, lord of heaven! Enlil in heaven, Enlil is king! Lord { whose utterances } { (2 mss. have instead:) whose pronouncements } cannot be altered at all! His primordial utterances will not be changed! For the praise spoken for Ninlil the mother, praise be to { (1 ms. adds:) the Great Mountain, } Father Enlil!
Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
…… she was faithfully sitting (?) on ……, admirable and full of charms. ……, the noble son -- who like him can compare with An and Enlil? Ḫaia, the ……, put the holy semen into her womb. Nun-bar-še-gunu (a name of Nisaba) faithfully gave birth to ……, she brought her up in her …… and suckled her at her breasts full of good milk. The …… of the young girl burgeoned, and she became full of flourishing beauty. In the …… of Nisaba, at the gate of the E-zagin, …… she stood, the object of admiration, like a tall, beautifully shaped cow.
Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
At that time Enlil had not yet been given a wife in the E-kur; Ninlil's name was not yet famous in the Ki-ur. After travelling through Sumer and to the ends of the universe, he ……; in his search throughout the Land, Enlil, the Great Mountain, stopped at Ereš. As he looked around there, he found the woman of his choice. He approached her and, overflowing with joy, engaged her in conversation: "I will make you perfect in a queen's dress; after standing in the street, you will be ……. How impressed I am by your beauty, even if you are a shameless person!" In her youthful inexperience Sud answered Enlil: "If I want to stand proudly at our gate, who dares to give me a bad reputation? What are your intentions? Why have you come here? …… from my sight!" Others (?) had already tried to deceive ……, and made her (?) angry. Enlil …… answered Sud, …… standing closer to her: "Come, I want to speak to you! I will have a talk with you about your becoming my wife. Kiss me, my lady of most beautiful eyes -- the matter rests in your hands." But the words had barely left his mouth when, right in front of him, she went into the house.
Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
The heart of the wise lord pounded. He called for Nuska." What is your wish?" He gave the following instructions to him: "I want you to go back to Ereš, the city of Nisaba, the city whose foundations are august. Do not delay! Repeat to her what I am going to tell you: "I am a young man, I have sent this message to you because of my wish: I want to take your daughter as wife. Give me your consent. I will send you presents in my name, …… my marriage gifts. I am Enlil, the descendant and offspring of Anšar, the noble, the lord of heaven and earth. The name of your daughter shall become Ninlil, and all the foreign countries shall …… it. I will present her with the Ĝa-ĝiš-šua as her storehouse. I will give her the Ki-ur to be her beloved private quarters. She shall { sit } { (1 ms. has instead:) live } with me in the E-kur, { my } { (1 ms. has instead:) the } august dais. She shall determine fates. She shall apportion the divine powers among the Anuna, the great gods. And as for you, I will place in your hands the lives of the black-headed people." When you get there, let the woman I have chosen for her beauty …… her mother. Do not go to her empty-handed, but take her some jewellery in your left hand. Waste no time. Return with her answer quickly."
Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
When Nuska, the head of the assembly, had received Enlil's instructions, he wasted no time ……; he directed his steps to Ereš. He entered E-zagin, the residence of Nanibgal (a name of Nisaba) and prostrated himself before Nanibgal on her dais. …… of Enlil ……, and she (?) asked him ……: "…… what ……?" (7 lines missing) (1 line fragmentary)(Nuska speaks:) "…… Sud ……. What you have told me ……." Then Nanibgal went on speaking flatteringly to the minister: "Adviser, fit for his (?) king, ever observant (?)! Who like you could give counsel daily to the Great Mountain? How could I contest the king's message which his slave has received? If there is truth in what you have told me -- and may there be no falsehood -- who could reject one who bestows such exceedingly great favours? …… makes our mood and hearts happy. Let us consider that amends have been made. By bringing the marriage gifts and the presents in his name the insult is wiped away. Tell him: "You shall become my son-in-law; do as you wish!" Tell Enlil, the Great Mountain: "Do as you wish!" Let his sister come from her side, and she shall accompany Sud from here. Aruru shall become Sud's sister-in-law: let her be shown the household. Inform your lord thus in his august Ki-ur. Repeat this to Enlil in the privacy of his holy bedchamber."
Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
After …… had instructed ……, …… and Nuska took his seat on it. (1 line missing)Nanibgal called …… and gave her advice: "My little one, asleep indoors (?) …… your pure ……, the pleasant private quarters ……. …… leave the House of Nisaba's Wisdom. ……, Nuska is knowing and wise. …… to his presence and pour him beer." According to the instructions of her mother, she washed his hands and placed a tankard in his hands. The minister opened his left hand and gave her the jewellery, …… everything …… and set it before her. She received the gifts ……. He …… directed his steps to Nibru. …… kissed the ground before Enlil. …… the great Lady had said ……, as she had instructed him, he repeated (?) ……: "(She said:) "Adviser, fit for his (?) king, ever observant (?)! Who like you could give counsel daily to the Great Mountain? How could I contest the king's message which his slave has received? If there is truth in what you have told me -- and may there be no falsehood -- who could reject one who bestows such exceedingly great favours? …… makes our mood and hearts happy. Let us consider that amends have been made. By bringing the marriage gifts and the presents in his name the insult is wiped away. Tell him: "You shall become my son-in-law; do as you wish!" Tell Enlil, the Great Mountain: "Do as you wish!" Let his sister come from her side, and she shall accompany Sud from here. Aruru shall become Sud's sister-in-law: let her be shown the household. Inform your lord thus in his august Ki-ur. Repeat this to Enlil in the privacy of his holy bedchamber.""
Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
…… made …… feel good, brought great rejoicing in Enlil's heart. He raised his head ……, and animals came running. …… herds of four-legged animals that graze together in the desert. He caught …… living in the mountains, he made wild bulls, red deer, elephants, fallow deer, gazelles, bears, wild sheep and rams, lynxes, foxes, wild cats, tigers, mountain sheep, water buffaloes, monkeys, and thick-horned fat cattle jostle together noisily. Cows and their calves, wild cattle with wide-spread horns, …… rope, { ewes and lambs, goats and kids, romping …… } { (1 later ms. from Susa has instead:) …… and fighting }, large kids with long beards, scratching with their hooves, lambs, ……, and majestic sheep were despatched by Enlil toward Ereš.
Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
Ores (?) from Ḫarali, the faraway land, …… storehouses, ……, rock-crystal, gold, silver, ……, the yield of the uplands ……, heavy loads of them, were despatched by Enlil toward Ereš. After the personal presents, the transported goods ……, Ninmaḫ and the minister ……. The dust from their march reached high into the sky like rain clouds. Enormous marriage gifts were being brought for Nanibgal to Ereš; the city was getting full inside and out, …… it was to be replete. The rest …… on the outlying roads ……. …… blue sky ……. (1 line missing) (2 lines fragmentary)
Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
{ Nanibgal, the mother-in-law of Enlil, the woman who had been slandered, was treated kindly by Nuska (?) } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… the mother-in-law of Enlil, the woman …… Ezina …… } -- but the lady disregarded the flatterer, and spoke to her daughter: "May you be { Enlil's favourite wife } { (1 ms. has instead:) the wife of Enlil's heart }, and may he speak to you sweetly. May he embrace you, the most beautiful of all, and tell you: "Beloved, open wide!" { May the two of you never lose the pleasure (?) of excitement; make it last (?) a long time. } { (1 ms. has instead:) May it be that the pleasure (?) of excitement will never be lost. } You two …… on the hill, and have children afterwards! When you enter the house to live there, may abundance precede you, and may joy follow you. May the people line up for you wherever you go, and may all the people …… for you. The fate I have determined for you { should be fulfilled } { (1 ms. has instead:) cannot be altered }! Go with head held high into the E-maḫ."
Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
Then Aruru grasped her by the hand and led her away into the Eš-maḫ. She brought her into the E-kur, the house of Enlil, and ……. In the sleeping quarters, in the flowered bed …… like a fragrant cedar forest, Enlil made (?) love to his wife and took great pleasure in it. (1 line fragmentary)The lord whose statements are …… the lady; …… Nintur, the "Lady who gives birth" ……. …… En-batibira's (perhaps a name of Aruru) countenance, ……. He presented her with ……, everything ……, and …….
Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
(Enlil speaks:) "From now on, a woman shall be the ……; a foreign woman shall be the mistress of the house. May my beautiful wife, who was born by holy Nisaba, be Ezina, the growing grain, the life of Sumer. When you appear in the furrows like a beautiful young girl, may Iškur, the canal inspector, be your provider, supplying you with water from the ground. The height of the year is marked with your new prime flax and your new prime grain; Enlil and Ninlil procreate them (?) as desired. (1 line unclear) The harvest crop raises its head high for the great festival of Enlil. The scribal art, the tablets decorated with writing, the stylus, the tablet board, reckoning and calculating, adding and subtracting, the shining measuring rope, the ……, the head of the surveyor's peg, the measuring rod, the marking of the boundaries, and the …… are fittingly in your hands. The farmer (?) ……. Woman, the proudest among the Great Princes, ……, from now on, Sud …… Ninlil ……." (unknown no. of lines missing)
Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
(Nisaba speaks:) "…… spend (?) your time on the hill! ……. Enter ……! And may abundance precede you ……! May the people line up for you ……; may all the people …… for you. Your …… which I have determined for you should be fulfilled; …… with head held high into the Eš-maḫ."
Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
Aruru grasped her …… and …… her away into the Eš-maḫ. She brought her into the shining E-kur, and poured the best perfume over her face. In the sleeping quarters, in the flowered bed fragrant like a cedar forest, Enlil made (?) love to his wife and took great pleasure in it. He sat her (?) on his dais appropriate to the status of Enlil, and made the people pray to her. The lord whose statements are powerful also determined a fate for the Lady (Aruru), the woman of his favour; he gave her the name Nintur, the 'Lady who gives birth', the 'Lady who spreads her knees'. He made beautiful En-batibira's (perhaps a name of Aruru) countenance, ……. He presented her with the …… of a mistress, everything pertaining to women that no man must see, and …….
Enlil and Sud: c.1.2.2
(Enlil speaks:) "From now on, a woman shall be the ……; a woman shall be the mistress of the house. May my favourite wife, who was born by holy Nisaba, be Ezina, the grain, the life of the Land. When she appears in the furrows like a beautiful young girl, may …… be her provider, watering her with water from the ground, as she grows prime grain and prime flax …… (1 line unclear) …… the harvest crop …… the great festival of Enlil ……. ……, the measuring rod, the marking of the boundaries, and the preparation of canals and levees are fittingly in your hands. The farmer entrusted cultivation into your hands. Proud woman, surpassing the mountains! You who always fulfil your desires -- from now on, Sud, Enlil is the king and Ninlil is the queen. The goddess without name has a famous name now, …… (1 line unclear)May it be you who determine that destiny …… attends to it ……."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
She …… of the desert. She put the šu-gura, the desert crown, on her head. …… when she went out to the shepherd, to the sheepfold, …… her genitals were remarkable. …… her genitals were remarkable. She praised herself, full of delight at her genitals, she praised herself, full of delight at her genitals. She looked at ……, she looked at ……, she looked at …….
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
"When I have gratified the lord ……, when I have made …… brilliant, when I have made …… beautiful, when I have made …… glorious, when I have ……, when I have made …… perfect, when I have made …… luxuriant, when I have made …… exuberant, when I have made …… shining (?), when I have made …… return, when I have made …… brilliant, when I have made …… shimmering, I shall direct my steps to the abzu, to Eridug, I shall direct my steps to Enki, to the abzu, to Eridug, and I myself shall speak coaxingly to him, in the abzu, in Eridug, I myself shall speak coaxingly to Enki, in the abzu, in Eridug. …… had her go out ……." (approx. 21 lines missing)
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
"Inana, …… it is I who ……. I, Inana, personally { intend to go to the abzu } { (1 ms. has instead:) intend to go to Eridug }. I shall utter a plea to Lord Enki. Like the sweet oil of the cedar, who will …… for my holy …… perfume? It shall never escape me that I have been neglected by him who has had sex."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
On that day the maiden Inana, holy Inana, directed her steps all by herself towards Enki's abzu in Eridug. On that day, he of exceptional knowledge, who knows the divine powers in heaven and earth, who from his own dwelling already knows the intentions of the gods, Enki, the king of the abzu, who, even before holy Inana had approached within six miles of { the abzu } { (1 ms. has instead:) the temple } in Eridug, knew all about her enterprise -- Enki spoke to his man, gave him instructions: "Come here, my man, listen to my words." (1 line fragmentary) (approx. 2 lines missing)
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
"…… she will drink, …… she will eat. Come here! ……. I will ……, …… do. The maiden …… the abzu and Eridug, Inana …… the abzu and Eridug ……. When the maiden Inana has entered the abzu and Eridug, when Inana has entered the abzu and Eridug, offer her butter cake to eat. Let her be served cool refreshing water. Pour beer for her, in front of the Lions' Gate, make her feel as if she is in her girlfriend's house, make her …… as a colleague. You are to welcome holy Inana at the holy table, at the table of An."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
After Enki had spoken thus to him, Isimud the minister followed his master's instructions closely. He let the maiden into the abzu and Eridug. He let Inana into the abzu and Eridug. When the maiden had entered the abzu and Eridug, when Inana had entered the abzu and Eridug, she got butter cake to eat. They poured cool refreshing water for her, and they gave her beer to drink, in front of the Lions' Gate. He made her feel as if she was in her girlfriend's house, and made her …… as a colleague. He welcomed holy Inana at the holy table, at the table of An.
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Holy Inana received the craft of the carpenter, the craft of the coppersmith, the craft of the scribe, the craft of the smith, the craft of the leather-worker, the craft of the fuller, the craft of the builder, the craft of the reed-worker." In the name of my power, in the name of my abzu, I will give them to holy Inana, my daughter; may …… not ……."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
"He has given me the craft of the carpenter. He has given me the craft of the coppersmith. He has given me the craft of the scribe. He has given me the craft of the smith. He has given me the craft of the leather-worker. He has given me the craft of the fuller. He has given me the craft of the builder. He has given me the craft of the reed-worker."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Enki spoke to the minister Isimud: "Isimud, my minister, my Sweet Name of Heaven!" "Enki, my master, I am at your service! What is your wish?" "Since she said that she would not yet depart from here for Unug Kulaba, that she would not yet depart from here to the place where Utu ……, can I still reach her?" But holy Inana had gathered up the divine powers and embarked onto the Boat of Heaven. The Boat of Heaven had already left the quay. As the effects of the beer cleared from him who had drunk beer, from him who had drunk beer, as the effects of the beer cleared from Father Enki who had drunk beer, the great lord Enki turned his attention to the …… building. The lord looked up at the abzu. King Enki turned his attention to Eridug.
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Enki spoke to Isimud the minister: "Isimud, my minister, my Sweet Name of Heaven!" "Enki, my master, I am at your service! What is your wish?" "Where are the office of en priest, the office of lagar priest, divinity, the great and good crown, the royal throne?" "My master has given them to his daughter."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
"Where are the holy niĝin-ĝar shrine, ……, the mistress of heaven, loud musical instruments, the art of song, venerable old age?" "My master has given them to his daughter." (approx. 33-36 lines missing)
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
…… king …… in the house of Enki should not forget a word. …… full of advice, loud voiced, knowing much ……. They said: "By the bolt of the temple door, a frog spoke." He showed him to a place. Enki grasped the frog by his right paw. He showed him into his holy ……. He received …… the ḫalub tree and his box-tree. He gave …… to the bird of heaven. He gave …… to the fish of the subterranean waters. (11 lines fragmentary) (approx. 10-15 lines missing)
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
The prince spoke to his minister Isimud, Enki addressed the Sweet Name of Heaven: "Isimud, my minister, my Sweet Name of Heaven!" "Enki, my master, I am at your service! What is your wish?" "Where has the Boat of Heaven reached now?" "It has just now reached the …… Quay." "Go now! The enkum are to take the Boat of Heaven away from her!"
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
The minister Isimud spoke to holy Inana: "My lady! Your father has sent me to you. Inana, your father has sent me to you. What your father said was very serious. What Enki spoke was very serious. His important words cannot be countermanded." Holy Inana replied to him: "What has my father said to you, what has he spoken? Why should his important words not be countermanded?" "My master has spoken to me, Enki has said to me: "Inana may travel to Unug, but you are to get the Boat of Heaven back to Eridug for me"."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Holy Inana spoke to the minister Isimud: "How could my father have changed what he said to me? How could he have altered his promise as far as I am concerned? How could he have discredited his important words to me? Was it falsehood that my father said to me, did he speak falsely to me? Has he sworn falsely by the name of his power and by the name of his abzu? Has he duplicitously sent you to me as a messenger?" Now as these words were still in her mouth, he got the enkum to seize hold of the Boat of Heaven. Holy Inana adressed her minister Ninšubur: "Come, my good minister of E-ana! My fair-spoken minister! My envoy of reliable words! Water has never touched your hand, water has never touched your feet!"
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
So Inana got hold again of the divine powers which had been presented to her, and the Boat of Heaven; and then for the second time the prince spoke to his minister Isimud, Enki addressed the Sweet Name of Heaven: "Isimud, my minister, my Sweet Name of Heaven!" "Enki, my master, I am at your service! What is your wish?" "Where has the Boat of Heaven reached now?" "It has just now reached the holy ……." "Go now! The fifty giants of Eridug are to take the Boat of Heaven away from her!"
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
The minister Isimud spoke to holy Inana: "My lady! Your father has sent me to you. Inana, your father has sent me to you. What your father said was very serious. What Enki spoke was very serious. His important words cannot be countermanded." Holy Inana replied to him: "What has my father said to you, what has he spoken? Why should his important words not be countermanded?" "My master has spoken to me, Enki has said to me: "Inana may travel to Unug, but you are to get the Boat of Heaven back to Eridug for me"."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Holy Inana spoke to the minister Isimud: "How could my father have changed what he said to me? How could he have altered his promise as far as I am concerned? How could he have discredited his important words to me? Was it falsehood that my father said to me, did he speak falsely to me? Has he sworn falsely by the name of his power and by the name of his abzu? Has he duplicitously sent you to me as a messenger?" Now as these words were still in her mouth, he got the fifty giants of Eridug to seize hold of the Boat of Heaven. Holy Inana adressed her minister Ninšubur: "Come, my good minister of E-ana! My fair-spoken minister! My envoy of reliable words! Water has never touched your hand, water has never touched your feet!"
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
So Inana got hold again of the divine powers which had been presented to her, and the Boat of Heaven; and then for the third time the prince spoke to his minister Isimud, Enki addressed the Sweet Name of Heaven: "Isimud, my minister, my Sweet Name of Heaven!" "Enki, my master, I am at your service! What is your wish?" "Where has the Boat of Heaven reached now?" "It has just now reached the UL.MA hill." "Go now! The fifty laḫama of the subterranean waters are to take the Boat of Heaven away from her!"
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
The minister Isimud spoke to holy Inana: "My lady! Your father has sent me to you. Inana, your father has sent me to you. What your father said was very serious. What Enki spoke was very serious. His important words cannot be countermanded." Holy Inana replied to him: "What has my father said to you, what has he spoken? Why should his important words not be countermanded?" "My master has spoken to me, Enki has said to me: "Inana may travel to Unug, but you are to get the Boat of Heaven back to Eridug for me"."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Holy Inana spoke to the minister Isimud: "How could my father have changed what he said to me? How could he have altered his promise as far as I am concerned? How could he have discredited his important words to me? Was it falsehood that my father said to me, did he speak falsely to me? Has he sworn falsely by the name of his power and by the name of his abzu? Has he duplicitously sent you to me as a messenger?" Now as these words were still in her mouth, he got the fifty laḫama of the subterranean waters to seize hold of the Boat of Heaven. Holy Inana adressed her minister Ninšubur: "Come, my good minister of E-ana! My fair-spoken minister! My envoy of reliable words! Water has never touched your hand, water has never touched your feet!"
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
So Inana got hold again of the divine powers which had been presented to her, and the Boat of Heaven; and then for the fourth time the prince spoke to his minister Isimud, Enki addressed the Sweet Name of Heaven: "Isimud, my minister, my Sweet Name of Heaven!" "Enki, my master, I am at your service! What is your wish?" "Where has the Boat of Heaven reached now?" "It has just now reached the Field Hill." "Go now! All the great fish together …… are to take the Boat of Heaven away from her!"
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
The minister Isimud spoke to holy Inana: "My lady! Your father has sent me to you. Inana, your father has sent me to you. What your father said was very serious. What Enki spoke was very serious. His important words cannot be countermanded." Holy Inana replied to him: "What has my father said to you, what has he spoken? Why should his important words not be countermanded?" "My master has spoken to me, Enki has said to me: "Inana may travel to Unug, but you are to get the Boat of Heaven back to Eridug for me"."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Holy Inana spoke to the minister Isimud: "How could my father have changed what he said to me? How could he have altered his promise as far as I am concerned? How could he have discredited his important words to me? Was it falsehood that my father said to me, did he speak falsely to me? Has he sworn falsely by the name of his power and by the name of his abzu? Has he duplicitously sent you to me as a messenger?" Now as these words were still in her mouth, he got all the great fish together …… to seize hold of the Boat of Heaven. Holy Inana adressed her minister Ninšubur: "Come, my good minister of E-ana! My fair-spoken minister! My envoy of reliable words! Water has never touched your hand, water has never touched your feet!"
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
So Inana got hold again of the divine powers which had been presented to her, and the Boat of Heaven; and then for the fifth time the prince spoke to his minister Isimud, Enki addressed the Sweet Name of Heaven: "Isimud, my minister, my Sweet Name of Heaven!" "Enki, my master, I am at your service! What is your wish?" "Where has the Boat of Heaven reached now?" "It has just now reached ……." "Go now! ……, the guardians of Unug, are to take the Boat of Heaven away from her!"
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
The minister Isimud spoke to holy Inana: "My lady! Your father has sent me to you. Inana, your father has sent me to you. What your father said was very serious. What Enki spoke was very serious. His important words cannot be countermanded." Holy Inana replied to him: "What has my father said to you, what has he spoken? Why should his important words not be countermanded?" "My master has spoken to me, Enki has said to me: "Inana may travel to Unug, but you are to get the Boat of Heaven back to Eridug for me"."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Holy Inana spoke to the minister Isimud: "How could my father have changed what he said to me? How could he have altered his promise as far as I am concerned? How could he have discredited his important words to me? Was it falsehood that my father said to me, did he speak falsely to me? Has he sworn falsely by the name of his power and by the name of his abzu? Has he duplicitously sent you to me as a messenger?" Now as these words were still in her mouth, he got the ……, the guardians of Unug, to seize hold of the Boat of Heaven. Holy Inana adressed her minister Ninšubur: "Come, my good minister of E-ana! My fair-spoken minister! My envoy of reliable words! Water has never touched your hand, water has never touched your feet!"
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
So Inana got hold again of the divine powers which had been presented to her, and the Boat of Heaven; and then for the sixth time the prince spoke to his minister Isimud, Enki addressed the Sweet Name of Heaven: "Isimud, my minister, my Sweet Name of Heaven!" "Enki, my master, I am at your service! What is your wish?" "Where has the Boat of Heaven reached now?" "It has just now reached the Surungal canal ……." "Go now! The Surungal canal …… are to take the Boat of Heaven away from her! …… from holy Inana."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
The minister Isimud spoke to holy Inana: "My lady! Your father has sent me to you. Inana, your father has sent me to you. What your father said was very serious. What Enki spoke was very serious. His important words cannot be countermanded." Holy Inana replied to him: "What has my father said to you, what has he spoken? Why should his important words not be countermanded?" "My master has spoken to me, Enki has said to me: "Inana may travel to Unug, but you are to get the Boat of Heaven back to Eridug for me"."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Holy Inana spoke to the minister Isimud: "How could my father have changed what he said to me? How could he have altered his promise as far as I am concerned? How could he have discredited his important words to me? Was it falsehood that my father said to me, did he speak falsely to me? Has he sworn falsely by the name of his power and by the name of his abzu? Has he duplicitously sent you to me as a messenger?" Now as these words were still in her mouth, he got the Surungal canal …… to seize hold of the Boat of Heaven. …… from holy Inana. Holy Inana adressed her minister Ninšubur: "Come, my good minister of E-ana! My fair-spoken minister! My envoy of reliable words! Water has never touched your hand, water has never touched your feet!"
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
So Inana got hold again of the divine powers which had been presented to her, and the Boat of Heaven; and then (1 line fragmentary) …… Unug …… (1 line fragmentary) …… the Boat of Heaven. Ninšubur ……, …… the Boat of Heaven. A seventh time …… (1 line fragmentary)The great princely scion, holy ……. Holy Inana …… the Boat of Heaven. Holy Inana at that time …….
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Her minister Ninšubur spoke to holy Inana: "My lady, today you have brought the Boat of Heaven to the Gate of Joy, to Unug Kulaba. Now there will be rejoicing in our city, now there will be rejoicing in our city. …… barges on our river ……."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
Holy Inana replied to her: "Today I have brought the Boat of Heaven to the Gate of Joy, to Unug Kulaba. It shall pass along the street magnificently. The people shall stand in the street full of awe." (1 line fragmentary) …… in joy. …… the old men of the city …… comfort, …… the old women …… counsel, …… the young men …… strength of arms, …… the children …… joy. …… Unug. (1 line fragmentary) (1 line missing) (3 lines fragmentary)"…… festival …… the Boat of Heaven. He shall recite great prayers. The king shall slaughter bulls, shall sacrifice sheep. He shall pour beer from a bowl. He shall have the šem and ala drums sound, and have the sweet-sounding tigi instruments play. The foreign lands shall declare my greatness. My people shall utter my praise."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
When she had …… the Boat of Heaven to the Gate of Joy at Unug Kulaba, it passed magnificently along the street. It reached the maiden's house, and she …… its place. …… the purified well, her principal well. Inana …… the divine powers which had been presented to her, and the Boat of Heaven, at the Ĝipar Gate. At the Agrun Chamber ……. Holy Inana …… the Boat of Heaven …….
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
The prince addressed his minister Isimud, Enki spoke to the Sweet Name of Heaven: "Isimud, my minister, my Sweet Name of Heaven!" "Enki, my master, I am at your service! What is your wish?" "Where has the Boat of Heaven reached now?" "It has just now reached the White Quay." "Go now, …… admiration. …… admiration …… the Boat of Heaven. Holy Inana ……. …… admiration ……." (approx. 3 lines missing)
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
"Inana, you have brought with you the office of en priest, you have brought with you the office of lagar priest, you have brought with you divinity, you have brought with you the great and good crown, you have brought with you the royal throne."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
"You have brought with you the holy niĝin-ĝar shrine, you have brought with you ……, you have brought with you the mistress of heaven, you have brought with you loud musical instruments, you have brought with you the art of song, you have brought with you venerable old age."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
"You have brought with you the craft of the carpenter, you have brought with you the craft of the coppersmith, you have brought with you the craft of the scribe, you have brought with you the craft of the smith, you have brought with you the craft of the leather-worker, you have brought with you the craft of the fuller, you have brought with you the craft of the builder, you have brought with you the craft of the reed-worker."
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
(Inana speaks:) "Why has this one now entered here? …… taking the divine powers from me?"
Inana and Enki: c.1.3.1
(3 lines fragmentary) (A third deity speaks:) "May the …… in your name!" (4 lines fragmentary) "May there be …… a festival! May …… pass their time …… at the gate of your Ĝipar! May the citizens of your city, Inana, the citizens of Unug, live ……! And as for you, Enki -- may …… your city, Eridug ……, and has indeed restored ……."
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
Goddess of the fearsome divine powers, clad in terror, riding on the great divine powers, Inana, made perfect by the holy a-an-kar weapon, drenched in blood, rushing around in great battles, with shield resting on the ground (?), covered in storm and flood, great lady Inana, knowing well how to plan conflicts, you destroy mighty lands with arrow and strength and overpower lands.
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
In heaven and on earth you roar like a lion and devastate the people. Like a huge wild bull you triumph over lands which are hostile. Like a fearsome lion you pacify the insubordinate and unsubmissive with your gall.
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
My lady, on your acquiring the stature of heaven, maiden Inana, on your becoming as magnificent as the earth, on your coming forth like Utu the king and stretching your arms wide, on your walking in heaven and wearing fearsome terror, on your wearing daylight and brilliance on earth, on your walking in the mountain ranges and bringing forth beaming rays, on your bathing the girin plants of the mountains (in light), on your giving birth to the bright mountain, the mountain, the holy place, on your ……, on your being strong with the mace like a joyful lord, like an enthusiastic (?) lord, on your exulting in such battle like a destructive weapon -- the black-headed people ring out in song and all the lands sing their song sweetly.
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
I shall praise the lady of battle, the great child of Suen, maiden Inana.
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
(Inana announced:) "When I, the goddess, was walking around in heaven, walking around on earth, when I, Inana, was walking around in heaven, walking around on earth, when I was walking around in Elam and Subir, when I was walking around in the Lulubi mountains, when I turned towards the centre of the mountains, as I, the goddess, approached the mountain it showed me no respect, as I, Inana, approached the mountain it showed me no respect, as I approached the mountain range of Ebiḫ it showed me no respect."
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
"Since they did not act appropriately on their own initiative, since they did not put their noses to the ground for me, since they did not rub their lips in the dust for me, I shall fill my hand with the soaring mountain range and let it learn fear of me."
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
"I shall set fire to its thick forests. I shall take an axe to its evil-doing. I shall make Gibil, the purifier, do his work at its watercourses. I shall spread this terror through the inaccessible mountain range Aratta."
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
Inana, the child of Suen, put on the garment of royalty and girded herself in joy. She bedecked her forehead with terror and fearsome radiance. She arranged cornelian rosettes around her holy throat. She brandished the seven-headed šita weapon vigorously to her right and placed straps of lapis lazuli on her feet.
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
An, in delight at Inana, stepped forward and took his place. He filled the seat of honour of heaven.
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
(Inana announced:) "An, my father, I greet you! Lend your ear to my words. An has made me terrifying throughout heaven. Owing to you my word has no rival in heaven or on earth. At the limits of heaven are the silig weapon, the antibal and mansium emblems."
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
"To set the socle in position and make the throne and foundation firm, to carry the might of the šita weapon which bends like a mubum tree, to hold the ground with the sixfold yoke, to extend the thighs with the fourfold yoke, to pursue murderous raids and widespread miltary campaigns, to appear to those kings in the …… of heaven like moonlight, to shoot the arrow from the arm and fall on fields, orchards and forests like the tooth of the locust, to take the harrow to rebel lands, to remove the locks from their city gates so the doors stand open -- King An, you have indeed given me all this, and ……."
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
"You have placed me at the right hand of the king in order to destroy rebel lands: may he, with my aid, smash heads like a falcon in the foothills of the mountain, King An, and may I …… your name throughout the land like a thread."
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
"How can it be that the mountain did not fear me in heaven and on earth, that the mountain did not fear me, Inana, in heaven and on earth, that the mountain range of Ebiḫ, the mountain, did not fear me in heaven and on earth? Because it did not act appropriately on its own initiative, because it did not put its nose to the ground, because it did not rub its lips in the dust, may I fill my hand with the soaring mountain range and make it learn fear of me."
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
"Let me set fire to its thick forests. Let me take an axe to its evil-doing. Let me make Gibil, the purifier, do his work at its watercourses. Let me spread this terror through the inaccessible mountain range Aratta."
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
"It has poured fearsome terror on the abodes of the gods. It has spread fear among the holy dwellings of the Anuna deities. Its fearsomeness is terrible and weighs upon the Land. The mountain range's radiance is terrible and weighs upon all the lands. Its arrogance extends grandly to the centre of heaven."
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
"Fruit hangs in its flourishing gardens and luxuriance spreads forth. Its magnificent trees, a crown in the heavens, …… stand as a wonder to behold. In Ebiḫ …… lions are abundant under the canopy of trees and bright branches. It makes wild rams and stags freely abundant. It stands wild bulls in flourishing grass. Deer couple among the cypress trees of the mountain range."
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
"Its fearsomenness is terrible -- you cannot pass through. The mountain range's radiance is terrible -- maiden Inana, you cannot oppose it." Thus he spoke.
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
The mistress, in her rage and anger, opened the arsenal and pushed on the lapis lazuli gate. She brought out magnificent battle and called up a great storm. Holy Inana reached for the quiver. She raised a towering flood with evil silt. She stirred up an evil raging wind with potsherds.
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
The rocks forming the body of Ebiḫ clattered down its flanks. From its sides and crevices great serpents spat venom. She damned its forests and cursed its trees. She killed its oak trees with drought. She poured fire on its flanks and made its smoke dense.The goddess established authority over the mountain. Holy Inana did as she wished.
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
She went to the mountain range of Ebiḫ and addressed it: "Mountain range, because of your elevation, because of your height, because of your attractiveness, because of your beauty, because of your wearing a holy garment, because of your reaching up to heaven, because you did not put your nose to the ground, because you did not rub your lips in the dust, I have killed you and brought you low."
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
"As with an elephant I have seized your tusks. As with a great wild bull I have brought you to the ground by your thick horns. As with a bull I have forced your great strength to the ground and pursued you savagely. I have made tears the norm in your eyes. I have placed laments in your heart. Birds of sorrow are building nests on these flanks."
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
For a second time, rejoicing in fearsome terror, she spoke out righteously: "My father Enlil has poured my great terror over the centre of the mountains. On my right side he has placed a weapon. On my left side a …… is placed. My anger, a harrow with great teeth, has torn the mountain apart."
Inana and Ebiḫ: c.1.3.2
For destroying Ebiḫ, great child of Suen, maiden Inana, be praised.
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
The mistress who, having all the great divine powers, deserves the throne-dais; Inana who, having all the great divine powers, occupies a holy throne-dais; Inana who stands in E-ana as a source of wonder -- once, the young woman went up into the mountains, holy Inana went up into the mountains. To detect falsehood and justice, to inspect the Land closely, to identify the criminal against the just, she went up into the mountains. -- Now, what did one say to another? What further did one add to the other in detail?
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
Then the …… left heaven, left the earth and climbed up into the mountains. Inana left heaven, left the earth and climbed up into the mountains. She left E-ana in Unug and climbed up into the mountains. She left the giguna in Zabalam and climbed up into the mountains. As she had gone up from E-ana, …… ĝipar ……. Inana …… her cloak …… and climbed up into the mountains. -- Now, what did one say to another? What further did one add to the other in detail?
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
(1 line missing) (7 lines fragmentary) (7 lines missing)After …… had tired …… with questions and searching, may …… come alone (?) to the back-room of my shrine. -- Now, what did one say to another? What further did one add to the other in detail?
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
The raven paid exact attention to the instructions of his master. It chopped up (?) and chewed (?) the kohl for the incantation priests of Eridug with the oil and water which were to be found in a lapis-lazuli bowl and were placed in the back-room of the shrine. It planted them in a trench for leeks in a vegetable plot; then it pulled out (?) ……. A plant growing in a plot like leeks, an oddity { standing up } { (1 ms. has instead:) sticking up } like a leek stalk -- who had ever seen such a thing before? (1 line unclear)That a bird like the raven, performing the work of man, should make the counterweight blocks of the shadouf bump up and settle down; that it should make the counterweight blocks of the shadouf bump down and rise up -- who had ever seen such a thing before?
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
Then the raven rose up from this oddity, and climbed up it -- a date palm! -- with a harness. It rubbed off the kohl (?) …… which it had stuffed into its beak onto the pistils (?). …… just as with a date palm, which …… the ground, a tree growing forever -- who had ever seen such a thing before? Its scaly leaves surround its palmheart. Its dried palm-fronds serve as weaving material. Its shoots are like surveyor's gleaming line; they are fit for the king's fields. Its (?) branches are used in the king's palace for cleaning. Its dates, which are piled up near purified barley, are fit for the temples of the great gods. That a bird like the raven, performing the work of man, makes the counterweight blocks of the shadouf bump up and settle down; that it makes the counterweight blocks of the shadouf bump down and rise up -- who had ever seen such a thing before? At his master's command, the raven stepped into the abzu. -- Now, what did one say to another? What further did one add to the other in detail?
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
…… Šu-kale-tuda was his name. ……, a son (?) of Igi-sigsig, the ……, was to water garden plots and build the installation for a well among the plants, but not a single plant remained there, not even one: he had pulled them out by their roots and destroyed them. Then what did the stormwind bring? It blew the dust of the mountains into his eyes. When he tried to wipe the corner of his eyes with his hand, he got some of it out, but was not able to get all of it out. He raised his eyes to the lower land and saw the exalted gods of the land where the sun rises. He raised his eyes to the highlands and saw the exalted gods of the land where the sun sets. He saw a solitary ghost. He recognised a solitary god by her appearance. He saw someone who fully possesses the divine powers. He was looking at someone whose destiny was decided by the gods. In that plot -- had he not approached it five or 10 times before? -- there stood a single shady tree at that place. The shady tree was a Euphrates poplar with broad shade. Its shade was not diminished in the morning, and it did not change either at midday or in the evening.
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
Once, after my lady had gone around the heavens, after she had gone around the earth, after Inana had gone around the heavens, after she had gone around the earth, after she had gone around Elam and Subir, after she had gone around the intertwined horizon of heaven, the mistress became so tired that when she arrived there she lay down by its roots. Šu-kale-tuda noticed her from beside his plot. Inana …… the loincloth (?) of the seven divine powers over her genitals. …… the girdle of the seven divine powers over her genitals ……. …… with the shepherd Ama-ušumgal-ana ……. …… over her holy genitals ……. Šu-kale-tuda undid the loincloth (?) of seven divine powers and got her to lie down in her resting place. He had intercourse with her and kissed her there. After he had had intercourse with her and kissed her, he went back to beside his plot. When day had broken and Utu had risen, the woman inspected herself closely, holy Inana inspected herself closely.
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
Then the woman was considering what should be destroyed because of her genitals; Inana was considering what should be done because of her genitals. She filled the wells of the Land with blood, so it was blood that the irrigated orchards of the Land yielded, it was blood that the slave who went to collect firewood drank, it was blood that the slavegirl who went out to draw water drew, and it was blood that the black-headed people drank. No one knew when this would end. She said: "I will search everywhere for the man who had intercourse with me." But nowhere in all the lands could she find the man who had had intercourse with her. -- Now, what did one say to another? What further did one add to the other in detail?
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
The boy went home to his father and spoke to him; Šu-kale-tuda went home to his father and spoke to him: "My father, I was to water garden plots and build the installation for a well among the plants, but not a single plant remained there, not even one: I had pulled them out by their roots and destroyed them. Then what did the stormwind bring? It blew the dust of the mountains into my eyes. When I tried to wipe the corner of my eyes with my hand, I got some of it out, but was not able to get all of it out. I raised my eyes to the lower land, and saw the high gods of the land where the sun rises. I raised my eyes to the highlands, and saw the exalted gods of the land where the sun sets. I saw a solitary ghost. I recognised a solitary god by her appearance. I saw someone who possesses fully the divine powers. I was looking at someone whose destiny was decided by the gods. In that plot -- had I not approached it { five or ten } { (1 ms. has instead:) three or six hundred } times before? -- there stood a single shady tree at that place. The shady tree was a Euphrates poplar with broad shade. Its shade was not diminished in the morning, and it did not change either at midday or in the evening."
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
"Once, after my lady had gone around the heavens, after she had gone around the earth, after Inana had gone around the heavens, after she had gone around the earth, after she had gone around Elam and Subir, after she had gone around the intertwined horizon of heaven, the mistress became so tired that when she arrived there she lay down by its roots. I noticed her from beside my plot. I had intercourse with her and kissed her there. Then I went back to beside my plot."
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
"Then the woman was considering what should be destroyed because of her genitals; Inana was considering what should be done because of her genitals. She filled the wells of the Land with blood, so it was blood that the irrigated orchards of the Land yielded, it was blood that the slave who went to collect firewood drank, it was blood that the slavegirl who went out to draw water drew, and it was blood that the black-headed people drank. No one knew when this would end. She said: "I will search everywhere for the man who had intercourse with me." But nowhere could she find the man who had had intercourse with her."
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
His father replied to the boy; his father replied to Šu-kale-tuda: "My son, you should join the city-dwellers, { your brothers } { (1 ms. has instead:) who are your brothers }. Go at once to the black-headed people, your brothers! Then this woman will not find you among the mountains." He joined the city-dwellers, his brothers all together. He went at once to the black-headed people, his brothers, and the woman did not find him among the mountains.
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
Then the woman was considering a second time what should be destroyed because of her genitals; Inana was considering what should be done because of her genitals. She mounted on a cloud, took (?) her seat there and ……. The south wind and a fearsome storm flood went before her. The pilipili (one of the cultic personnel in Inana's entourage) and a dust storm followed her. Abba-šušu, Inim-kur-dugdug, …… adviser ……. Seven times seven helpers (?) stood beside her in the high desert. She said: "I will search everywhere for the man who had intercourse with me." But nowhere could she find the man who had intercourse with her.
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
The boy went home to his father and spoke to him; Šu-kale-tuda went home to his father and spoke to him: "My father, the woman of whom I spoke to you, this woman was considering a second time what should be destroyed because of her genitals; Inana was considering what should be done because of her genitals. She mounted on a cloud, took (?) her seat there and ……. The south wind and a fearsome storm flood went before her. The pilipili (one of the cultic personnel in Inana's entourage) and a dust storm followed her. Abba-šušu, Inim-kur-dugdug, …… adviser ……. Seven times seven helpers (?) stood beside her in the high desert. She said: "I will search everywhere for the man who had intercourse with me." But nowhere could she find the man who had intercourse with her."
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
His father replied to the boy; his father replied to Šu-kale-tuda: "My son, you should join the city-dwellers, your brothers. Go at once to the black-headed people, your brothers! Then this woman will not find you among the mountains." He joined the city-dwellers, his brothers all together. He went at once to the black-headed people, his brothers, and the woman did not find him among the mountains.
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
Then the woman was considering a third time what should be destroyed because of her genitals; Inana was considering what should be done because of her genitals. She took a single …… in her hand. She blocked the highways of the Land with it. Because of her, the black-headed people ……. She said: "I will search everywhere for the man who had intercourse with me." But nowhere could she find the man who had intercourse with her.
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
The boy went home to his father and spoke to him; Šu-kale-tuda went home to his father and spoke to him: "My father, the woman of whom I spoke to you, this woman was considering a third time what should be destroyed because of her genitals; Inana was considering what should be done because of her genitals. She took a single …… in her hand. She blocked the highways of the Land with it. Because of her, the black-headed people ……. She said: "I will search everywhere for the man who had intercourse with me." But nowhere could she find the man who had intercourse with her."
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
His father replied to the boy; his father replied to Šu-kale-tuda: "My son, you should join the city-dwellers, your brothers. Go at once to the black-headed people, your brothers! Then this woman will not find you among the mountains." He joined the city-dwellers, his brothers all together. He went at once to the black-headed people, his brothers, and the woman did not find him among the mountains.
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
When day had broken and Utu had risen, the women inspected herself closely, holy Inana inspected herself closely." Ah, who will compensate me? Ah, who will pay (?) for what happened to me? Should it not be the concern of my own father, Enki?" Holy Inana directed her steps to the abzu of Eridug and, because of this, prostrated herself on the ground before him and stretched out her hands to him: "Father Enki, I should be compensated! What's more, someone should { pay (?) } { (1 ms. has instead:) make up } for what happened to me! I shall only re-enter my shrine E-ana satisfied after you have handed over that man to me from the abzu." Enki said "All right!" to her. He said "So be it!" to her. With that holy Inana went out from the abzu of Eridug. She stretched herself like a rainbow across the sky and reached thereby as far as the earth. She let the south wind pass across, she let the north wind pass across. From fear, { (1 ms. adds:) solitary } Šu-kale-tuda tried to make himself as tiny as possible, but the woman had found him among the mountains.
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
Šu-kale-tuda replied to holy Inana: "My lady (?), I was to water garden plots and build the installation for a well among the plants, but not a single plant remained there, not even one: I had pulled them out by their roots and destroyed them. Then what did the stormwind bring? It blew the dust of the mountains into my eyes. When I tried to wipe the corner of my eyes with my hand, I got some of it out, but was not able to get all of it out. I raised my eyes to the lower land, and saw the exalted gods of the land where the sun rises. I raised my eyes to the highlands, and saw the exalted gods of the land where the sun sets. I saw a solitary ghost. I recognised a solitary god by her appearance. I saw someone who possesses fully the divine powers. I was looking at someone whose destiny was decided by the gods. In that plot -- had I not approached it three or six hundred times before? -- there stood a single shady tree at that place. The shady tree was a Euphrates poplar with broad shade. Its shade was not diminished in the morning, and it did not change either at midday or in the evening."
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
"Once, after my lady had gone around the heavens, after she had gone around the earth, after Inana had gone around the heavens, after she had gone around the earth, after she had gone around Elam and Subir, after she had gone around the intertwined horizon of heaven, the mistress became so tired that when she arrived there she lay down by its roots. I noticed her from beside my plot. I had intercourse with her and kissed her there. Then I went back to beside my plot."
Inana and Šu-kale-tuda: c.1.3.3
When he had spoken thus to her, …… hit ……. …… added (?) ……. …… changed (?) him ……. She (?) determined his destiny ……, holy Inana spoke to Šu-kale-tuda: "So! You shall die! What is that to me? Your name, however, shall not be forgotten. Your name shall exist in songs and make the songs sweet. A young singer shall perform them most pleasingly in the king's palace. A shepherd shall sing them sweetly as he tumbles his butter churn. A young shepherd shall carry your name to where he grazes the sheep. The palace of the desert shall be your home." (5 lines unclear) Šu-kale-tuda …… (1 line missing)Because …… destiny was determined, praise be to …… Inana!
Inana and Gudam: c.1.3.4
They filled the bronze vessels to the brim. He made the tilimda vessels shine like the holy barge, …… fine chickpea flour, bearded carp ……. ……, he …… fish like dates. Many followed Gudam on the streets of Unug. They sat armed before him. Her (= Inana's) (?) singer Lugal-gabaĝal came out to ……, and looked at the troops. The singer met him with a song, …… string with his hand:
Inana and Gudam: c.1.3.4
"What you have eaten, what you have eaten -- it was not bread that you have eaten, it was your flesh that you have eaten! What you have drunk, what you have drunk -- it was not beer that you drank, it was your blood that you drank! Gudam, many followed you on the streets of Unug; they sat armed before you."
Inana and Gudam: c.1.3.4
"…… what the woman ordered me, when I have ……." Gudam slapped his thigh with his fist in annoyance; fear overcame him: "He did not grasp the Šar-ur, my heroic weapon. For me the temple of Zabalam ……."
Inana and Gudam: c.1.3.4
He lopped off the crossbeams of E-ana as if (?) they were branches. Gudam went out into the street. Gudam crushed many on the streets of Unug, and killed many with his mace. { He hacked down the door of the city gate } { (the other ms. has instead:) …… the gate, the gate of Iškur }. He went out from …….
Inana and Gudam: c.1.3.4
A junior fisherman, a fisherman of Inana, { turned } { (the other ms. has instead:) …… } the double-axe against him and struck Gudam down. Gudam began to grieve, and was tear-stricken:
Inana and Gudam: c.1.3.4
Holy Inana replied to him: "{ (the other ms. adds:) …… bulls of the mountains for me. …… sheep of the mountains for me. …… weapon ……. } The fields of Zabalam, where you dwelt: its villages ……. Over a wide area, may …… calm for you, may …… desire (?)."
Inana and Gudam: c.1.3.4
Inana, I will speak of your heroism. It is pleasant to praise you!
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
(unknown no. of lines missing) (1 line fragmentary) Holy Inana ……. The hero, youthful Utu, ……. At dead of night ……. E-ana ……. Inana ……. The great (?) heavens ……. (unknown no. of lines missing)
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
(1 line fragmentary) …… E-ana comes forth from heaven, …… the lady of heaven set her mind to capturing the great heavens, …… Inana set her mind to capturing the great heavens, …… set her mind to capturing the great heavens from the …… of heaven, …… youthful Utu, she set her mind to capturing the great heavens.
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
Her brother the hero, youthful Utu, answered holy Inana: "My sister, I swear an oath by the life of heaven, I swear by the life of the rainbow (?) of heaven, my ……, ……, I swear by the life of my throne, by my majesty: I will follow what my sister says to me, I will follow what holy Inana says to me."
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
The maiden Inana answered her brother the hero, youthful Utu: "……, my spouse (?), has made love to me, has kissed me. I wanted …… for him but …… he did not give it to him. I hastened (?) with him …… but majestic An would not give him E-ana. The heavens are ours, the earth is ours: E-ana should be captured from An. After you have taken ……, listen to what I say to you. Examine …… for me, you must observe these instructions: …… the evil wind, the south wind, against me." (approx. 23 lines missing)
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
(1 line fragmentary) (Adagbir speaks:) "…… great net. …… the flood. …… the fisherman."
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
Holy Inana embarked (?) on the ……. The barge ……. The rope ……. The south wind, that south wind, rose up. The evil wind, that evil wind, rose up. In the distant heavens ……. Ḫienḫi-sag ……. The fisherman ……. The reed thickets and the tall reeds …….
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
(Inana speaks:) "I ……. …… the way ……." (2 lines fragmentary)
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
Whenever (?) he approached the …… with his great net, as (?) it came out of the flood, the swelling sea, it lashed the water and made an evil …….
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
Adagbir answered holy Inana: "…… through the reed thickets and the tall reeds. For you …… find E-ana, which comes forth from heaven."
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
Adagbir, …… of Enlil, …… through the reed thickets and the tall reeds. She gazed in admiration at E-ana which comes forth from heaven.
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
Having drunk cleansing water from the Ulaya river, Inana stamped on the scorpion and cut off its tail. Like a lion it bellowed in an angry roar but its cries died down. …… she threw it …… and made it secure.
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
Having heard its …… cries, …… poured forth the ……, the clay of creation, …… and laid it ……. (2 lines missing)…… the great lady of heaven delivered those words to An.
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
Having heard those words, An slapped his thighs in ……, his voice filled with sighs of grief: "What has my child done? She has become greater than me! What has Inana done? She has become greater than me! From now on, the normal length of daylight becomes shorter, and daylight converts to night-time. From today, when the day's watch is three units long, daylight is equal to night-time." And now, when day began, it was indeed so.
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
An, who created gods and humankind, gazed at holy Inana { (1 ms. adds:) and addressed the favourite wife who travels by his side }, unable to describe this arrogance, this arrogance -- An was unable to describe { (1 ms. adds:) to Inana } this arrogance, this arrogance: "My child, …… you did not say …… -- you were able to capture E-ana! Inana, …… you did not say …… -- you were able to capture E-ana! E-ana should be as firm as heaven, { it should not be toppled } { (1 ms. has instead:) its attractions should never be exhausted }. Its name should be 'The Settlement of the Land'. { (1 ms. adds:) It should have no rival. } Mankind, all of the people, should prostrate themselves at her (?) feet." And now, under that sun and on that day, it was indeed so.
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
She had captured E-ana from An! She secured it ……. Now Inana speaks of the E-ana as the house that is the place of the lady. The goddess who has attained her triumphant position, Inana who has attained her triumphant position, declares in the good place: "I have captured E-ana from An."
Inana and An: c.1.3.5
Because you are unmatched among the Great Princes, maiden Inana, praising you is magnificent!
Dumuzid and Ĝeštin-ana: c.1.4.1.1
A small demon opened his mouth and said to the big demon," Come on, let's go to the lap of holy Inana." The demons entered Unug and seized holy Inana." Come on, Inana, go on that journey which is yours alone -- descend to the underworld. Go to the place which you have coveted -- descend to the nether world. Go to the dwelling of Ereškigala -- descend to the underworld. Don't put on your holy ba garment, the pala dress of ladyship -- descend to the underworld. Remove the holy headdress, that splendid ornament, from your head -- descend to the underworld. Don't enhance your appearance with a wig -- descend to the underworld. Don't adorn your feet with …… -- descend to the underworld. When you descend, ……."
Dumuzid and Ĝeštin-ana: c.1.4.1.1
They released holy Inana, they …… her. Inana handed over Dumuzid to them in exchange for herself." As for the lad, we will put his feet in foot stocks. As for the lad, we will put his hands in hand stocks: we will put his neck in neck stocks." Copper pins, nails and pokers were raised to his face. They sharpened their large copper axes. As for the lad, they stood him up, they sat him down." Let us remove his …… garment, let us make him stand ……." As for the lad, they bound his arms, they did evil ……. They covered his face with his own garment.
Dumuzid and Ĝeštin-ana: c.1.4.1.1
The lad raises his hands heavenward to Utu: "O Utu, I am your friend, I am a youth. Do you recognise me? Your sister, whom I married, descended to the underworld. Because she descended to the underworld, it was me that she was to hand over to the underworld as a substitute. O Utu, you are a just judge, don't disappoint me! Change my hands, alter my appearance, so that I may escape the clutches of my demons! Don't let them seize me! Like a saĝkal snake that slithers across the meadows and mountains, let me escape alive to the dwelling of my sister Ĝeštin-ana."
Dumuzid and Ĝeštin-ana: c.1.4.1.1
Utu accepted his tears. He changed his hands, he altered his appearance. Then like a saĝkal snake that slithers across the meadows and mountains, like a soaring falcon that can swoop down on a live (?) bird, Dumuzid escaped alive to the dwelling of his sister Ĝeštin-ana. Ĝeštin-ana looked at her brother. She scratched at her cheek: she scratched at her nose. She looked at her sides: she …… her garment. She recited a lament of misfortune for the unfortunate lad: "O my brother! O my brother, lad who has not fulfilled those days! O my brother, shepherd Ama-ušumgal-ana, lad who has not fulfilled those days and years! O my brother, lad who has no wife, who has no children! O my brother, lad who has no friend, who has no companion! O my brother, the lad who is not a comfort (?) to his mother!"
Dumuzid and Ĝeštin-ana: c.1.4.1.1
The demons go hither and thither searching for Dumuzid. The small demons say to the big demons: "Demons have no mother; they have no father or mother, sister or brother, wife or children. When …… were established on heaven and earth, you demons were there, at a man's side like a reed enclosure. Demons are never kind, they do not know good from evil. Who has ever seen a man, without a family, all alone, escape with his life? We shall go neither to the dwelling of his friend nor to the dwelling of his in-laws. Rather, for the shepherd let us go to the dwelling of Ĝeštin-ana." The demons clap their hands and begin to seek him out.
Dumuzid and Ĝeštin-ana: c.1.4.1.1
Ĝeštin-ana had barely finished that lament when the demons arrived at her dwelling." Show us where your brother is," they said to her. But she spoke not a word to them. They afflicted her loins with a skin disease, but she spoke not a word to them. They scratched her face with ……, but she spoke not a word to them. They …… the skin of her buttocks, but she spoke not a word to them. They poured tar in her lap, but she spoke not a word to them. So they could not find Dumuzid at the house of Ĝeštin-ana.
Dumuzid and Ĝeštin-ana: c.1.4.1.1
The small demons said to the big demons: "Come on, let's go to the holy sheepfold!" There at the holy sheepfold they caught Dumuzid. They went hither and thither until they caught him. They searched for him until he was seen. The axe was wielded against the lad who had no family. They sharpened their daggers, they smashed his hut. His sister wandered about the city like a bird because of her brother: "My brother, let me take the great misfortune, come, let me ……."
Dumuzid and his sisters: c.1.4.1.3
"…… my ……. …… my lacerated eyes ……. …… my lacerated nose ……. …… my beaten ……. …… my hasty ……. …… my …… (1 line fragmentary) …… my ……. …… my loaded waggon ……. …… my ……. …… my ……. …… who is cheerful ……. …… who laments ……. …… the door of the gate (of the nether world) ……. My brother, …… the door of the gate …… (1 line fragmentary)…… ladyship (?) ……. On the mighty river, ……. …… its fields, a waterskin ……. …… in lamenting ……. …… my …… hated ……. My brother, your feet hurt, your feet …… the road. My brother, wherever you go I will hasten with you. Dumuzid, wherever you go I will hasten with you. …… I will hasten with you. I will hasten with you. …… going (?) as your slavegirl, …… of the lord, I ……. …… of the lord …… …… going (?) as your slavegirl, …… of the lord, I ……."
Dumuzid and his sisters: c.1.4.1.3
"My brother -- because of him I cannot rejoice. My brother ……. Dumuzid, my brother -- because of him I cannot rejoice, ……. …… in front of him ……. …… he who bound his arms went in front of him. …… he who fettered his hands went behind him. …… they who beat him went alongside him."
Dumuzid and his sisters: c.1.4.1.3
(1 line fragmentary)"…… you also ……. …… you also ……." …… they paid (?) attention ……. …… went along the broad road. …… went along the broad road. …… the demon confronted her. …… the demon confronted her. …… the demon confronted her. …… met her ……, the demon confronted her. ……, he tried to control (?) her. ……, as she was tearing out her hair, he tried to control (?) her. …… as she was lacerating her eyes, as she was lacerating her nose, he tried to control (?) her. …… as she …… excessively, he tried to control (?) her. …… as she spoke …… beauty …… lips, he tried to control (?) her:
Dumuzid and his sisters: c.1.4.1.3
She heaped up the …… of the river, and muddied the Euphrates: "…… my brother is no longer alive. He will cut …… from ……. …… Dumuzid is no longer alive. He will cut …… from ……. …… is no longer alive, he is no longer alive. He will definitely not return. My …… is no longer alive. My …… is no longer alive. My …… is no longer alive. …… is no longer alive. …… is no longer alive. …… is no longer alive. …… Dumuzid is no longer alive. He will definitely not return. I cannot rejoice over …… when you were born. I cannot rejoice over …… when you were born. I cannot rejoice over …… when you were born. …… was born. …… was born. …… I, Ĝeštin, ……. …… to Dumuzid. …… I, Ĝeštin, ……."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
From the great heaven she set her mind on the great below. From the great heaven the goddess set her mind on the great below. From the great heaven Inana set her mind on the great below. My mistress abandoned heaven, abandoned earth, and descended to the underworld. Inana abandoned heaven, abandoned earth, and descended to the underworld.
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
She took the seven divine powers. She collected the divine powers and grasped them in her hand. With the good divine powers, she went on her way. She put a turban, headgear for the open country, on her head. She took a wig for her forehead. She hung small lapis-lazuli beads around her neck.
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
She placed twin egg-shaped beads on her breast. She covered her body with a pala dress, the garment of ladyship. She placed mascara which is called "Let a man come, let him come" on her eyes. She pulled the pectoral which is called "Come, man, come" over her breast. She placed a golden ring on her hand. She held the lapis-lazuli measuring rod and measuring line in her hand.
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Holy Inana said to Ninšubur: "Come my faithful minister of E-ana, { my minister who speaks fair words, my escort who speaks trustworthy words } { (1 ms. has instead:) I am going to give you instructions: my instructions must be followed; I am going to say something to you: it must be observed }."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
"On this day I will descend to the underworld. When I have arrived in the underworld, make a lament for me on the ruin mounds. Beat the drum for me in the sanctuary. Make the rounds of the houses of the gods for me."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
"Lacerate your eyes for me, lacerate your nose for me. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) Lacerate your ears for me, in public. } In private, lacerate your buttocks for me. Like a pauper, clothe yourself in a single garment and all alone set your foot in the E-kur, the house of Enlil."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
"Father Enki, the lord of great wisdom, knows about the life-giving plant and the life-giving water. He is the one who will restore me to life."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Neti, the chief doorman of the underworld, answered holy Inana: "Who are you?" "I am Inana going to the east." "If you are Inana going to the east, why have you travelled to the land of no return? How did you set your heart on the road whose traveller never returns?"
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Holy Inana answered him: "Because Lord Gud-gal-ana, the husband of my elder sister holy Ereškigala, has died; in order to have his funeral rites observed, she offers generous libations at his wake -- that is the reason."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Neti, the chief doorman of the underworld, answered holy Inana: "Stay here, Inana. I will speak to my mistress. I will speak to my mistress Ereškigala and tell her what you have said."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
"She has taken the seven divine powers. She has collected the divine powers and grasped them in her hand. She has come on her way with all the good divine powers. She has put a turban, headgear for the open country, on her head. She has taken a wig for her forehead. She has hung small lapis-lazuli beads around her neck."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
"She has placed twin egg-shaped beads on her breast. She has covered her body with the pala dress of ladyship. She has placed mascara which is called "Let a man come" on her eyes. She has pulled the pectoral which is called "Come, man, come" over her breast. She has placed a golden ring on her hand. She is holding the lapis-lazuli measuring rod and measuring line in her hand."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she heard this, Ereškigala slapped the side of her thigh. She bit her lip and took the words to heart. She said to Neti, her chief doorman: "Come Neti, my chief doorman of the underworld, don't neglect the instructions I will give you. Let the seven gates of the underworld be bolted. Then let each door of the palace Ganzer be opened separately. As for her, after she has entered, and crouched down and had her clothes removed, they will be carried away."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Neti, the chief doorman of the underworld, paid attention to the instructions of his mistress. He bolted the seven gates of the underworld. Then he opened each of the doors of the palace Ganzer separately. He said to holy Inana: "Come on, Inana, and enter."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
And when Inana entered, { (1 ms. adds 2 lines:) the lapis-lazuli measuring rod and measuring line were removed from her hand, when she entered the first gate, } the turban, headgear for the open country, was removed from her head." What is this?" "Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the second gate, the small lapis-lazuli beads were removed from her neck." What is this?" "Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the third gate, the twin egg-shaped beads were removed from her breast." What is this?" "Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the fourth gate, the "Come, man, come" pectoral was removed from her breast." What is this?" "Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she entered the sixth gate, the lapis-lazuli measuring rod and measuring line were removed from her hand." What is this?" "Be silent, Inana, a divine power of the underworld has been fulfilled. Inana, you must not open your mouth against the rites of the underworld."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
After she had crouched down and had her clothes removed, they were carried away. Then she made her sister Ereškigala rise from her throne, and instead she sat on her throne. The Anuna, the seven judges, rendered their decision against her. They looked at her -- it was the look of death. They spoke to her -- it was the speech of anger. They shouted at her -- it was the shout of heavy guilt. The afflicted woman was turned into a corpse. And the corpse was hung on a hook.
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
After three days and three nights had passed, her minister Ninšubur { (2 mss. add 2 lines:), her minister who speaks fair words, her escort who speaks trustworthy words, } { carried out the instructions of her mistress } { (1 ms. has instead 2 lines:) did not forget her orders, she did not neglect her instructions }.
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
She made a lament for her in her ruined (houses). She beat the drum for her in the sanctuaries. She made the rounds of the houses of the gods for her. She lacerated her eyes for her, she lacerated her nose. In private she lacerated her buttocks for her. Like a pauper, she clothed herself in a single garment, and all alone she set her foot in the E-kur, the house of Enlil.
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
In his rage Father Enlil answered Ninšubur: "My daughter craved the great heaven and she craved the great below as well. Inana craved the great heaven and she craved the great below as well. The divine powers of the underworld are divine powers which should not be craved, for whoever gets them must remain in the underworld. Who, having got to that place, could then expect to come up again?"
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
In his rage Father Nanna answered Ninšubur: "My daughter craved the great heaven and she craved the great below as well. Inana craved the great heaven and she craved the great below as well. The divine powers of the underworld are divine powers which should not be craved, for whoever gets them must remain in the underworld. Who, having got to that place, could then expect to come up again?"
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Father Enki answered Ninšubur: "What has my daughter done? She has me worried. What has Inana done? She has me worried. What has the mistress of all the lands done? She has me worried. What has the mistress of heaven done? She has me worried." { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) Thus Father Enki helped her in this matter. } He removed some dirt from the tip of his fingernail and created the kur-ĝara. He removed some dirt from the tip of his other fingernail and created the gala-tura. To the kur-ĝara he gave the life-giving plant. To the gala-tura he gave the life-giving water.
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
{ Then Father Enki spoke out to the gala-tura and the kur-ĝara: } " { (1 ms. has instead the line:) One of you sprinkle the life-giving plant over her, and the other the life-giving water. } Go and direct your steps to the underworld. Flit past the door like flies. Slip through the door pivots like phantoms. The mother who gave birth, Ereškigala, on account of her children, is lying there. Her holy shoulders are not covered by a linen cloth. Her breasts are not full like a šagan vessel. Her nails are like a pickaxe (?) upon her. The hair on her head is bunched up as if it were leeks."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
"When she says "Oh my heart", you are to say "You are troubled, our mistress, oh your heart". When she says "Oh my body", you are to say "You are troubled, our mistress, oh your body". (She will then ask:) "Who are you? Speaking to you from my heart to your heart, from my body to your body -- if you are gods, let me talk with you; if you are mortals, may a destiny be decreed for you." Make her swear this by heaven and earth. (1 line fragmentary)"
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
The gala-tura and the kur-ĝara paid attention to the instructions of Enki. They flitted through the door like flies. They slipped through the door pivots like phantoms. The mother who gave birth, Ereškigala, because of her children, was lying there. Her holy shoulders were not covered by a linen cloth. Her breasts were not full like a šagan vessel. Her nails were like a pickaxe (?) upon her. The hair on her head was bunched up as if it were leeks.
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
When she said "Oh my heart", they said to her "You are troubled, our mistress, oh your heart". When she said "Oh my body", they said to her "You are troubled, our mistress, oh your body". (Then she asked:) "Who are you? I tell you from my heart to your heart, from my body to your body -- if you are gods, I will talk with you; if you are mortals, may a destiny be decreed for you." They made her swear this by heaven and earth. They …….
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Those who accompanied her, those who accompanied Inana, know no food, know no drink, eat no flour offering and drink no libation. { They accept no pleasant gifts. They never enjoy the pleasures of the marital embrace, never have any sweet children to kiss. They tear away the wife from a man's embrace. They snatch the son from a man's knee. They make the bride leave the house of her father-in-law } { (instead of lines 300-305, 1 ms. has 2 lines:) They take the wife away from a man's embrace. They take away the child hanging on a wet-nurse's breasts }. { (1 ms. adds 3 lines:) They crush no bitter garlic. They eat no fish, they eat no leeks. They, it was, who accompanied Inana. }
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Holy Inana answered the demons: "This is my minister of fair words, my escort of trustworthy words. She did not forget my instructions. She did not neglect the orders I gave her. She made a lament for me on the ruin mounds. She beat the drum for me in the sanctuaries. She made the rounds of the gods' houses for me. She lacerated her eyes for me, lacerated her nose for me. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) She lacerated her ears for me in public. } In private, she lacerated her buttocks for me. Like a pauper, she clothed herself in a single garment."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Holy Inana answered the demons: "Outstanding Lulal follows me at my right and my left. How could I turn him over to you? Let us go on. Let us go on to the great apple tree in the plain of Kulaba."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
They followed her to the great apple tree in the plain of Kulaba. There was Dumuzid clothed in a magnificent garment and seated magnificently on a throne. The demons seized him there by his thighs. The seven of them poured the milk from his churns. The seven of them shook their heads like ……. They would not let the shepherd play the pipe and flute before her (?).
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
She looked at him, it was the look of death. She spoke to him (?), it was the speech of anger. She shouted at him (?), it was the shout of heavy guilt: "How much longer? Take him away." Holy Inana gave Dumuzid the shepherd into their hands.
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Those who had accompanied her, who had come for Dumuzid, know no food, know no drink, eat no flour offering, drink no libation. They never enjoy the pleasures of the marital embrace, never have any sweet children to kiss. They snatch the son from a man's knee. They make the bride leave the house of her father-in-law.
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Dumuzid let out a wail and wept. The lad raised his hands to heaven, to Utu: "Utu, you are my brother-in-law. I am your relation by marriage. I brought butter to your mother's house. I brought milk to Ningal's house. Turn my hands into snake's hands and turn my feet into snake's feet, so I can escape my demons, let them not keep hold of me."
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
Utu accepted his tears. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) Dumuzid's demons could not keep hold of him. } Utu turned Dumuzid's hands into snake's hands. He turned his feet into snake's feet. Dumuzid escaped his demons. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) Like a saĝkal snake he ……. } They seized ……. (2 lines fragmentary)Holy Inana …… her heart.
Inana's descent to the nether world: c.1.4.1
…… was weeping. She came up to the sister (?) and …… by the hand: "Now, alas, my ……. You for half the year and your sister for half the year: when you are demanded, on that day you will stay, when your sister is demanded, on that day you will be released." Thus holy Inana gave Dumuzid as a substitute …….
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
His heart was full of tears as he went out into the countryside. The lad's heart was full of tears as he went out into the countryside. Dumuzid's heart was full of tears as he went out into the countryside. He carried with him his { (1 ms. adds:) shepherd's } stick on his shoulder, sobbing all the time:
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"Grieve, grieve, O countryside, grieve! O countryside, grieve! O marshes, cry out! O …… crabs of the river, grieve! O frogs of the river, cry out! My mother will call to me, my mother, my Durtur, will call to me, my mother will call to me for five things, my mother will call to me for 10 things: if she does not know the day when I am dead, you, O countryside, can inform my mother who bore me. Like my little sister may you weep for me."
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
In ancient times he lay down, in ancient times he lay down, in ancient times the shepherd lay down. When in ancient times the shepherd lay down, he lay down to dream. He woke up -- it was a dream! He shivered -- it was sleep! He rubbed his eyes, he was terrified.
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"Bring, bring, bring my sister! Bring my Ĝeštin-ana, bring my sister! Bring my scribe proficient in tablets, bring my sister! Bring my singer expert in songs, bring my singer! Bring my perspicacious girl, bring my sister! Bring my wise woman who knows the meanings of dreams, bring my sister! I will relate the dream to her."
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"A dream, my sister! A dream! In my dream, rushes were rising up for me, rushes kept growing for me; a single reed was shaking its head at me; twin reeds -- one was being separated from me. Tall trees in the forest were rising up together over me. Water was poured over my holy { coals } { (1 ms. has instead:) brazier } for me, the cover of my holy churn was removed, my holy drinking cup was torn down from the peg where it hung, my shepherd's stick disappeared from me. An owl (?) took a lamb from the sheep house, a falcon caught a sparrow on the reed fence, my male goats were dragging their dark beards in the dust for me, my rams were scratching the earth with their thick legs for me. The churns were lying on their sides, no milk was being poured, the drinking cups were lying on their sides, Dumuzid was dead, the sheepfold was haunted."
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
Ĝeštin-ana answered Dumuzid: "My brother, your dream is not favourable, don't tell me any more of it! Dumuzid, your dream is not favourable, don't tell me any more of it! The rushes rising up for you, which kept growing for you, are bandits rising against you from their ambush. The single reed shaking its head at you is your mother who bore you, shaking her head for you. The twin reeds of which one was being separated from you is you and I -- one will be separated from you. The tall trees in the forest rising up together over you are the evil men catching you within the walls. That water was poured over your holy coals means the sheepfold will become a house of silence. That the cover of your holy churn was removed for you means the evil man will bring it inside in his hands."
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"Your holy drinking cup torn down from the peg where it hung is you falling off the lap of the mother who bore you. That your shepherd's stick disappeared from you means the demons { will set fire to it } { (1 ms. has instead:) will smash it }. The owl (?) taking a lamb from the sheep house { is the evil man who will hit you on the cheek } { (1 ms. has instead:) is the evil man who will destroy the sheep house }. The falcon catching a sparrow on the reed fence is the big demon coming { down } { (1 ms. has instead:) out } from the sheep house. That the churns were lying on their sides, no milk was being poured, the drinking cups were lying on their sides, that Dumuzid was dead, and the sheepfold haunted, means your hands will be bound in handcuffs, your arms will be bound in fetters. That your male goats were dragging their dark beards in the dust for you means that my hair will whirl around in the air like a hurricane for you. That your rams were scratching the earth with their thick legs for you means that I shall lacerate my cheeks with my fingernails for you as if with a boxwood needle."
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
Hardly had she spoken these words when he said," Sister, go up onto the mound, sister, go up onto the mound! Sister, when you go up onto the mound, do not go up onto the mound like an ordinary person, but lacerate { your heart } { (1 ms. has instead:) your hair } and your liver, lacerate your clothes and your crotch, sister, and then go up onto the mound! Sister, when you go up onto the mound, look out from the mound! The evil ……, hated by men, …… a river barge! They hold in their hands the wood to bind the hands, they are identified (?) from the wood to bind the neck -- no man knows how to undo it!"
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
Ama-ĝeštin-ana went up onto the mound and looked around, Ĝeštin-ana craned her neck. Her girl friend Ĝeštin-dudu advised her: "The big men who bind the neck are already coming for him, they are …… coming for him!"
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"My adviser and girl friend! Are they coming?" "Yes, I will point out to you those who bind the neck!" "My brother, your demons are coming for you! Duck down your head in the grass! Dumuzid, your demons are coming for you! Duck down your head in the grass!"
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"My sister, I will duck down my head in the grass! Don't reveal my whereabouts to them! I will duck down my head in the short grass! Don't reveal my whereabouts to them! I will duck down my head in the tall grass! Don't reveal my whereabouts to them! I will drop down into the ditches of Arali! Don't reveal my whereabouts to them!"
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"If I reveal your whereabouts to them, may your dog devour me! The black dog, your shepherd dog, the noble dog, your lordly dog, may your dog devour me!"
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
She remembered (?): "…… give your friend instructions about it! O my brother, may you never have a friend or comrade like ……! After the demons (?) have searched for you, ……, if he tells you ……."
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"My friend, I will duck down my head in the grass! Don't reveal my whereabouts to them! I will duck down my head in the short grass! Don't reveal my whereabouts to them! I will duck down my head in the tall grass! Don't reveal my whereabouts to them! I will drop down into the ditches of Arali! Don't reveal my whereabouts to them!"
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"If I reveal your whereabouts to them, may your dog devour me! The black dog, your shepherd dog, the noble dog, your lordly dog, may your dog devour me!"
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
Those who come for the king are a motley crew, who know not food, who know not drink, who eat no sprinkled flour, who drink no poured water, who accept no pleasant gifts, who do not enjoy a wife's embraces, who never kiss dear little children, who never chew sharp-tasting garlic, who eat no fish, who eat no leeks. There were two men of Adab who came for the king. They were thistles in dried-up waters, they were thorns in stinking waters -- 'his hand was on the table, his tongue was in the palace' (Alludes to a proverb). Then there were two men of Akšak who came for the king, with …… carried on their shoulders. Then there were two men of Unug who came for the king. With head-smashing clubs tied to their waists, there were two men of Urim who came for the king. With { shining } { (1 ms. has instead:) clean } clothes on the quayside, there were two men of Nibru who came for the king. Crying "Man run after man!", they came to the sheepfold and cow-pen. They caught Ĝeštin-ana at the sheepfold and cow-pen. They offered a river of water, but she wouldn't accept it. They offered her a field of grain, but she wouldn't accept it. The little demon spoke to the big demon, the wise demon, the lively demon, and the big demon who was between them, wise like …… destroying a ……, like …… barring a ……, they spoke:
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"Who since the most ancient times has ever known a sister reveal a brother's whereabouts? Come! Let us go to his friend!" Then they offered his friend a river of water, and he accepted it. They offered him a field of grain, and he accepted it." My friend ducked down his head in the grass, but I don't know his whereabouts { (1 ms. adds:) Dumuzid ducked down his head in the grass, but I don't know his whereabouts }." They looked for Dumuzid's head in the grass, but they couldn't find him." He ducked down his head in the short grass, but I don't know his whereabouts." They looked for Dumuzid's head in the short grass, but they couldn't find him." He ducked down his head in the tall grass, but I don't know his whereabouts." They looked for Dumuzid's head in the tall grass, but they couldn't find him." He has dropped down into the ditches of Arali, but I don't know his whereabouts."
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
They caught Dumuzid in the ditches of Arali. Dumuzid began to weep and was tear-stricken: "In the city my sister saved my life, my friend caused my death. If a sister leaves (?) a child in the street, someone should kiss it. But if a friend leaves (?) a child in the street, no one should kiss it."
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
The men surrounded him and drained the standing waters. They twisted a cord for him, they knotted a net for him. They wove a reed hawser for him, they cut sticks for him. The one in front of him threw missiles at him, the one behind him …… one cubit. His hands were bound in handcuffs, his arms were bound in fetters. The lad raised his hands heavenward to Utu:
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"Utu, you are my brother-in-law, I am your sister's husband! I am he who carries food to E-ana, I am he who brought the wedding gifts to Unug, I am he who kisses the holy lips, I am he who dances on the holy knees, the knees of Inana. Please change my hands into gazelle hands, change my feet into gazelle feet, so I can evade my demons. Let me escape with my life to Ku-bireš-dildareš."
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
Utu accepted his tears { (1 ms. adds:) as a gift }. Like a merciful man he showed him mercy. He changed his hands into gazelle hands, he changed his feet into gazelle feet, and so he evaded the demons, and escaped with his life to Ku-bireš-dildareš. The demons searched for him, but didn't find him.
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"Come, let us go to Ku-bireš." { (1 ms. adds:) …… like a net ……. } They caught Dumuzid at Ku-bireš. The men surrounded him and drained the standing waters. They twisted a cord for him, they knotted a net for him. They wove a reed hawser for him, they cut sticks for him, the one in front of him threw missiles at him, the one behind him ……. His hands were bound in handcuffs, his arms were bound in fetters. The lad raised his hands heavenward to Utu:
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"Utu, you are my brother-in-law, I am your sister's husband! I am he who carries food to E-ana, I am he who brought the wedding gifts to Unug, I am he who kisses the holy lips, I am he who dances on the holy knees, the knees of Inana. Please change my hands into { gazelle } { (1 ms. has instead:) snake } hands, change my feet into { gazelle } { (1 ms. has instead:) snake } feet, so I can escape to the house of Old Woman Belili."
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
Utu accepted his tears. He changed his hands into { gazelle } { (1 ms. has instead:) snake } hands, he changed his feet into { gazelle } { (1 ms. has instead:) snake } feet, so he evaded the demons and escaped with his life to the house of Old Woman Belili. He approached the house of Old Woman Belili.
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"Old woman! I am not just a man, I am the husband of a goddess! Would you pour water -- please -- so I can drink water. Would you sprinkle flour -- please -- so I can eat flour."
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"Unless the old woman is aware of Dumuzid's whereabouts, she is indeed looking frightened! She is indeed screaming in a frightened way! Come, let us go to the house of Old Woman Belili!" They caught Dumuzid at the house of Old Woman Belili. The men surrounded him and drained the standing waters. They twisted a cord for him, they knotted a net for him. They wove a reed hawser for him, they cut sticks for him, the one in front of him threw missiles at him, the one behind him ……. His hands were bound in handcuffs, his arms were bound in fetters. The lad raised his hands heavenward to Utu:
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"Utu, you are my brother-in-law, I am your sister's husband! I am he who carries food to E-ana, I am he who brought the wedding gifts to Unug, I am he who kisses the holy lips, I am he who dances on the holy knees, the knees of Inana. Please change my hands into gazelle hands, change my feet into gazelle feet, so I can escape to the holy sheepfold, my sister's sheepfold."
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
Utu accepted his tears. He changed his hands into { gazelle } { (1 ms. has instead:) snake } hands, he changed his feet into { gazelle } { (1 ms. has instead:) snake } feet, so he evaded the demons, and escaped with his life to the holy sheepfold, his sister's sheepfold. He approached the holy sheepfold, his sister's sheepfold. Ĝeštin-ana cried toward heaven, cried toward earth. Her cries covered the horizon completely like a cloth, they were spread out like linen. She lacerated her eyes, she lacerated her face, she lacerated her ears in public; in private she lacerated her buttocks.
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
"My brother, I will go round in the streets ……." (The demons said:) "Unless Ĝeštin-ana is aware of Dumuzid's whereabouts, she is indeed looking frightened! She is indeed screaming in a frightened way! Come, let us go to the sheepfold and cow-pen!" When the first demon entered the sheepfold and cow-pen, { he set fire to the bolt } { (1 ms. has instead:) he shouted …… }. When the second entered the sheepfold and cow-pen, he set fire to the shepherd's stick. When the third entered the sheepfold and cow-pen, he removed the cover of the holy churn.
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
{ When the fourth entered the sheepfold and cow-pen, he tore down the drinking cup from the peg where it hung. When the fifth entered the sheepfold and cow-pen, the churns lay on their sides, no milk was poured, the drinking cups lay on their sides, Dumuzid was dead, the sheepfold was haunted. } { (instead of lines 256-260, 1 ms. has:) When the fourth entered the sheepfold and cow-pen, he poured water on my holy brazier. When the fifth demon entered the sheepfold and cow-pen, he tore down my holy drinking cup from the peg where it hung. When the sixth demon entered the sheepfold and cow-pen, the churns lay on their sides, and no milk was poured. When the seventh demon entered the sheepfold and cow-pen, the drinking cups lay on their sides, Dumuzid was dead, the sheepfold was haunted. }
Dumuzid's dream: c.1.4.3
A šir-kalkal for the dead Dumuzid.
Inana and Bilulu: an ulila to Inana: c.1.4.4
She can make the lament for you, my Dumuzid, the lament for you, the lament, the lamentation, reach the desert -- she can make it reach the house Arali; she can make it reach Bad-tibira; she can make it reach Du-šuba; she can make it reach the shepherding country, the sheepfold of Dumuzid …….
Inana and Bilulu: an ulila to Inana: c.1.4.4
"O Dumuzid of the fair-spoken mouth, of the ever kind eyes," she sobs tearfully," O you of the fair-spoken mouth, of the ever kind eyes," she sobs tearfully." Lad, husband, lord, sweet as the date, …… O Dumuzid!" she sobs, she sobs tearfully.
Inana and Bilulu: an ulila to Inana: c.1.4.4
Like a child sent on an errand by its own mother, she went out from the chamber; like one sent on an errand by Mother Ningal, she went out from the chamber. Full knowledgeable my lady was, and also she was full apt, full knowledgeable holy Inana was, and also she was full apt. Beer stored in remote days, in long past days …….
Inana and Bilulu: an ulila to Inana: c.1.4.4
…… from the sheepfold. (1 line missing)…… to the house of old woman Bilulu (source, erroneously: Belili). There the shepherd, head beaten in, ……, Dumuzid, head beaten in, ……; Ama-ušumgal-ana, head beaten in, …….
Inana and Bilulu: an ulila to Inana: c.1.4.4
The lady created a song for her young husband, fashioned a song for him, holy Inana created a song for Dumuzid, fashioned a song for him:
Inana and Bilulu: an ulila to Inana: c.1.4.4
Then the son of old woman Bilulu, matriarch and her own mistress, -- Ĝirĝire, a man on his own, fit for prospering and a knowledgeable man -- was filling pen and fold with his captured cattle, and was stacking his stacks and piles of grain. He quickly left scattered his victims struck down with the mace. Širru of the haunted desert, no one's child and no one's friend, sat before him and held converse with him.
Inana and Bilulu: an ulila to Inana: c.1.4.4
That day what was in the lady's heart? What was in holy Inana's heart? To kill old woman Bilulu was in her heart! To make good the resting place for her beloved young husband, for Dumuzid-ama-ušumgal-ana -- that was in her heart! My lady went to Bilulu in the haunted desert. Her son Ĝirĝire like the wind there did …… Širru of the haunted desert, no one's child and no one's friend, …….
Inana and Bilulu: an ulila to Inana: c.1.4.4
Holy Inana entered the alehouse, stepped into a seat, began to determine fate: "Begone! I have killed you; so it is indeed, and with you I destroy also your name: May you become the waterskin for cold water that is used in the desert! May her son Ĝirĝire together with her become the protective god of the desert and the protective goddess of the desert! May Širru of the haunted desert, no one's child and no one's friend, walk in the desert and keep count of the flour, and when water is libated and flour sprinkled for the lad wandering in the desert, let the protective god of the desert and the protective goddess of the desert call out: "Libate!", call out: "Sprinkle!", and thereby cause him to be present in the place from which he vanished, in the desert! Let old woman Bilulu gladden his heart!"
Inana and Bilulu: an ulila to Inana: c.1.4.4
And immediately, under the sun of that day, it truly became so. She became the waterskin for cold water that is used in the desert. Her son Ĝirĝire together with her became the protective god of the desert and the protective goddess of the desert. Širru of the haunted desert, no one's child and no one's friend, walks in the desert and keeps count of the flour, and when water is libated and flour sprinkled for the lad wandering in the desert, the protective god of the desert and the protective goddess of the desert call out: "Libate!", call out: "Sprinkle!", and thereby cause him to be present in the place from which he vanished, in the desert. Old woman Bilulu gladdens his heart. Inana put out her hand to the lad on the ground, put out her hand to Dumuzid on the ground, his death-bound hands ……
Inana and Bilulu: an ulila to Inana: c.1.4.4
The francolin …… to the …… of its ……. The francolin …… to the birthplace of Dumuzid. Like a pigeon on its window ledge it took counsel with itself; the francolin in its shelter took counsel. Only his mother Durtur can gladden my master! Only his mother Durtur can gladden Dumuzid! My goddess, born in Kuara, the maiden who is the crown of all ……, the admiration and acclaim of the black-headed people, the playful one who also voices laments and the cries, who intercedes before the king -- Ĝeštin-ana, the lady, did …….
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
"The shining city, the pure place ……. (6 lines missing)…… very great, …… very great, …… very great, …… very great."
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
"My Nibru, where black birch trees grow in a good place, my sanctuary Nibru, where white birch trees grow in a pure place -- my Nibru's shrine is built in a good place. The sanctuary Nibru's name is a good name. My Nibru's shrine is built in a good place. The sanctuary Nibru's name is a good name. Before Dilmun existed, palm trees grew in my city. Before Dilmun existed, palm trees grew in Nibru and the great mother Ninlil was clothed in fine linen."
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
Nanna-Suen despatched people to Tummal for the barge's reeds. Ašimbabbar despatched people to the abzu for the barge's pitch. Nanna-Suen despatched people to Du-ašaga for its rushes. Ašimbabbar despatched people to the cypress forest for its strakes (?). Nanna-Suen despatched people to the forests of Kug-nuna for its ribbing (?). { (3 mss. add 2 lines in a parallel passage:) Ašimbabbar despatched people to the mountain of fragrant cedar for its beams. }
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
When the barge's reeds were brought to Nanna-Suen from Tummal, when the barge's pitch was brought to Ašimbabbar from the abzu, when its rushes were brought to Nanna-Suen from Du-ašaga, when its strakes (?) were brought to Ašimbabbar from the cypress forest, when its ribbing (?) was brought to Nanna-Suen from the forests of Kug-nuna, { (3 mss. add 2 lines:) when its beams were brought to Ašimbabbar from the mountain of fragrant cedar, } when its planking was brought to Ašimbabbar from the forests of Ebla, when its fir wood was brought to Nanna-Suen from the fragrant cedar forest, when its …… was brought to Ašimbabbar from the junipers of Langi, when its …… was brought to Ašimbabbar from ……, when its …… was brought to Nanna-Suen from the mound of ……, (1 line fragmentary) Utu rejoiced at him and put ……. Gibil rejoiced at him. (lines 83-146 missing or fragmentary)
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
Nanna-Suen will gather bulls for the cow-pen for the house of Enlil. Ašimbabbar will collect (?) fattened sheep for the house of Enlil. Nanna-Suen will purify the cow-pen for the house of Enlil. Ašimbabbar will feed meal to the goats for the house of Enlil. Nanna-Suen will …… porcupines for the house of Enlil.
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
Enegir lay ahead of the offerings, Urim lay behind them. She brought out of the house what should not come out of the house, what should not come out of the house -- Ningirida brought out of the house what should not come out of the house: "Welcome, welcome, welcome, O boat! O boat of Suen, welcome, welcome, O boat!"
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
She laid out flour before the barge and spread bran. At her feet stood a covered bronze gakkul vat. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) With her fingers she pulled out the boxwood bung (?) for him (declaring): } "I shall rub precious oil on this peg. May ghee, syrup and wine be abundant in your midst, may the suḫur carp and the eštub carp rejoice at the prow of your boat!" But the boat did not give her its cargo: "I am going to Nibru!"
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
Larsam lay ahead of the offerings, Enegir lay behind them. She brought out of the house what should not come out of the house, what should not come out of the house -- the lovely Šerida brought out of the house what should not come out of the house: "Welcome, welcome, welcome, O boat! O boat of my father, welcome, welcome, O boat!"
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
She laid out flour before the barge and spread bran. At her feet stood a covered bronze gakkul vat. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) With her fingers she pulled out the boxwood bung (?) for him (declaring): } "I shall rub precious oil on this peg. May ghee, syrup and wine be abundant in your midst, may the suḫur carp and the eštub carp rejoice at the prow of your boat!" But the boat did not give her its cargo: "I am going to Nibru!"
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
Unug lay ahead of the offerings, Larsam lay behind them. She brought out of the house what should not come out of the house, what should not come out of the house -- holy Inana brought out of the house what should not come out of the house: "Welcome, welcome, welcome, O boat! O boat of my father welcome, welcome, O boat! { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) O boat of Suen welcome, welcome, O boat! }"
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
She laid out flour before the barge and spread bran. At her feet stood a covered bronze gakkul vat. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) With her fingers she pulled out the boxwood bung (?) for him (declaring): } "I shall rub precious oil on your peg. May ghee, syrup and wine be abundant in your midst, may the suḫur carp and the eštub carp rejoice at the prow of your boat!" But the boat did not give her its cargo: "I am going to Nibru!"
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
Šuruppag lay ahead of the offerings, Unug lay behind them. She brought out of the house what should not come out of the house, what should not come out of the house -- Ninunuga brought out of the house what should not come out of the house: "Welcome, welcome, welcome, O boat! O boat of Suen welcome, welcome, O boat!"
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
She laid out flour before the barge and spread bran. At her feet stood a covered bronze gakkul vat. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) With her fingers she pulled out the boxwood bung (?) for him (declaring): } "I shall rub precious oil on this peg. May ghee, syrup and wine be abundant in your midst, may the suḫur carp and the eštub carp rejoice at the prow of your boat!" But the boat did not give her its cargo: "I am going to Nibru!"
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
Tummal lay ahead of the offerings, Šuruppag lay behind them. She brought out of the house what should not come out of the house, what should not come out of the house -- the fair Ninlil brought out of the house what should not come out of the house: "Welcome, welcome, welcome, O boat! O boat of the princely son welcome, welcome, O boat!"
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
She laid out flour before the barge and spread bran. At her feet stood a covered bronze gakkul vat. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) With her fingers she pulled out the boxwood bung (?) for him (declaring): } "I shall rub precious oil on this peg. May ghee, syrup and wine be abundant in your midst, may the suḫur carp and the eštub carp rejoice at the prow of your boat!" But the boat did not give her its cargo: "I am going to Nibru!"
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
Nibru lay ahead of the offerings, Tummal lay behind them. At the Shining Quay, the quay of Enlil, Nanna-Suen finally docked the boat. At the White Quay, the quay of Enlil, Ašimbabbar finally docked the boat.
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
"I, Nanna-Suen, have gathered bulls for the cow-pen for the house of Enlil; porter, open the house. I, Ašimbabbar, have collected (?) fattened sheep for the house of Enlil; porter, open the house. I, Nanna-Suen, shall purify the cow-pen for the house of Enlil; porter, open the house. I, Ašimbabbar, shall feed meal to the goats for the house of Enlil; porter, open the house. I, Nanna-Suen, have …… porcupines for the house of Enlil; porter, open the house."
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
Rejoicing, the porter rejoicing, the porter rejoicing opened the house. Kalkal, the doorkeeper, rejoicing, the porter rejoicing opened the house. Kalkal, in charge of the bolt-handle, rejoicing, the porter rejoicing opened the house. At the house of Enlil, ……, Nanna-Suen made the offerings. Enlil, rejoicing over the offerings, offered bread to Suen, his son.
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
Enlil rejoiced over Suen and spoke kindly: "Give sweet cakes to my little fellow who eats sweet cakes. Give sweet cakes to my Nanna who loves eating sweet cakes. Bring out from the E-kur the bread allotment and first quality bread for him. Pour out for him the finest beer, my pure ……. May the …… of the towering tilimda vessels, standing on the ground, ……. Order pure sweet cake, syrup, crescent (?) cake and clear water for him."
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
Suen replied to his father who begot him: "Father who begot me, I am indeed satisfied with what you have given me to eat. O Great Mountain, father who begot me, I am indeed satisfied with what you have given me to drink. Wherever you lift your eyes, there is kingship. O Enlil, your abundance is ……."
Nanna-Suen's journey to Nibru: c.1.5.1
My king, on your throne, for Enlil, may Nanna-Suen make you be born for seven days. On your holy throne, for the great mother Ninlil, may Lord Ašimbabbar make you be born for seven days.
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
Created like An, O son of Enlil, Ninurta, created like Enlil, born by Nintur, mightiest of the Anuna gods, who came forth from the mountain range, imbued with terrible awesomeness, son of Enlil, confident in his strength, my sovereign, you are magnificent -- let your magnificence therefore be praised. Ninurta, you are magnificent -- let your magnificence therefore be praised.
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
Sovereign of all the lands, in your massive might, warrior of Enlil, in your great might, fierce warrior, you have taken up the divine powers which are like heaven, son of Enlil, you have taken up the divine powers which are like the earth, you have taken up the divine powers of the mountains, which are heavy as heaven, you have taken up the divine powers of Eridug, which are huge as the earth.
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
To the hostile mountains ……. To the fortress of the rebellious land ……. (1 line unclear) Lord, frighteningly fierce, ……. Fierce in heaven and earth, ……. (1 line unclear)
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
Horned wild bull ……. Wild ram and stag ……. The great wild bull of the mountains …… from its ……. He put his ……, the strength in battle, in his belt.
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
The sovereign, with his heroic arms, Ninurta, the son of Enlil, in his great might, brought forth the Six-headed wild ram from the shining, lofty house. He brought forth the Warrior dragon from the great fortress of the mountains. He brought forth the Magilum boat from …… his abzu. He brought forth the Bison from his battle dust. He brought forth the Mermaid from the limits of heaven and earth. He brought forth the Gypsum from the soil of the mountain range. He brought forth the Strong copper from the shattered mountain range. He brought forth the Anzud bird from the ḫalub-ḫaran tree. He brought forth the Seven-headed serpent from the …… of the mountains.
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
The warrior …… made a corpse of the mountains. Lord Ninurta, who destroys (?) ……, made a corpse of the mountains. He piled up ……. The sovereign, with his heroic strength, wreaked his vengeance (?). The warrior Ninurta, with his heroic strength, wreaked his vengeance (?).
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
He hung the Six-headed wild ram on the dust-guard. He hung the Warrior dragon on the seat. He hung the Magilum boat on the ……. He hung the Bison on the beam. He hung the Mermaid on the foot-board. He hung the Gypsum on the forward part of the yoke. He hung the Strong copper on the inside pole pin (?). He hung the Anzud bird on the front guard. He hung the Seven-headed serpent on the shining cross-beam.
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
Lord Ninurta stepped into his battle-worthy chariot. Ud-ane, the all-seeing god, and Lugal-anbara, the bearded (?) lord, went before him, and the awesome one of the mountains, Lugal-kur-dub, the …… of Lord Ninurta, followed behind him.
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
The lion who …… from the abzu, who …… An's awesomeness and radiance -- the Anuna, the great gods …….
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
"Your radiance has covered Enlil's temple like a cloak. When you step into your chariot, whose creaking is a pleasant sound, heaven and earth tremble. When you raise your arm ……."
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
"The Anuna, the great gods ……. Do not frighten your father in his residence. Do not frighten Enlil in his residence. May your father give you gifts because of your heroic strength. May Enlil give you gifts because of your heroic strength."
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
"O sovereign, shackle of An, first among the gods, seal-bearer of Enlil, life-source of E-kur, O warrior, because you have toppled the mountains your father need send out no other god beside you. Ninurta, because you have toppled the mountains Enlil need send out no other god beside you."
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
While these words were yet in Nuska's mouth, Ninurta put the whip and goad away in the rope-box. He leaned his mace, the strength in battle, against the box and entered into the temple of Enlil.
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
He directed his captive wild bulls into the temple. He directed his captive cows, like the wild bulls, into the temple. He laid out the booty of his plundered cities. The Anuna were amazed ……. Enlil, the Great Mountain, made obeisance to him, and Ašimbabbar prayed to him.
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
The great mother Ninlil, from within her Ki-ur, spoke admiringly to Lord Ninurta: "O wild bull, with fierce horns raised, son of Enlil, you have struck blows in the mountains. Warrior, Lord Ninurta, you have ……. You have …… the rebellious land."
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
Lord Ninurta answered her: "My mother, I alone cannot …… with you ……. Ninlil, I alone cannot …… with you, for me alone ……. Battle arrayed like heaven -- no one can rival me (?). Like the deluge ……. Smashing the mountains like reed huts ……."
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
"My battle, like an onrushing flood, overflowed in the mountains. With a lion's body and lion's muscles, it rose up in the rebellious land. The gods have become worried and flee (?) to the mountain ranges. They beat their wings like a flock of small birds. They stand hiding in the grass like wild bulls ……. No one can confront my radiance, heavy as heaven."
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
"Now I have reestablished my heroic strength in the mountains. On my right, I bear my Mows-down-a-myriad. On my left, I bear my Crushes-a-myriad. I bear my Fifty-toothed-storm, my heavenly mace. I bear the hero who comes down from the great mountains, my No-resisting-this-storm. I bear the weapon which devours corpses like a dragon, my agasilig axe. I bear my ……."
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
"I bear my ……. I bear the alkad net of the rebellious land, my alkad net. I bear that from which the mountains cannot escape, my šušgal net. I bear the seven-mouthed mušmaḫ serpent, the slayer, my spike (?). I bear that which strips away the mountains, the sword, my heavenly dagger."
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
"I bear the deluge of battle, my fifty-headed mace. I bear the storm that attacks humans, my bow and quiver. I bear those which carry off the temples of the rebellious land, my throw-stick and shield. I bear the helper of men, my spear. I bear that which brings forth light like the day, my Obliterator-of-the-mountains. I bear the maintainer of the people in heaven and earth, my The-enemy-cannot-escape."
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
"I bear that whose awesome radiance covers the Land, which is grandly suited for my right hand, finished in gold and lapis lazuli, whose presence is amazing, my Object-of-trust. I bear the perfect weapon, exceedingly magnificent, trustworthy in battle, having no equal, well-suited for my wrist on the battlefield, my fifty-headed mace, I bear the weapon which consumes the rebellious land like fire, my fifty-headed club."
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
"Let my father therefore bring in my battle trophies and weapons for me. Let Enlil bathe my heroic arms. Let him pour holy water on the fierce arms which bore my weapons. Let him set up a holy dais in the throne room for me. Let him set my heavenly chariot upon a pedestal. Let him tether my captured warriors there like butting bulls. Let him have my captured kings make obeisance to me there, as to the light of heaven."
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
"I am the strong one, unopposed in the mountains, I am Ninurta -- let them prostrate themselves at my name. I am the exceedingly mighty lion-headed one of Enlil, whom he engendered in his strength. The storm of heaven, shackle of the gods, I am the one whom An in his great might has chosen."
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
"I am the ……, the life-source of Inana. I am the warrior, destined with Enki to be suited for the fearsome divine powers. Let my kingship be manifest unto the ends of heaven and earth. I am most able among the gods -- let me be imbued with great awesomeness."
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
"Let my beloved city, the sanctuary Nibru, raise its head as high as heaven. Let my city be pre-eminent among the cities of my brothers. Let my temple rise (?) the highest …… among the temples of my brothers. Let the territory of my city be the freshwater well of Sumer. Let the Anuna, my brother gods, bow down there. Let their flying birds establish nests in my city. Let their refugees refresh themselves in my shade."
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
As Ninurta went out from Enlil's temple, the most bright-faced of warriors, Ninkarnuna, having heard the favourable pronouncement of Ninurta, stepped before Lord Ninurta and prayed to him:
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
"My sovereign, may you be well-disposed towards your beloved city. Lord Ninurta, may you be well-disposed towards your beloved city. May you be well-disposed towards the sanctuary Nibru, your beloved city. When you enter E-šu-me-ša, your beloved temple, alone, tell your wife, young lady Ninnibru, what is in your heart, tell her what is on your mind. Make an enduring favourable pronouncement to her for the king."
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
The content of that prayer of the offspring of a prince, Ninkarnuna, his sprinkling Ninurta's heart with an offering of cool water, and the matter of prosperity about which he spoke were pleasing to Ninurta's heart as he went in procession to E-šu-me-ša to manifest the eternal divine powers. Lord Ninurta gazed approvingly at Ninkarnuna.
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
When Ninurta entered E-šu-me-ša, his beloved temple, alone, he told his wife, young lady Ninnibru, what was in his heart, he told her what was on his mind and he made an enduring favourable pronouncement to her for the king.
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
The warrior, whose heroism is manifest, Ninurta, the son of Enlil, has firmly grounded his greatness in Enlil's sanctuary.
Ninurta's return to Nibru: a šir-gida to Ninurta: c.1.6.1
Lord who has destroyed the mountains, who has no rival, who butts angrily in that magnificent battle, great warrior who goes forth in his …… might, strong one, deluge of Enlil, Ninurta, magnificent child of E-kur, pride of the father who engendered him, it is sweet to praise you.
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
{ (1 ms. adds before line 1:) An, king of the gods, majestic one: } O king, storm of majestic splendour, peerless Ninurta, possessing superior strength; who pillages the mountains all alone; deluge, indefatigable serpent hurling yourself at the rebel land, hero striding formidably into battle; lord whose powerful arm is fit to bear the mace, reaping like barley the necks of the insubordinate; Ninurta, king, son in whose strength his father rejoices; hero whose awesomeness covers the mountains like a south storm; Ninurta, who makes the good tiara, the rainbow (?), flash like lightning; grandly begotten by him who wears the princely beard; dragon who turns on himself, strength of a lion snarling at a snake, roaring hurricane; Ninurta, king, whom Enlil has exalted above himself; hero, great battle-net flung over the foe; Ninurta, with the awesomeness of your shadow extending over the Land; releasing fury on the rebel lands, overwhelming their assemblies! Ninurta, king, son who has forced homage to his father far and wide!
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
Inspiring great numinous power, he had taken his place on the throne, the august dais, and was sitting gladly at his ease at the festival celebrated in his honour, rivalling An and Enlil in drinking his fill, while Bau was pleading petitions in a prayer for the king, and he, Ninurta, Enlil's son, was handing down decisions. At that moment the lord's battle-mace looked towards the mountains, the Šar-ur cried out aloud to its master:
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Lord of lofty station, foremost one, who presides over all lords from the throne dais, Ninurta, whose orders are unalterable, whose allotted fates are faithfully executed; my master! Heaven copulated with the verdant Earth, Ninurta: she has born him a warrior who knows no fear -- the Asag, a child who sucked the power of milk without ever staying with a wet-nurse, a foster-child, O my master -- knowing no father, a murderer from the mountains, a youth who has come forth from ……, whose face knows no shame; impudent of eye, an arrogant male, { Ninurta } { (1 ms. has instead:) Ninĝirsu }, rejoicing in his stature. My hero, you who are like a bull, I will take my stand beside you. My master, who turns sympathetically towards his own city, who is effective in carrying out his mother's wishes: it has sired offspring in the mountains, and spread its seeds far and wide. The plants have unanimously named it king over them; like a great wild bull, it tosses its horns amongst them. The šu, the saĝkal, the esi (diorite), the usium, the kagena (haematite), and the heroic nu stones, its warriors, constantly come raiding the cities. For them a shark's tooth has grown up in the mountains; it has stripped the trees. Before its might the gods of those cities bow towards it. My master, this same creature has erected a throne dais: it is not lying idle. Ninurta, lord, it actually decides the Land's lawsuits, just as you do. Who can compass the Asag's dread glory? Who can counteract the severity of its frown? People are terrified, fear makes the flesh creep; their eyes are fixed upon it. My master, the mountains have taken their offerings to it."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Hero! They have appealed to you, because of your father; son of Enlil, lord, because of your superior strength they are looking to you here; since you are strong, my master, they are calling for your help, saying, Ninurta, that not a single warrior counts except for you! They wanted to advise you about ……. Hero, there have been consultations with a view to taking away your kingship. Ninurta, it is confident that it can lay hands on the powers received by you in the abzu. Its face is deformed, its location is continually changing; day by day, the Asag adds territories to its domain."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"But you will force it into the shackles of the gods. You, Antelope of Heaven, must trample the mountains beneath your hooves, Ninurta, lord, son of Enlil. Who has so far been able to resist its assault? The besetting Asag is beyond all control, its weight is too heavy. Rumours of its armies constantly arrive, before ever its soldiers are seen. This thing's strength is massive, no weapon has been able to overturn it. Ninurta, neither the axe nor the all-powerful spear can penetrate its flesh, no warrior like it has ever been created against you. Lord, you who reach out towards the august divine powers, splendour, jewel of the gods, you bull with the features of a wild bull, with a prominent backbone, …… this fellow is clever! My Ninurta, whose form Enki contemplates with favour, my Uta-ulu, lord, son of Enlil, what is to be done?"
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The lord cried "Alas!" so that Heaven trembled, and Earth huddled at his feet and was terrified (?) at his strength. Enlil became confused and went out of the E-kur. The mountains were devastated. That day the earth became dark, the Anuna trembled. The hero beat his thighs with his fists. The gods dispersed; the Anuna disappeared over the horizon like sheep. The lord arose, touching the sky; Ninurta went to battle, with one step (?) he covered a league, he was an alarming storm, and rode on the eight winds towards the rebel lands. His arms grasped the lance. The mace snarled at the mountains, the club began to devour all the enemy. He fitted the evil wind and the sirocco on a pole (?), he placed the quiver on its hook (?). An enormous hurricane, irresistible, went before the hero, stirred up the dust, caused the dust to settle, levelled high and low, filled the holes. It caused a rain of coals and flaming fires; the fire consumed men. It overturned tall trees by their trunks, reducing the forests to heaps, Earth put her hands on her heart and cried harrowingly; the Tigris was muddied, disturbed, cloudy, stirred up. He hurried to battle on the boat Ma-kar-nunta-ea; the people there did not know where to turn, they bumped into (?) the walls. The birds there tried to lift their heads to fly away, but their wings trailed on the ground. The storm flooded out the fish there in the subterranean waters, their mouths snapped at the air. It reduced the animals of the open country to firewood, roasting them like locusts. It was a deluge rising and disastrously ruining the mountains.
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The hero Ninurta led the march through the rebel lands. He killed their messengers in the mountains, he crushed (?) their cities, he smote their cowherds over the head like fluttering butterflies, he tied together their hands with hirin grass, so that they dashed their heads against walls. The lights of the mountains did not gleam in the distance any longer. People gasped for breath (?); those people were ill, they hugged themselves, they cursed the Earth, they considered the day of the Asag's birth a day of disaster. The lord caused bilious poison to run over the rebel lands. As he went the gall followed, anger filled his heart, and he rose like a river in spate and engulfed all the enemies. In his heart he beamed at his lion-headed weapon, as it flew up like a bird, trampling the mountains for him. It raised itself on its wings to take away prisoner the disobedient, it spun around the horizon of heaven to find out what was happening. Someone from afar came to meet it, brought news for the tireless one, the one who never rests, whose wings bear the deluge, the Šar-ur. What did it gather there …… for Lord Ninurta? It reported the deliberations of the mountains, it explained their intentions to Lord Ninurta, it outlined (?) what people were saying about the Asag.
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Hero, beware!" it said concernedly. The weapon embraced him whom it loved, the Šar-ur addressed Lord Ninurta:
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Hero, pitfall (?), net of battle, Ninurta, king, celestial mace …… irresistible against the enemy, vigorous one, tempest which rages against the rebel lands, wave which submerges the harvest, king, you have looked on battles, you have …… in the thick of them. Ninurta, after gathering the enemy in a battle-net, after erecting a great reed-altar, lord, heavenly serpent, purify your pickaxe and your mace! Ninurta, I will enumerate the names of the warriors you have already slain: the Kuli-ana, the Dragon, the Gypsum, the Strong Copper, the hero Six-headed Wild Ram, the Magilum Boat, Lord Saman-ana, the Bison Bull, the Palm-tree King, the Anzud bird, the Seven-headed Snake -- Ninurta, you slew them in the mountains."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"But lord, do not venture again to a battle as terrible as that. Do not lift your arm to the smiting of weapons, to the festival of the young men, to Inana's dance! Lord, do not go to such a great battle as this! Do not hurry; fix your feet on the ground. Ninurta, the Asag is waiting for you in the mountains. Hero who is so handsome in his crown, firstborn son whom Ninlil has decorated with numberless charms, good lord, whom a princess bore to an en priest, hero who wears horns like the moon, who is long life for the king of the Land, who opens the sky by great sublime strength, inundation who engulfs the banks ……, Ninurta, lord, full of fearsomeness, who will hurry towards the mountains, proud hero without fellow, this time you will not equal the Asag! Ninurta, do not make your young men enter the mountains."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The hero, the son, pride of his father, the very wise, rising from profound deliberation, Ninurta, the lord, the son of Enlil, gifted with broad wisdom, the …… god, the lord stretched his leg to mount the onager, and joined the battalions ……. He spread over the mountains his great long ……, he caused …… to go out among its people like the ……. He reached ……. He went into the rebel lands in the vanguard of the battle. He gave orders to his lance, and attached it …… by its cord; the lord commanded his mace, and it went to its belt. The hero hastened to the battle, he …… heaven and earth. He prepared the throw-stick and the shield, the mountains were smitten and cringed beside the battle legions of Ninurta. When the hero was girding on his mace, the sun did not wait, the moon went in; they were forgotten, as he marched towards the mountains; the day became like pitch.
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The Asag leapt up at the head of the battle. For a club it uprooted the sky, took it in its hand; like a snake it slid its head along the ground. It was a mad dog attacking to kill the helpless, dripping with sweat on its flanks. Like a wall collapsing, the Asag fell on Ninurta, the son of Enlil. Like an accursed storm, it howled in a raucous voice; like a gigantic snake, it roared at the Land. It dried up the waters of the mountains, dragged away the tamarisks, tore the flesh of the Earth and covered her with painful wounds. It set fire to the reedbeds, bathed the sky in blood, turned it inside out; it dispersed the people there. At that moment, on that day, the fields became black scum, across the whole extent of the horizon, reddish like purple dye -- truly it was so! An was overwhelmed, crouched, wrung his hands against his stomach; Enlil groaned and hid himself in a corner, the Anuna flattened themselves against walls, the house was full of fearful sighing as of pigeons. The Great Mountain Enlil cried to Ninlil:
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The weapon which loved the lord, obedient to its master, the Šar-ur …… for Lord Ninurta to his father in Nibru ……. The awesome splendour enveloped Ninurta like a garment, ……. …… bound him: therefore the lord ……. The weapon …… spoke to Enlil.
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"…… Ninurta, having confidence in himself; …… he will be standing; the waters will be dried up as if by the sun's heat; …… he will breathe again, he will be standing full of joy. I shall cause horrid storms to rise against …… of the hero Ninurta ……. …… as for him who resisted (?) the mountains, he has been amazed by his strength. Now I shall give my orders, you are to follow these instructions: "(1 line unclear)"…… in the fields, let him not diminish the population. …… let him not cause a lack of posterity. Let him not cause to perish the name of all the kinds of species whose destinies I, Enlil, have decreed."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The weapon, its heart ……, was reassured: it slapped its thighs, the Šar-ur began to run, it entered the rebel lands, joyfully it reported the message to Lord Ninurta:
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"My master, …… for you, Enlil has said: "As the Deluge (i.e. Ninurta), before whom the venom has piled up, attacks the enemy, let him take the Asag by the shoulder, let him pierce its liver, let my son enter with it into the E-kur. Then, Ninurta, to the limits of the earth my people will deservedly praise your power." You, lord who trusts in the word of his father, do not tarry, great strength of Enlil. Storm of the rebel lands, who grinds the mountains like flour, Ninurta, Enlil's seal-bearer, go to it! Do not tarry. My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart; the fortress is too high and cannot be reached, …… its fierceness does not diminish." (3 lines unclear)"My master, ……."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
Ninurta opened his mouth to speak to the mace ……. He aimed the lance at the mountains ……. The lord stretched out an arm towards the clouds. Day became a dark night. He yelled like a storm, ……. (2 lines unclear)
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The lord …… the wind. In his battle he smote the mountains with a cudgel. The Šar-ur made the storm-wind rise to heaven, scattering the people; like …… it tore. Its spittle alone destroyed the townspeople. The destructive mace set fire to the mountains, the murderous weapon smashed skulls with its painful teeth, the club which tears out entrails piled up noses. The lance was stuck into the ground and the crevasses filled with blood. In the rebel lands dogs licked it up like milk. The enemy rose up, crying to wife and child," You did not lift your arms in prayer to Lord Ninurta." The weapon covered the mountains with dust, but did not shake the heart of the Asag. The Šar-ur threw its arms around the neck of the lord:
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Hero, ah, whatever further awaits you, do not on any account meddle with the hurricane of the mountains. Ninurta, lord, son of Enlil, I tell you again, it is made like a storm. It is a blister whose smell is foul, like mucus which comes from the nose it is unpleasant, lord, its words are devious, it will not obey you. My master, it has been created against you as a god; who can help you? Hero, it falls on the land as a whirlwind, it scrubs it as if with saltwort, Ninurta, it chases the onagers before it in the mountains. Its terrifying splendour sends the dust into clouds, it causes a downpour of potsherds. In the rebel lands it is a lion striking with savage teeth; no man can catch it. After reducing everything to nothing in the north wind, that one will batter you. The sheepfolds have been closed by ghostly demons. It has dried up the waters in the ground. In the whirlwind storm, the people are finished, they have no solution (?). From an implacable enemy, great hero, lord, turn away," he said quietly.
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
But the lord howled at the mountains, could not withhold a roar. The hero did not address the rebel lands, he ……. He reversed the evil that it had done ……. He smashed the heads of all the enemies, he made the mountains weep. The lord ranged about in all directions, like a soldier saying "I will go on the rampage." Like a bird of prey the Asag looked up angrily from the mountains. He commanded the rebel lands to be silent and ……. Ninurta approached the enemy and flattened him like a wave (?). The Asag's terrifying splendour was contained, it began to fade, it began to fade. It looked wonderingly upwards. Like water he agitated it, he scattered it into the mountains, like esparto grass he pulled it up, like esparto grass he ripped it up. Ninurta's splendour covered the Land, he pounded the Asag like roasted barley, he …… its genitals (?), he piled it up like a heap of broken bricks, he heaped it up like flour, as a potter does with coals; he piled it up like stamped earth whose mud has been dredged. The hero had achieved his heart's desire. Ninurta, the lord, the son of Enlil, …… began to calm down.
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
In the mountains, the day came to an end. The sun bade it farewell. The lord …… his belt and mace in water, he washed the blood from his clothes, the hero wiped his brow, he made a victory-chant over the dead body. When he had brought the Asag which he had slain to the condition of a ship wrecked by a tidal wave, the gods of the Land came to him. Like exhausted wild asses they prostrated themselves before him, and for this lord, because of his proud conduct, for Ninurta, the son of Enlil, they clapped their hands in greeting. The Šar-ur addressed these flattering words { aloud to its master } { (1 ms. has instead:) to Lord Ninurta }:
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Lord, great meš tree in a watered field, hero, who is like you? My master, beside you there is no one else, nor can anyone stand like you, nor is anyone born like you. Ninurta, from today no one in the mountains will rise against you. My master, if you give but one roar, …… how they will praise you!" (1 line unclear) "Lord Ninurta ……." (7 lines fragmentary) After he had pulled up the Asag like esparto grass in the rebel lands, torn it up like esparto grass, Lord Ninurta …… his club: (1 line unclear) "From today forward, do not say Asag: its name shall be Stone. Its name shall be zalag stone, its name shall be Stone. This, its entrails, shall be the underworld. Its valour shall belong to the lord."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
At that time, the good water coming forth from the earth did not pour down over the fields. The cold water (?) was piled up everywhere, and the day when it began to …… it brought destruction in the mountains, since the gods of the Land were subject to servitude, and had to carry the hoe and the basket -- this was their corvée work -- people called on a household for the recruitment of workers. The Tigris did not bring up its flood in its fullness. Its mouth did not finish in the sea, it did not carry fresh water. No one brought (?) offerings to the market. The famine was hard, as nothing had yet been born. No one yet cleaned the little canals, the mud was not dredged up. No one yet drew water for the fertile fields, ditch-making did not exist. People did not work (?) in furrows, barley was sown broadcast.
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The lord applied his great wisdom to it. { Ninurta } { (1 ms. has instead:) Ninĝirsu }, the son of Enlil, set about it in a grand way. He made a pile of stones in the mountains. Like a floating cloud he stretched out his arms over it. With a great wall he barred the front of the Land. He installed a sluice (?) on the horizon. The hero acted cleverly, he dammed in the cities together. He blocked (?) the powerful waters by means of stones. Now the waters will never again go down from the mountains into the earth. That which was dispersed he gathered together. Where in the mountains scattered lakes had formed, he joined them all together and led them down to the Tigris. He poured carp-floods of water over the fields.
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
Now, today, throughout the whole world, kings of the Land far and wide rejoice at Lord Ninurta. He provided water for the speckled barley in the cultivated fields, he { raised up } { (2 mss. have instead:) piled up } the harvest of fruits in garden and orchard. He heaped up the grain piles like mounds. The lord caused trading colonies to go up from the Land of Sumer. He contented the desires of the gods. They duly praised Ninurta's father.
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
At that time he also reached a woman with compassion. Ninmaḫ was sleepless from remembering the place where she had conceived him. She covered her outside with a fleece, like an unshorn ewe, she made a great lament about the now inaccessible mountains:
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"The mountains could not bear the lord's great strength. The great hero -- the force of whose rage no one can approach, like heaven itself; the savage storm which walks on earth, spilling poison in the earth's breast; the lord, the life-breath of Enlil, whose head is worthy of the tiara, …… who knows nothing of ……: in triumph he hurried by me, he with whom my husband made me pregnant (?). I bore him for my husband. He was close ……; but the son of Enlil passed by and did not lift his glance to me. For the good youth" -- thus the good lady said as she went to him in E-šu-me-ša, his chosen place -- "I will cut the knot. Now I, yes I, shall go to the presumptuous lord, to gaze upon the precious lord. I will go directly to him, to my son, Enlil's judge, the great hero, favoured by his father."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Lady, since you came to the mountains, Ninmaḫ ('Great Lady'), since you entered the rebel lands for my sake, since you did not keep far from me when I was surrounded by the horrors of battle -- let the name of the pile which I, the hero, have piled up be 'Mountain' (ḫursaĝ) and may you be its lady (nin): now that is the destiny decreed by Ninurta. Henceforth people shall speak of Ninḫursaĝa. So be it. Let its meadows produce herbs for you. Let its slopes produce honey and wine for you. Let its hillsides grow cedars, cypress, juniper and box for you. Let it make abundant for you ripe fruits, as a garden. Let the mountain supply you richly with divine perfumes. Let it mine gold and silver for you, make …… for you. Let it smelt copper and tin for you, make its tribute for you. Let the mountains make wild animals teem for you. Let the mountain increase the fecundity of quadrupeds for you. You, O Queen, become equal to An, wearing a terrifying splendour. Great goddess who detests boasting, good lady, maiden Ninḫursaĝa, Nintur, …… approach me. Lady, I have given you great powers: may you be exalted."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
While the lord was fixing the destiny of the mountains, as he walked about in the sanctuary of Nibru, the good lady whose powers excel all powers, Lady-creatrix-of-the-womb, Aruru, Enlil's elder sister, stood before him:
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Great hero whose word like that of his father is unalterable, lord: you have not fixed the destinies of the warriors that you have slain."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"U stone (emery), since you rose against me in the mountains, since you { barred the way } { (2 mss. have instead:) seized me } so as to detain me, since you swore to put me to death, since you frightened me, Lord Ninurta, on my great throne; you are powerful, a youth of outstanding strength: may your size be diminished. A mighty lion, confident in its strength, will tear you into pieces, the strong man will fling you in his hand { in combat } { (1 ms. has instead:) for strength }. Young u stone, your brothers will heap you up like flour. You will lift your hand against your offspring, sink your teeth into their corpses. You, young man, though you may cry out, will end as ……. Like a great wild bull killed by many people, be divided into portions. U stone, you will be hounded from the battlefield with clubs, like a dog chased by shepherd boys. Because I am the lord: since cornelian is polished by you, you shall be called by its name. And now, according to the destiny fixed by Ninurta, henceforth when u stone touches it, there will be pierced cornelian. Let it be so."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Šu stones, since you attacked against my weapons; gasura stones, since you stood fiercely against me like bulls, since you tossed (?) your horns in the dust at me like wild bulls, you shall be …… like butterflies. My terrifying splendour will cover you. Since you cannot escape from { my } { (1 ms. has instead:) his } great strength, the goldsmith shall puff and blow on you with his breath. You shall be shaped by him to form a matrix for his creations. People shall place the first fruits of the gods on you at the time of the new moon."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Saĝkal stone, since you flew up against me ……; gulgul stone, since you sparked lightning against me ……; saĝĝar stone, since you shook your head at me, since you ground your teeth at me, the lord! The saĝkal stone will smash you, saĝĝar stone, young brave, and the gulgul stone will destroy (gul) you. You will be discarded as contemptible and valueless (saĝ nukala). Be a prey to the famine (šagĝar) of the Land; you shall be fed by the charity of your city. You shall be accounted a common person, a warrior among slave-girls. They shall say to you "Be off with you, hurry!", it shall be your name. And now, by the destiny fixed by Ninurta, henceforth you shall be called a bad lot in the Land. So be it."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Esi (diorite), your army in battle changed sides separately (?). You spread before me like thick smoke. You did not raise your hand. You did not attack me. Since you said," It is false. The lord is alone the hero. Who can vie with Ninurta, the son of Enlil?" -- they shall extract you from the highland countries. They shall bring (?) you from the land of Magan. You shall shape (?) Strong Copper like leather and then you shall be perfectly adapted for my heroic arm, for me, the lord. When a king who is establishing his renown for perpetuity has had its statues sculpted for all time, you shall be placed in the place of libations -- and it shall suit you well -- in my temple E-ninnu, the house full of grace."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Elel, intelligently you caused terror of me to descend on the mountains where discord had broken out. In the rebel lands you proclaimed my name among my people who had banded together. Nothing of your wholeness shall be diminished (?). It shall be difficult to reduce your mass to small pieces. My divine ordinances shall be set out in straight lines on your body. You shall be greatly suited to the clash of weapons, when I have heroes to slay. You shall be set up on a pedestal in my great courtyard. The Land shall praise you in wonder, the foreign lands shall { speak your praise } { (2 mss. have instead:) elevate you }."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Young man worthy of respect, whose surface reflects the light, kagena, when the demands of the rebel lands reached you, I did not conquer you ……. I did not notice you among the hostile ones. I shall make room for you in the Land. The divine rites of Utu shall become your powers. Be constituted as a judge in the foreign lands. The craftsman, expert in everything, shall value you as if gold. Young man of whom I have taken possession, because of you I shall not sleep until you come to life. And now, according to the destiny fixed by Ninurta, henceforth kagena shall live! So shall it be."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Ĝišnu, whose body shines like the daylight! Purified silver, youth destined for the palace, since you alone held out your hands to me, and you prostrated yourself before me in your mountains, I did not smite you with the club, and I did not turn my strength against you. Hero, you stood firm by me when I yelled out. Your name shall be called benevolence. The treasury of the Land shall be subject to your hand, you shall be its seal-keeper. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) The Anuna ……. }"
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Ah, duplicitous ĝir-zu-ĝal, what then? They shall split your horns, wild bull, in your mountains. Lie down before the ……. You were not equal to me who supported you. I shall rip you like a sack, and people will smash you into tiny pieces. The metalworker shall deal with you, he shall use his chisel on you. Young man, massive, bearer of hatred: the carpenter, saying "I wish to buy it for my work", shall wet you with water …… and shall crush you like malt."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Iman stones, in the mountains you cried out against me. You fiercely uttered battle-yells. I shall enflame you like fire. Like a storm I shall overturn you. I shall strip you like esparto grass. I shall rip you up like esparto grass. Who will assist you then? Iman stone: your cries shall not be valued, no attention shall be paid to them. Iman stone, alliga stone: your path shall not lead to the palace."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Mašda stone, dubban stone, blazing fires; urutum stone, which nothing resists; when the gasura stone …… and you were set ablaze, you burnt against me in the rebel lands like a brazier. Since you all stood against me in the land of Saba: mašda stone, they shall slaughter you like a sheep. Dubban stone, they shall crunch you for pulverising. Urutum stone, they shall sharpen you for the battle-mace; with bronze, the arrowheads of the gods, they shall smash you with the axe, stinging with fierce swords."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Šagara stone, who smash (?) your head against anyone travelling alone in the desert, in the mountains when my arms were occupied you tried to trample on me. Since you glutted yourself in the battle, the reed-worker shall make the reeds jump with you. You shall be thrown onto your couch; the appearance (?) of your mother and father who bore you shall be forgotten (?). No one shall say to you," Get up", no one shall have the feeling that he misses you, the people shall not complain about your loss. In praise of the eternally-created powers in Ninḫursaĝa's resting place, you shall be discarded on the dais there. They shall feed you on malt, as they do for sheep; you shall content yourself with a portion of scattered flour. This shall be the explanation for you."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
My king turned to the šegšeg stone, he addressed the engen and ezinum stones. For the ug-gun, the ḫem, the madanum, the saĝgirmud, the …… and the mursuḫ stones. Ninurta son of Enlil fixed their destiny: (2 lines unclear) "with ribs drawn in, balancing on the haunches, heart elated, legs bent like a bear, ……: I shall come to you; now, being an ally, you come forward from all of them; who shall extend the hand to them? You were the club, you stood as the doorway." (3 lines unclear)"In the Land, the champion shall always look (?) with favour on you."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"Since you said," I will bring forth the people"," (1 line unclear)"you …… as if …… the young man who has obtained (?) glory for you; the young artisan shall sing your praise. You shall be favoured for the festival of spirits of the dead; on the ninth day of the month, at the new moon, the young men shall …… for you." He assigned …… them to the cult of Ninḫursaĝa.
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
The hero had conquered the mountains. As he moved across the desert, he ……. Through the crowd, he came forth among their acclamations (?), majestically he ……. Ninurta joyfully went to his beloved barge, the lord set foot in the boat Ma-kar-nunta-ea. The boatmen sang a pleasant song, for the lord they sang his praise. They addressed an eternal greeting to Ninurta son of Enlil:
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"God who outstrips the heroes, Lord Ninurta, king of the Anuna gods, holding a cudgel in his right hand, bearded, you fall as a torrent on all enemies; who can rival your great works? Hero, deluge, without equal, the Enki and Ninki deities dare not resist (?) you. Hero who pillages the cities, who subjugates the mountains, son of Enlil, who will rise up against you? Ninurta, lord, son of Enlil, hero, who is like you?"
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"May An's heart be appeased for the lord, may the maiden, Mother Bau, shine like the daylight for Ninurta, Enlil's strength."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
They sang to the lord in the ceremonial (?) boat. The boat, floating of its own accord, was piled up with riches. The boat Ma-kar-nunta-ea proceeded shiningly. To greet the hero from the smiting of weapons, the Anuna …… came to meet him. They pressed their noses to the ground, they placed their hands on their chests. They addressed a prayer and a supplication to the lord: "May your anger be appeased ……. Ninurta, king, Uta-ulu, lift your head to heaven."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
"……, pre-eminent with your great name, you have established your habitation ……. Chest, fittingly ……, king of battle, I presented the storm of heaven to you for use against the rebel lands. O hero of heaven and earth I presented to you the club, the deluge which sets the mountains on fire. King, ahead of your storm the way was narrow. But, Ninurta, I had confidence in your march to the mountains. Like a wolf (?) set free to seize his prey, in your storm you adventured into the rebel lands from above. The mountain that you have handed over shall not be restored. You have caused its cities to be counted as ruin-mounds. Its mighty rulers have lost their breath before you. A celestial mace, a prosperous and unchanging rule, eternal life, the good favour of Enlil, O king, and the strength of An: these shall be your reward."
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
Since the hero had killed the Asag, since the lord had made that pile of stones, since he had given the order "Let it be called Stone", since he had …… the roaring dragon, since the hero had traced the way of the waters …… down from above, since he had brought them to the fertile fields, since he had made famous the plough of abundance, since the lord had established it in regular furrows, since Ninurta son of Enlil had heaped up grain-piles and granaries -- Ninurta son of Enlil entrusted their keeping to the care of the lady who possesses the divine powers which exist of themselves, who is eminently worthy of praise, to Nisaba, good lady, greatly wise, pre-eminent in the lands, her who possesses the principal tablet with the obligations of en and lugal, endowed by Enki on the Holy Mound with a great intelligence.
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
To the lady, the celestial star, made magnificently beautiful by the prince in the abzu, to the lady of knowledge who gladdens hearts, who alone has the gift of governing, endowed with prudence, ……, who rules the black-headed, who possesses the tablet with all the names (?), from whose suspended nets the birds which are caught do not escape, whose every work accomplished meets with complete success, to her …… which is not unravelled, to her for whom the days are counted according to the phases of the moon, to her who is unassailable as if a fortress of copper ……, who is ……, …… who cares for the black-headed, who rules the people justly, ……, the replica of Enlil, to the bright good lady who takes counsel with An -- to Nisaba be praise.
Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2
Enlil's mighty lord, Ninurta, great son of the E-kur, heroic one of the father who bore him: it is good to praise you.
Ninurta and the turtle: c.1.6.3
"At his command your weapon struck me evilly. As I let the divine powers go out of my hand, these divine powers returned to the abzu. As I let the divine plan go out of my hand, this divine plan returned to the abzu. This tablet of destinies returned to the abzu. I was stripped of the divine powers."
Ninurta and the turtle: c.1.6.3
The Anzud chick took the hero Ninurta by his hand and drew near with him to Enki's place, the abzu. The Anzud chick returned Uta-ulu to the abzu. The lord was delighted with the hero, Father Enki was delighted with the hero Ninurta.
Ninurta and the turtle: c.1.6.3
Lord Nudimmud honoured him duly: "Hero, no god among your brother gods could have acted so. As for the bird which your mighty weapon captured, from now to eternity you will keep your foot placed on its neck. May the great gods give your heroic strength its due. May your father Enlil do whatever you command. May Ninmena not fashion your equal (?). May no one be as revered as you and no god extend an upraised hand before you. Monthly may your house (?) regularly receive tributes in the shrine, in the abzu. May An (?) proclaim your name in the seat of honour."
Ninurta and the turtle: c.1.6.3
The hero secretly was not happy with these promises. Where he stood, he darkened and yellowed like (?) a flood-storm (?). He contemplated great deeds and inwardly he was rebellious. He uttered a word which has no ……. The hero Ninurta set his sights on the whole world. He told no one and inwardly did not …….
Ninurta and the turtle: c.1.6.3
The great lord Enki intuitively grasped the substance of the plan. In the shrine, in the abzu he stirred up a dark flood-storm.
Ninurta and the turtle: c.1.6.3
Against Ninurta, Enki fashioned a turtle from the clay of the abzu. Against him he stationed the turtle at an opening, at the gate of the abzu. Enki talked to him near the place of the ambush and brought him to the place where the turtle was. The turtle was able to grab Ninurta's tendon from behind. The hero Ninurta managed to turn back its feet. Enki, as if perplexed, said," What is this!" He had the turtle scrape the ground with its claws, had it dig an evil pit. The hero Ninurta fell into it with the turtle. The hero did not know how to get out from ……. The turtle kept on gnawing his feet with its claws (?).
Ninurta and the turtle: c.1.6.3
The great lord Enki said to him: "From ……, you who set your mind to kill me, …… who makes big claims -- I cut down, I raise up. You who set your sights on me like this -- what has your position seized for you, how ……? Where has your strength fled? Where is your heroism? In the great mountains you caused destruction, but how will you get out now?"
Ninurta and the turtle: c.1.6.3
Ninmena learned of this situation. She ripped the clothes on her body and she ……." You my plant-eater Enki, who shall I send to you? Men will shake their heads in fear ……. Who shall I send to you? That name is not Enki. That name is Ugugu-that-does-not-pour (?). You who are death which has no mercy, who shall I send to you?" (unknown no. of lines missing)
The marriage of Martu: c.1.7.1
When the city of Inab already existed, but the city of Kiritab did not yet exist, when the holy crown already existed, but the holy tiara did not yet exist, when the holy herb already existed, but the holy cedar did not yet exist, when holy salt already existed, but holy alkali did not yet exist, when intercourse and kissing already existed, when giving birth in the fields already existed -- I was the grandfather of the holy cedar, I was the ancestor of the meš tree, I was the mother and father of the white cedar, I was the relative of the ḫašur cedar.
The marriage of Martu: c.1.7.1
At that time there was a princely land among the cities; Inab was this princely land among the cities. The ruler of Inab was Tigi-šem-ala. Now, he had a wife whose name was Šage-gur (Desired-by-the-heart), and a child, who ……, and her name was …….
The marriage of Martu: c.1.7.1
The people living around the city hung up nets, the people living around Inab hung up nets, hung up nets, chased gazelles and killed the gazelles as one kills humans. One day, as the evening came, and they had reached the place of rations, they established the rations before the god ……(The correct form of this name is not known). The ration of a married man was established as double, the ration of a man with a child was established as triple; the ration of a single man was established as single; but the ration of Martu, though being single, was also established as double.
The marriage of Martu: c.1.7.1
Martu went home to his own mother, and spoke to her: "In my city I am among my friends and they all have already married wives; I am there among my mates, and they all have already married wives. Unlike my friends in my city I am single, I am single and I have no children. Yet the imposed share exceeds that of my friends; over and above that of my mates, I received half of theirs."
The marriage of Martu: c.1.7.1
One day, as the evening came, and they had reached again the place of rations, they established the rations before the god ……(The correct form of this name is not known). The ration of a married man was established as double, the ration of a man with a child was established as triple; the ration of a single man was established as single; but the ration of Martu, though he was single, was also established as double.
The marriage of Martu: c.1.7.1
Martu went home to his own mother, and spoke to her: "My mother, find me a wife to marry and I will bring you my ration." His own mother replied to Martu: "Su-ḫenuna, my son, I will give you advice; may my advice be heeded. I shall say a word to you; you should pay attention to it. Marry a wife of your choice, marry a wife of your heart's desire, give me thus a companion, …… me a slave-girl. Having built the houses of (?) your people living around the city, and …… gardens, you will dig the wells of (?) your mates. Martu, …… mates ……"
The marriage of Martu: c.1.7.1
At that time a festival was announced in the city; a festival was announced in the city of Inab. (Martu said:) "Come, friends, let us go, let us go there, let us visit the ale-houses of Inab, let us go there." The god Numušda participated in the festival; his beloved daughter Adĝar-kidug participated in the festival, his wife Namrat, the lovely woman participated in the festival. In the city, bronze šem drums were rumbling, and the seven ala drums resounded as strong men, girdled champions, entered the wrestling house to compete with each other for Numušda in the temple of Inab. There were many coming to Inab, the city where the festival was taking place, to marvel at this. There were many coming to Inab, the city where the festival was taking place, to marvel at this.
The marriage of Martu: c.1.7.1
For Numušda, because he was holy (?), Martu too strode around the great courtyard to compete in wrestling at the gate of Inab. They kept looking for strong fighters for him, they kept offering him strong fighters. Martu strode around in the great courtyard. He hit them with a destructive …… one by one. In the great courtyard, in the battle he caused them to be bandaged; in the great courtyard of Inab he lifted the bodies of the dead.
The marriage of Martu: c.1.7.1
Rejoicing over Martu, Numušda offered him silver, but he would not accept it. He offered jewels, but he would not accept them. Having done so a second time, having done so a third time (Martu says): "Where does your silver lead? Where do your jewels lead? I, Martu, would rather marry your daughter, I would rather marry your daughter Adĝar-kidug." (8 lines missing)
The marriage of Martu: c.1.7.1
He …… great ……. He shouted like ……. At the quay of Inab he …….
The marriage of Martu: c.1.7.1
The days have multiplied, no decision has yet been made. (Adĝar-kidug's girlfriend speaks to her:) "Now listen, their hands are destructive and their features are those of monkeys; he is one who eats what Nanna forbids and does not show reverence. They never stop roaming about ……, they are an abomination to the gods' dwellings. Their ideas are confused; they cause only disturbance. He is clothed in sack-leather ……, lives in a tent, exposed to wind and rain, and cannot properly recite prayers. He lives in the mountains and ignores the places of gods, digs up truffles in the foothills, does not know how to bend the knee, and eats raw flesh. He has no house during his life, and when he dies he will not be carried to a burial-place. My girlfriend, why would you marry Martu?"Adĝar-kidug replies to her girlfriend: "I will marry Martu!"
Ninĝišzida's journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
Stretching out a hand to the barge, to the young man being steered away on the barge, stretching out a hand to { my young man Damu } { (1 ms. has instead:) Lord Ninĝišzida } being taken away on the barge, stretching out a hand to Ištaran of the bright visage being taken away on the barge, stretching out a hand to Alla, master of the battle-net, being taken away on the barge, stretching out a hand to Lugal-šud-e being taken away on the barge, stretching out a hand to Ninĝišzida being taken away on the barge -- his younger sister was crying in lament to him in { the boat's cabin } { (1 ms. has instead:) the cabin at the boat's bow }.
Ninĝišzida's journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
His older sister removed the cover (?) from { the boat's cabin } { (1 ms. has instead:) the cabin at the boat's stern }: "Let me sail away with you, let me sail away with you, { brother } { (1 ms. has instead:) my brother }, let me sail away with you. { (2 mss. add 1 line:) My brother, let me sail on your barge with you, my brother, let me sail away with you. { (1 ms. adds 1 further line:) Let me sail on your splendid barge with you, my brother, let me sail away with you. } }"
Ninĝišzida's journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
She was crying a lament to him at the boat's bow: "{ Brother } { (1 ms. has instead:) My brother }, let me sail away with you. Let me …… for you in your boat's stern, { brother } { (1 ms. has instead:) my brother }, let me sail away with you." { (1 ms. adds 2 lines:) "The gudug priest sits in the cabin at your boat's stern." She was crying a lament to him: "Let me sail away with you, my brother, let me sail away with you." }
Ninĝišzida's journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
"My young man Damu, let me sail away with you, { brother } { (1 ms. has instead:) my brother }, let me sail away with you. Ištaran of the bright visage, let me sail away with you, { brother } { (1 ms. has instead:) my brother }, let me sail away with you. Alla, master of the battle-net, let me sail away with you, { brother } { (1 ms. has instead:) my brother }, let me sail away with you. Lugal-šud-e, let me sail away with you, { brother } { (1 ms. has instead:) my brother }, let me sail away with you. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) Lugal-ki-bura, let me sail away with you, my brother, let me sail away with you. } Ninĝišzida, let me sail away with you, { brother } { (1 ms. has instead:) my brother }, let me sail away with you. { (1 ms. adds 2 lines:) My brother, let me sail on your barge with you, my brother, let me sail away with you. Let me sail on your splendid barge with you, my brother, let me sail away with you. }"
Ninĝišzida's journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
The evil demon who was in their midst called out to { Lugal-ki-suna } { (2 mss. have instead:) Ninĝišzida }: "{ Lugal-ki-suna } { (1 ms. has instead:) Lugal-ki-bura }, look at your sister!" Having looked at his sister, { Lugal-ki-suna } { (1 ms. has instead:) Lugal-ki-bura } said to her: "He sails with me, he sails with me. Why should you sail { (1 ms. adds:) to the underworld }? Lady, the demon sails with me. Why should you sail { (1 ms. adds:) to the underworld }? The thresher sails with me. Why should you sail { (1 ms. adds:) to the underworld }? The man who has bound my hands sails with me. Why should you sail? The man who has tied my arms sails with me. Why should you sail?"
Ninĝišzida's journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
"The river of the nether world produces no water, no water is drunk from it. { (1 ms. adds:) Why should you sail? } The fields of the nether world produce no grain, no flour is eaten from it. { (1 ms. adds:) Why should you sail? } The sheep of the nether world produce no wool, no cloth is woven from it. { (1 ms. adds:) Why should you sail? } As for me, even if my mother digs as if for a canal, I shall not be able to drink the water meant for me. The waters of springtime will not be poured for me as they are for the tamarisks; I shall not sit in the shade intended for me. The dates I should bear like a date palm will not reveal (?) their beauty for me. I am a field threshed by my demon -- you would scream at it. He has put manacles on my hands -- you would scream at it. He has put a neck-stock on my neck -- you would scream at it."
Ninĝišzida's journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
Ama-šilama (Ninĝišzida's sister) said to Ninĝišzida: "The ill-intentioned demon may accept something -- there should be a limit to it for you. My brother, your demon may accept something, there should be a limit to it for you. For him let me …… from my hand the ……, there should be a limit to it for you. For him let me …… from my hand the ……, there should be a limit to it for you. For him let me …… from my hips the dainty lapis lazuli beads, there should be a limit to it for you. For him let me …… from my hips the …… my lapis lazuli beads, there should be a limit to it for you."
Ninĝišzida's journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
"You are a beloved ……, there should be a limit to it for you. How they treat you, how they treat you! -- there should be a limit to it for you. My brother, how they treat you, how haughtily they treat you! -- there should be a limit to it for you." I am hungry, but the bread has slipped away from me!" -- there should be a limit to it for you." I am thirsty, but the water has slipped away from me!" -- there should be a limit to it for you."
Ninĝišzida's journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
The evil demon who was in their midst, the clever demon, that great demon who was in their midst, called out to the man at the boat's bow and to the man at the boat's stern: "Don't let the mooring stake be pulled out, don't let the mooring stake be pulled out, so that she may come on board to her brother, that this lady may come on board the barge."
Ninĝišzida's journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
When Ama-šilama had gone on board the barge, a cry approached the heavens, a cry approached the earth, that great demon set up an enveloping cry before him on the river: "Urim, at my cry to the heavens lock your houses, lock your houses, city, lock your houses! Shrine Urim, lock your houses, city, lock your houses! Against your lord who has left the ĝipar, city, lock your houses!" (1 line fragmentary) (approx. 1 line missing)
Ninĝišzida's journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
He …… to the empty river, the rejoicing (?) river: "You (addressing Ama-šilima) shall not draw near to this house, ……. …… to the place of Ereškigala. My mother …… out of her love. As for you (addressing the demon), you may be a great demon ……, …… your hand against the nether world's office of throne-bearer."
Ninĝišzida's journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
"My king will no longer shed tears in his eyes. The drum will …… his joy in tears. Come! May the fowler utter a lament for you in his well-stocked house, lord, may he utter a lament for you. How he has been humiliated! May the young fisherman utter a lament for you in his well-stocked house, lord, may he utter a lament for you. How he has been humiliated! May the mother of the dead gudug priest { utter a lament for you in her empty ĝipar } { ( 1 ms. has instead:), on whom the house of the palace looked with envy (?) }, utter a lament for you, lord, may she utter a lament for you. How he has been humiliated! May the mother high priestess utter a lament { for you who have left the ĝipar } { (1 ms. has instead:) for you, now dead, who used to be in your ĝipar }, lord, may she utter a lament for you. How he has been humiliated!"
Ninĝišzida's journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
"My king, bathe with water your head that has rolled in the dust. …… in sandals your feet defiled from the defiled place." The king bathed with water his head that had rolled in the dust. …… in sandals his feet defiled from the defiled place." Not drawing near to this house, ……. …… your throne …… to you "Sit down". May your bed …… to you "Lie down"." He ate food in his mouth, he drank choice wine.
Ninĝišzida's journey to the nether world: c.1.7.3
Great holy one, Ereškigala, praising you is sweet.
The Flood story: c.1.7.4
…… sets up ……." I will …… the perishing of my mankind; for Nintur, I will stop the annihilation of my creatures, and I will return the people from their dwelling grounds. Let them build many cities so that I can refresh myself in their shade. Let them lay the bricks of many cities in pure places, let them establish places of divination in pure places, and when the fire-quenching …… is arranged, the divine rites and exalted powers are perfected and the earth is irrigated, I will establish well-being there."
The Flood story: c.1.7.4
After An, Enlil, Enki and Ninḫursaĝa had fashioned the black-headed people, they also made animals multiply everywhere, and made herds of four-legged animals exist on the plains, as is befitting. (approx. 32 lines missing)
The Flood story: c.1.7.4
After the …… of kingship had descended from heaven, after the exalted crown and throne of kingship had descended from heaven, the divine rites and the exalted powers were perfected, the bricks of the cities were laid in holy places, their names were announced and the …… were distributed. The first of the cities, Eridug, was given to Nudimmud the leader. The second, Bad-tibira, was given to the Mistress. The third, Larag, was given to Pabilsaĝ. The fourth, Zimbir, was given to the hero Utu. The fifth, Šuruppag, was given to Sud. And after the names of these cities had been announced and the …… had been distributed, the river ……, …… was watered, and with the cleansing of the small canals …… were established. (approx. 34 lines missing)
The Flood story: c.1.7.4
……seat in heaven. …… flood. …… mankind. So he made ……. Then Nintur ……. Holy Inana made a lament for its people. Enki took counsel with himself. An, Enlil, Enki and Ninḫursaĝa made all the gods of heaven and earth take an oath by invoking An and Enlil. In those days Zi-ud-sura the king, the gudug priest, ……. He fashioned ……. The humble, committed, reverent ……. Day by day, standing constantly at ……. Something that was not a dream appeared, conversation ……, …… taking an oath by invoking heaven and earth. In the Ki-ur, the gods …… a wall. Zi-ud-sura, standing at its side, heard: "Side-wall standing at my left side, ……. Side-wall, I will speak words to you; take heed of my words, pay attention to my instructions. A flood will sweep over the …… in all the ……. A decision that the seed of mankind is to be destroyed has been made. The verdict, the word of the divine assembly, cannot be revoked. The order announced by An and Enlil cannot be overturned. Their kingship, their term has been cut off; their heart should be rested about this. Now ……. What ……." (approx. 38 lines missing)
The Flood story: c.1.7.4
All the windstorms and gales arose together, and the flood swept over the ……. After the flood had swept over the land, and waves and windstorms had rocked the huge boat for seven days and seven nights, Utu the sun god came out, illuminating heaven and earth. Zi-ud-sura could drill an opening in the huge boat and the hero Utu entered the huge boat with his rays. Zi-ud-sura the king prostrated himself before Utu. The king sacrificed oxen and offered innumerable sheep.
The Flood story: c.1.7.4
"They have made you swear by heaven and earth, ……. An and Enlil have made you swear by heaven and earth, ……."
The Flood story: c.1.7.4
More and more animals disembarked onto the earth. Zi-ud-sura the king prostrated himself before An and Enlil. An and Enlil treated Zi-ud-sura kindly ……, they granted him life like a god, they brought down to him eternal life. At that time, because of preserving the animals and the seed of mankind, they settled Zi-ud-sura the king in an overseas country, in the land Dilmun, where the sun rises.
How grain came to Sumer: c.1.7.6
Men used to eat grass with their mouths like sheep. In those times, they did not know grain, barley or flax. An brought these down from the interior of heaven. Enlil lifted his gaze around as a stag lifts its horns when climbing the terraced …… hills. He looked southwards and saw the wide sea; he looked northwards and saw the mountain of aromatic cedars. Enlil piled up the barley, gave it to the mountain. He piled up the bounty of the Land, gave the innuḫa barley to the mountain. He closed off access to the wide-open hill. He …… its lock, which heaven and earth shut fast (?), its bolt, which …….
How grain came to Sumer: c.1.7.6
Then Ninazu ……, and said to his brother Ninmada: "Let us go to the mountain, to the mountain where barley and flax grow; …… the rolling river, where the water wells up from the earth. Let us fetch the barley down from its mountain, let us introduce the innuḫa barley into Sumer. Let us make barley known in Sumer, which knows no barley."
How grain came to Sumer: c.1.7.6
"Come, let us go to Utu of heaven, who as he lies there, as he lies there, sleeps a sound sleep, to the hero, the son of Ningal, who as he lies there sleeps a sound sleep." He raised his hands towards Utu of the seventy doors (?).
The šumunda grass: c.1.7.7
When the rain rained, when walls were demolished, when it rained potsherds and fireballs, when one person confronted another defiantly, when there was copulation -- he also copulated, when there was kissing -- he also kissed. When the rain said: "I will rain," when the wall said: "I will rain (scribal error for 'demolish' ?)", when the flood said: "I will sweep everything away" -- Heaven impregnated (?), Earth gave birth, she gave birth also to the šumunda grass. Earth gave birth, Heaven impregnated (?), she gave birth also to the šumunda grass.
The šumunda grass: c.1.7.7
His luxuriant reeds carry fire. They who defied it, who defied it, the umma who had survived that day, the abba who had survived that day, the chief gala priest who had survived that year, whoever had survived the Flood -- the šumunda grass crushed them with labour, crushed them with labour, made them crouch in the dust.
The šumunda grass: c.1.7.7
The šumunda grass is a fire carrier, he cannot be tied into bundles, the grass cannot be shifted, the grass cannot be loosened, the grass cannot be loosened. When built into a booth, one moment he stands up, one moment he lies down. Having kindled a fire, he spreads it wide. The šumunda grass's habitat is among his bitter waters. He butts about (saying): "I will start, I will start a fire."
The šumunda grass: c.1.7.7
He tied him into bundles, he shifted him, he …… šumunda grass, the fire-carrier. He bundled up the šumunda grass, the fire carrier, bundled up the fire carrier. The launderer who made her garments clean asks her, Inana -- the carpenter who gave her the spindle to hold in her hand (asks her), Inana -- the potter who fashioned pots and jugs (asks her), Inana. The potter gave her holy drinking vessels, the shepherd brought her his sheep, the shepherd brought her his sheep -- he asks her. He brought her all kinds of luxuriant plants, as if it were the harvest.
The šumunda grass: c.1.7.7
Her voice reached Heaven, her voice reached Earth, her resounding cry covered the horizon like a garment, was spread over it like a cloth, she hurled fierce winds at the head of the šumunda grass (saying): "Šumunda grass, your name ……. You shall be a plant ……. You shall be a hateful plant ……. Your name ……." (approx. 23 lines missing)
Pabilsaĝ's journey to Nibru: c.1.7.8
The wild bull with brindled thighs, whose house is noble! My king, the wild bull with brindled thighs, whose house is noble! Pabilsaĝ, the wild bull with brindled thighs, whose house is noble! His house, the house of Larag, is noble, his house is noble! His city, a mighty city, is abundant, and his house is noble! The warrior's house is the house of Larag; Lord Pabilsaĝ's city is a mighty city ……. His birthplace was the shrine Nibru ……. The place where he drank good milk was the house ……. From the place, the pure place, ……. Isin, the unique house ……. The place which the bull embraces ……. Like a scorpion rising up from among the thorns, he is a fearsome scorpion; like a wolf rising up from his lair, he is likely to growl; like a lion rising up in the pathway, he is likely to beat …….
Pabilsaĝ's journey to Nibru: c.1.7.8
At that time, he wished to dig (?) in the meadows; the lord wished to dig (?) in the meadows. Lord Pabilsaĝ wished to dig (?) in the meadows; in all the meadows of Isin, my king wished to dig (?). So then my king set off for Nibru.
Pabilsaĝ's journey to Nibru: c.1.7.8
And as the warrior Pabilsaĝ set off in Enlil's direction, as he he set off, now he turned (?) in front of that house in Isin. And then my lady in Isin came out ……. At the spacious house, the house of Isin, she …… her hair, then she …… the hair in curls (?) ……. Her headdress was loosened. She addressed Pabilsaĝ joyfully: "Good-looking …… the house of Isin! Warrior Pabilsaĝ …… borne to Nintur! You who are travelling from (?) Larag to …… that house in Isin, say to your father," May she be my spouse!" Say further to Enlil," …… with me!" Fix your sights on it, fix your sights on it, and may you be its lord! The house of Isin ……. May you, Pabilsaĝ, be its lord, and may I be its lady!" (small no. of lines missing)
Pabilsaĝ's journey to Nibru: c.1.7.8
(Enlil speaks:) "…… and may its flax be flax! …… and may its grain be grain! …… may its …… be good for eating."
Pabilsaĝ's journey to Nibru: c.1.7.8
And now, under that very sun and on that day, so it really happened. …… waved their tails in the Kir-sig watercourse, waved ……. …… established the house ……. …… the most righteous ……. …… the good bull-calf, the ruler ……. …… established the house ……. …… its flax was flax. …… its grain was grain. …… its …… was good for eating. (small no. of lines missing)
Pabilsaĝ's journey to Nibru: c.1.7.8
Enlil stood beside the river and spoke to it. He stood beside the Kir-sig watercourse and ……: "River, may …… your outlet be …… for him. May you establish …… the house here. …… the most righteous ……, …… great wild bull ……." (approx. 1 line missing)
Pabilsaĝ's journey to Nibru: c.1.7.8
(3 lines unclear) But Pabilsaĝ would not eat (?) the bull in his mouth; nor would …… Pabilsaĝ eat (?) the sheep in his mouth. He did not rub the …… pot ……." Don't go …… to ……." They raised the …… lament, and put ……. They raised Lord Pabilsaĝ, and put ……. They set him down (?) in the city of his sister. His sister came out to him from the house. (5 lines unclear) But Pabilsaĝ would not eat (?) the bull in his mouth; nor would …… Pabilsaĝ eat (?) the sheep in his mouth. He did not rub the …… pot ……." Don't go ……!" (unknown no. of lines missing)
Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Envoys of Aga, the son of En-me-barage-si, came from Kiš to Gilgameš in Unug. Gilgameš presented the issue before the elders of his city, carefully choosing his words: "There are wells to be finished, many wells of the Land yet to be finished; there are shallow wells of the Land yet to be finished, there are wells to deepen and hoisting gear to be completed. We should not submit to the house of Kiš! { Should we not smite it with weapons? } { (2 mss. have instead:) Let us smite it with weapons! }"
Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
In the convened assembly, his city's elders answered Gilgameš: "There are indeed wells to be finished, many wells of the Land yet to be finished; there are shallow wells of the Land yet to be finished, there are wells to deepen and hoisting gear to be completed. { So we should submit to the house of Kiš. We should not smite it with weapons! } { (1 ms. has instead:) So should we not submit to the house of Kiš? Should we smite it with weapons? }"
Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, placing his trust in Inana, did not take seriously the advice of his city's elders. Gilgameš { (1 ms. adds:), the lord of Kulaba, } presented the issue again, this time before the able-bodied men of his city, carefully choosing his words: "There are wells to be finished, many wells of the Land yet to be finished; there are shallow wells of the Land yet to be finished, there are wells to deepen and hoisting gear to be completed. { Never before have you submitted to the house of Kiš. Should you not smite it with weapons? } { (1 ms. has instead:) We should not submit to the house of Kiš. We should smite it with weapons! }"
Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
In the convened assembly, his city's able-bodied men answered Gilgameš: ""Standing on duty and sitting in attendance, escorting the king's son, and forever grasping the donkey's reins -- who has that much breath?", as the saying goes. You old men should not submit to the house of Kiš! Should we young men not smite it with weapons?"
Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
"The great gods created the structure of Unug, the handiwork of the gods, and of E-ana, the house lowered down from heaven. You watch over { the great rampart, the rampart which An founded } { (1 ms. has instead:) its great rampart, a cloudbank resting on the earth }, the majestic residence which An established. You are its king and warrior, an exuberant person, a prince beloved of An. When Aga comes, what terror he will experience! That army is small, and scattered at the rear. Its men will be incapable of confronting us."
Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Then Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, rejoiced at the advice of his city's able-bodied men and his spirit brightened. He addressed his servant Enkidu: "On this account let the weaponry and arms of battle be made ready. Let the battle mace return to your side. May they create a great terror and radiance. When he comes, my great fearsomeness will overwhelm him. His reasoning will become confused and his judgment disarrayed."
Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Not five, not 10 days had passed when Aga, the son of En-me-barage-si, laid siege to Unug with his men. Unug's reasoning became confused. Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, addressed its warriors: "{ My warriors shall have the choice. } { (2 mss. have instead:) My warriors, choose! } Let someone with courage volunteer { "I shall go to Aga" } { (1 ms. has instead:), and I will send him to Aga }."
Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Birḫar-tura, his royal guard, spoke in admiration to his king: "{ (2 mss. add:) My king, } I shall { go } { (1 ms. has instead:) go prancing (?) } to Aga so that his reasoning will become confused and his judgment disarrayed."
Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Birḫar-tura went out through the city gate. As soon as Birḫar-tura went out through the city gate, they captured him at the gate's entrance, and then beat Birḫar-tura's entire length. He came into the presence of Aga and then spoke to Aga. Before he had finished speaking, an officer of Unug climbed up on the rampart and leaned out over the rampart. Aga saw him and then spoke to Birḫar-tura: "Slave, is that man your king?"
Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
"That man is not my king! Were that man my king, were that his angry brow, were those his bison eyes, were that his lapis lazuli beard, were those his elegant fingers, would he not cast down multitudes, would he not raise up multitudes, would multitudes not be smeared with dust, would not all the nations be overwhelmed, would not the land's canal-mouths be filled with silt, would not the barges' prows be broken, and would he not take Aga, the king of Kiš, captive in the midst of his army?"
Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
They hit him, they struck him. They beat Birḫar-tura's entire length. Gilgameš climbed up on the rampart after the officer of Unug. His radiance overwhelmed Kulaba's young and old. He armed Unug's able-bodied men with battle maces and stationed them on the causeway at the city gate's door. Only Enkidu went out through the city gate. Gilgameš leaned out over the rampart. Looking up, Aga saw him: "Slave, is that man your king?"
Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
"That man is indeed my king." It was just as he had said: Gilgameš cast down multitudes, he raised up multitudes, multitudes were smeared with dust, all the nations were overwhelmed, the land's canal-mouths were filled with silt, the barges' prows were broken, and he took Aga, the king of Kiš, captive in the midst of his army. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) Unug's able-bodied men …… that army. }
Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, { spoke to } { (1 ms. has instead:) approached close to } Aga: "Aga my overseer, Aga my lieutenant, { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) Aga my governor, Aga my commander, } Aga my military commander! Aga gave me breath, Aga gave me life: Aga took a fugitive into his embrace, Aga provided the fleeing bird with grain."
Gilgameš and Aga: c.1.8.1.1
{ (The able-bodied men acclaim Gilgameš:) "You watch over Unug, the handiwork of the gods, the great rampart, the rampart which An founded, the majestic residence which An established. You are its king and warrior, an exuberant person, a prince beloved of An." (Gilgameš addresses Aga:) "Before Utu, your former kindness is hereby repaid to you." } { (the other ms. has instead:) "I watch over Unug, the handiwork of the gods, its great rampart, a cloudbank resting on the earth, its majestic residence which An established. The city will repay the kindness shown to me. Before Utu, your former kindness is hereby repaid to you." } He set Aga free to go to Kiš.
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
{ I will sing the song of the lord with the very black beard, the man of battle. I will sing the song of …… athletic strength, the man of battle. …… the king, the man ……; my king ……, my lord …… garden ……. …… courtyard, …… ĝipar; } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… his mother who bore him spoke to the lord: "My king …… in the river, my lord …… your garden." (2 lines unclear) } (unknown no. of lines missing)
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
In the great courtyard, without there being any combat, a man ……. She perceived the canopy, the canopy ……, holy Inana perceived the canopy, from the palace of the abzu, she perceived the canopy ……:
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
(Gilgameš speaks:) "I shall certainly not try to take over the portion of Inana in your ĝipar. Ninegala will not …… because of my valorous strength. But Inana, lady, don't you block my way, either! My wish is to catch (?) mountain bulls, to fill the cow-pens. I wish to catch (?) mountain sheep, to fill the sheepfolds. I wish to …… silver and cornelian."
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
(An speaks:) "Its entrails (?)……. Its hide ……. Its blood ……." (1 line fragmentary)"Inana, it will muddy the waters; it will …… cowpats. My one beloved by An, ……."
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
He let her hold the leash; An ……. { "My child, who does it belong to?" } { (1 ms. has instead:) "My child, what use would it be?" } "It will stir up the waters, it will leave …… cowpats ……! If the great bull is let loose, …… Unug! If the great bull is let loose against Gilgameš, …… Unug! I will not give her that which bears my own name."
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
(Inana speaks:) "Maybe it will muddy the waters, and will leave gigantic cowpats -- but let my father give me the Bull of Heaven, so I can kill the lord, so I can kill the lord, so I can kill the lord, Lord Gilgameš!"
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
Great An replied to holy Inana: "My child, the Bull of Heaven would not have any pasture, as its pasture is on the horizon. Maiden Inana, the Bull of Heaven can only graze where the sun rises. So I cannot give the Bull of Heaven to you!"
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
Holy Inana replied to him: "I shall shout, and make my voice reach heaven and earth!"
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
{ He was frightened, he was frightened. { (1 ms. adds here:) …… was frightened of Inana. } Great An replied to holy Inana: "I shall give her the Bull of Heaven." } { (instead of approx. lines 52-54, 1 ms. has:) She made her voice reach heaven ……, she made her voice reach earth; she made her voice reach heaven ……, she made her voice reach earth. It covered them like a woollen garment, it was spread over them like a linen garment. …… who could speak to her? …… who could speak to her? …… gave ……. }
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
In masculine fashion, the maiden Inana grasped it by the lapis-lazuli tether. Holy Inana brought the Bull of Heaven { out } { (1 ms. has instead:) down }. At Unug, the Bull devoured the pasture, and drank the water of the river in great slurps. With each slurp it used up one mile of the river, but its thirst was not satisfied. It devoured the pasture and stripped the land bare. It broke up the palm trees of Unug, as it bent them to fit them into its mouth. When it was standing, the Bull submerged Unug. { The aura } { (1 ms. has instead:) the name } of the Bull of Heaven submerged Kulaba.
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
{ His musician ……. As he looked up ……, leaning (?) …… (1 line unclear) } { (1 ms. has instead:) Then Lord Gilgameš …… his musician. } { (a second ms. has instead:) Gilgameš …… his musician Lugal-gabaĝal." My musician, tune your strings, …… give me a drink, ……. …… bronze …… in your hand ……. His musician ……." } { (a third ms. has instead:) …… replied to Lugal-gabaĝal," Lugal-gabaĝal, tune your strings; I wish to have a drink!" (Lugal-gabaĝal answers:) "…… drink, that is why nothing of yours is important." …… replied to Lugal-gabaĝal. } { (instead of approx. lines 64-67, a fourth ms. has:) (3 lines unclear) …… drink, lord ……. …… drink, lord ……. (7 lines missing or unclear) …… Unug ……. }
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
Lord Gilgameš ……. Inana …… the Bull of Heaven. At Unug, the Bull ……, and drank the water of the river in great slurps. With each slurp it used up one mile of the river, but its thirst was not satisfied. It devoured the pasture and stripped the land bare. { (1 ms. adds here:) His lady ……. Gilgameš …… said," My mother ……, my sister ……, will …… the cattle to their tethering stakes, will …… the sheep to their tethering stakes, will …… to their tethering stakes." Gilgameš ……," Bull of Heaven, you, yes you, ……; you, yes you -- you do not ……." Gilgameš ……. } (5 lines unclear)"They will throw your corpse in the deserted streets, and throw your intestines in the broad square. They will send your carcass to the knacker's, and I shall share out your meat in baskets to the widows' sons who are citizens of my city ……. I shall make flasks of your two horns for pouring fine oil to Inana in E-ana."
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
Inana watched from the top of the ramparts. The Bull bellowed in the dust, and Gilgameš walked (?) at its head as Enkidu climbed up the rope of its ……. Their fellow-citizens came along ……. It covered them with dust, like a young calf unused to the yoke. { Enkidu stood behind the Bull and went round ……. } { (1 ms. has instead:) He put …… and seized its tail. } He spoke to his master Gilgameš:
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
"Ho, magnificent one, extending your staff of office, born of noble lineage, splendour of the gods, furious bull standing ready for battle, who is respected as the great lord Gilgameš of Unug! Your mother was truly skilled in bearing children, and your nurse was truly skilled in suckling her charges! { (1 ms. adds:) Lord born of noble lineage, …… } Do not fear -- the warrior without strength …… himself (?). There where the road is straight ……. …… axe ……." (4 lines unclear)
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
I will sing the song of the man of battle, the man of battle. I will sing the song of Lord Gilgameš, the man of battle, I will sing the song of the lord with the very black beard, the man of battle. I will sing the song of him with the well-proportioned limbs, the man of battle. I will sing the song of him in his prime (?), the man of battle. I will sing the song of him who batters the wicked, the man of battle. The king, the lord, having …… as his mother who bore him ……, wishing to wash (?) in the river.
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
My lord, having sought entry into the garden planted with junipers, the lord, coming from the ĝipar, sheared the wool of the fleecy sheep ……; …… he sat down ……. The king …… bending …… with the oar; the prince covered …… with the oar, as if it was of flourishing reed. You covered their wicked ones, as if ……, with water. He gave …… to his mother who bore him. In the wide courtyard ……, Gilgameš ……. (1 line unclear)In the great courtyard …….
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
The king, …… his mouth, the king …… to his mother who bore him. Gilgameš …… to Ninsumun ……: "O mother who bore me, how ……! By the door of the great gate ……. From the crenellations of the wall ……: "My wild bull, my man, I shall not let you go ……! Gilgameš, I shall not let you go ……! You dispensed justice in my E-ana -- I shall not let you go! You pronounced verdicts in my holy ĝipar -- I shall not let you go, in his beloved …… E-ana!"""
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
Holy Inana ……. An ……. …… the bond of heaven. An …… to holy Inana: "My child, ……." Inana replied ……:
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
"My musician, Lugal-gabaĝar, perform your song, tune your strings! Give me beer to drink! Fill my bronze jug again! ……" Lugal-gabaĝar replied to his master, Gilgameš: "My master, you may eat, and you may drink -- but as for me, how does this matter concern me?"
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
To defeat the Bull, ……, Gilgameš, to defeat the Bull, ……. …… his harness of fifty (text: five-sixths) minas. …… his sword weighing seven talents and thirty minas. …… his battle axe." My mother who bore me ……."
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
"Bull of Heaven, you -- you, ……, yes, you! You crush them ……, and I crush them ……. If you crush them, …… They shall consign your hide to the streets ……. They shall consign your intestines to the broad square ……. The widows' sons of my city shall each take their share of your meat in baskets. They shall consign your carcass to the knacker's, and I shall turn your two horns into flasks for pouring fine oil to Inana in E-ana."
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
The Bull …… in the dust. Gilgameš …… and Enkidu ……. Their fellow-citizens ……. …… with dust, like a young calf unused to the yoke. Enkidu stood by (?) the Bull's head and spoke to Gilgameš:
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
"Ho, magnificent one, extending your staff of office, born of noble lineage, splendour of the gods, furious-hearted bull, standing ready for battle, warrior, …… your hand ……! The people ……, the people ……."
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
When Enkidu had spoken thus to Gilgameš, Gilgameš himself smote its skull with his axe weighing seven talents. The Bull reared up so high, so high that it overbalanced. It spattered like rain, it spread itself out like the harvested crop.
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
The king took his knife in his hand, just as if he were a master chef. He hit Inana with a haunch, he made her flee away like a pigeon, and demolished those ramparts. Standing by (?) the Bull's head, the king wept bitter tears: "Just as I can destroy you, so shall I do the same to her (?)."
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
As he spoke, he consigned its hide to the streets, he consigned its intestines to the broad square, and the widows' sons of his city each took their share of its meat in baskets. He consigned its carcass to the knacker's, and turned its two horns into flasks for pouring fine oil to Inana in E-ana.For the death of the Bull of Heaven: holy Inana, it is sweet to praise you!
Gilgameš and the bull of heaven: c.1.8.1.2
My king, having sought entry into the garden of junipers, the seed of the ĝipar …… the sheep of the queen (?) …… sheared (?) the wool; he sat on the ……. He leant (?) over the marsh; my king leant (?) over the marsh; he bent it with the oar.
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
…… hero …… has lain down and is never to rise again. …… has lain down and is never to rise again. He of well-proportioned limbs …… has lain down and is never to rise again. …… has lain down and is never to rise again. He who …… wickedness has lain down and is never to rise again. The young man …… has lain down and is never to rise again. He who was perfect in …… and feats of strength has lain down and is never to rise again. …… has lain down and is never to rise again. The lord of Kulaba has lain down and is never to rise again. He who spoke most wisely has lain down and is never to rise again. The plunderer (?) of many countries has lain down and is never to rise again. He who climbed the mountains has lain down and is never to rise again. He has lain down on his death-bed and is never to rise again. He has lain down on a couch of sighs and is never to rise again.
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
Unable to stand up, unable to sit down, he laments. Unable to eat, unable to drink, he laments. Held fast by the door-bolt of Namtar, he is unable to rise. Like a fish ……, he …… ill. Like a gazelle caught in a trap, he …… couch. Namtar, with no hands or feet ……, Namtar ……. (1 line fragmentary) (6 lines missing) (1 line fragmentary) …… great mountains …… (5 lines fragmentary) (1 line missing) (2 lines fragmentary) (unknown no. of lines missing)
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
Then Lord Gilgameš …… lay down (?) on the death-bed. The king …… sleep. …… his dream ……. …… assembly ……. (1 line fragmentary) (unknown no. of lines missing)
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
"…… having travelled all the roads that there are, having fetched …… from its ……, having killed ……, you set up …… for future days ……. Having founded ……, you reached ……. Having brought down the old …… forgotten forever and ……, he (?) carried out correctly ……. …… the flood …… the settlements of the Land." (1 line fragmentary) (unknown no. of lines missing)
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
" (3 lines fragmentary) Sisig (a god of dreams), the son of Utu, will provide light for him in the nether world, the place of darkness. When a funerary statue is made in honour of someone, whoever they may be, for future days, mighty youths and …… will form (?) a semicircle at the door-jambs and perform wrestling and feats of strength before them (?). In the month Neneĝar, at the festival of the ghosts, no light will be provided before them without him (i.e. Gilgameš)."
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
"Oh Gilgameš! Enlil, the Great Mountain, the father of gods, has made kingship your destiny, but not eternal life -- Lord Gilgameš, this is how to interpret (?) …… the dream. The …… and …… of life should not make you feel sad, should not make you despair, should not make you feel depressed. You must have been told that this is what the bane of being human involves. You must have been told that this is what the cutting of your umbilical cord involved. The darkest day of humans awaits you now. The solitary place of humans awaits you now. The unstoppable flood-wave awaits you now. The unavoidable battle awaits you now. The unequal struggle awaits you now. The skirmish from which there is no escape awaits you now. But you should not go to the underworld with heart knotted in anger. May …… before Utu. …… palm-fibre ……."
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
"Go ahead …… (unknown no. of lines missing)"
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
(1 line fragmentary) …… Gilgameš …… (2 lines fragmentary) …… they answered him. …… he weeps. Why is …… made ……? …… Nintur has not given birth yet. (2 lines fragmentary) (1 line unclear) "The birds of the sky …… cannot escape. The fish of the deep water cannot see ……. Having spread his net, the young fisherman will catch you (?). Who has ever seen anyone who could ascend …… from (?) the …… of the nether world? No king has ever been destined a fate like yours. Who …… anyone among mankind, whoever they may be, …… like you? …… the governorship of the nether world. You …… your ghost …… pass judgments ……." (unknown no. of lines missing)
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
Kulaba ……. As Unug rose ……, as Kulaba rose ……. Within the first month ……, it was not five or 10 days before they …… the Euphrates. …… its shells. Then, as in the bed of the Euphrates, the earth cracked dry. …… was built from stone. …… was built from stone. …… were hard diorite. …… its latches were hard stone. …… were cast in gold. …… heavy blocks of stone. …… heavy blocks of stone. …… brought in ……. …… for future days. (1 line fragmentary)…… should not find ……. …… Gilgameš …… has established in …….
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
His beloved wife, his beloved children, his beloved favourite and junior wife, his beloved musician, cup-bearer and ……, his beloved barber, his beloved ……, his beloved palace retainers and servants and his beloved objects were laid down in their places as if …… in the purified (?) palace in the middle of Unug.
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
Gilgameš, the son of Ninsumun, set out their audience-gifts for Ereškigala. He set out their gifts for Namtar. He set out their surprises for Dimpikug. He set out their presents for Neti. He set out their presents for Ninĝišzida and Dumuzid. He …… the audience-gifts for Enki, Ninki, Enmul, Ninmul, Endukuga, Nindukuga, Enindašuruma, Nindašuruma, Enmu-utula, En-me-šara, the maternal and paternal ancestors of Enlil; for Šul-pa-e, the lord of the table, for Sumugan and Ninḫursaĝa, for the Anuna gods of the Holy Mound, for the Great Princes of the Holy Mound, for the dead en priests, the dead lagar priests, the dead lumaḫ priests, the dead nindiĝir priestesses, and the dead gudug, the linen-clad and …… priests. (1 line fragmentary)He set out their presents for …….
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
…… lie down …… Ninsumun ……. Gilgameš, the son of Ninsumun, …… poured water ……. (1 line fragmentary)…… scratched the nose for him. The people …… of his city …… will not …… anymore. They spread out (?) their …… in the dust.
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
Then the young lord, Lord Gilgameš, who never ceases to …… for the …… of Enlil -- Gilgameš, the son of Ninsumun, …… offshoot ……; no king who could match him has ever been born, (1 line unclear)Gilgameš, lord of Kulaba, it is sweet to praise you!
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
The great wild bull has lain down and is never to rise again. Lord Gilgameš has lain down and is never to rise again. He who was unique in …… has lain down and is never to rise again. The hero fitted out with a shoulder-belt has lain down and is never to rise again. He who was unique in strength has lain down and is never to rise again. He who diminished wickedness has lain down and is never to rise again. He who spoke most wisely has lain down and is never to rise again. The plunderer (?) of many countries has lain down and is never to rise again. He who knew how to climb the mountains has lain down and is never to rise again. The lord of Kulaba has lain down and is never to rise again. He has lain down on his death-bed and is never to rise again. He has lain down on a couch of sighs and is never to rise again.
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
Unable to stand up, unable to sit down, he laments. Unable to eat, unable to drink, he laments. Held fast by the door-bolt of Namtar, he is unable to rise. Like a …… fish …… in a cistern, he …… ill. Like a captured gazelle buck, he …… couch. Namtar with no hands or feet, who …… one by night, (1 line fragmentary) (unknown no. of lines missing)
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
(2 lines fragmentary) Then the young lord, Lord Gilgameš, lay down on his death-bed. (2 lines fragmentary) After Lord Gilgameš had arrived at the assembly, the pre-eminent place of the gods, they said to Lord Gilgameš concerning him: "As regards your case: after having travelled all the roads that there are, having fetched cedar, the unique tree, from its mountains, having killed Huwawa in his forest, you set up many stelae for future days, for days to come. Having founded many temples of the gods, you reached Zi-ud-sura in his { dwelling place } { (1 ms. has instead:) place }. Having brought down to the Land the divine powers of Sumer, which at that time were forgotten forever, the orders, and the rituals, he (?) carried out correctly the rites of hand washing and mouth washing ……. (1 line fragmentary)" (3 lines missing)
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
(2 lines fragmentary) Enlil's advice was given to Enki. Enki answered An and Enlil: "In those days, in those distant days, in those nights, in those distant nights, in those years, in those distant years, after the assembly had made the Flood sweep over to destroy the seed of mankind, among us I was the only one who was for life (?), and so he remained alive (?) -- Zi-ud-sura, although (?) a human being, remained alive (?). Then you made me swear by heaven and by earth, and …… that no human will be allowed to live forever (?) any more. Now, as we look at Gilgameš, could not he escape because of his mother?"
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
(Another god speaks:) "Let Gilgameš as a ghost, below among the dead, be the governor of the nether world. Let him be pre-eminent among the ghosts, so that he will pass judgments and render verdicts, and what he says will be as weighty as the words of Ninĝišzida and Dumuzid."
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
"Go ahead to the place where the Anuna gods, the great gods, sit at the funerary offerings, to the place where the en priests lie, to where the lagar priests lie, to where the lumaḫ priests and the nindiĝir priestesses lie, to where the gudug priests lie, to where the linen-clad priests lie, to where the nindiĝir priestesses lie, to where the …… lie, to the place where your father, your grandfather, your mother, your sisters, your ……, to where your precious friend, your companion, your friend Enkidu, your young comrade, and the governors appointed by the king to the Great City are, to the place where the sergeants of the army lie, to where the captains of the troops lie, (3 lines missing)From the house of ……, the …… will come to meet you. Your jewel will come to meet you, your precious one will come to meet you. The elders of your city will come to meet you. You should not despair, you should not feel depressed."
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
"He will now be counted among the Anuna gods. He will be counted a companion of the { (1 ms. adds:) great } gods. …… the governor of the nether world. He will pass judgments and render verdicts, and what he says will be as weighty as the words of Ninĝišzida and Dumuzid."
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
And then the young lord, Lord Gilgameš, woke up ……. …… his eyes, ……. …… a dream ……! …… a dream ……! (3 lines fragmentary) "Am I to become again as I were …… on the lap of my own mother Ninsumun? …… who makes the great mountains tremble (?). Namtar with no hands or feet takes away ……." (1 line fragmentary)
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
Lord Nudimmud made (?) him see a dream: After Lord Gilgameš had arrived at the assembly, the pre-eminent place of the gods, they said to Lord Gilgameš concerning him: "As regards your case: after having travelled all the roads that there are, having fetched cedar, the unique tree, from its mountains, having killed Huwawa in his forest, you set up many stelae for future days ……. Having founded many temples of the gods, (1 line fragmentary) Having brought down to the Land the divine powers of Sumer, which at that time were forgotten forever, the orders, and the rituals, he (?) carried out correctly the rites of hand washing and mouth washing. …… the settlements of the countries." (2 lines fragmentary)
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
(1 line fragmentary) …… Gilgameš ……. Enlil's advice was given to Enki. Enki answered An and Enlil: "In those days, in those distant days, in those nights, in those distant nights, in those years, in those distant years, after the assembly had made the Flood sweep over to destroy the seed of mankind ……, among us I was the only one who was for life (?). He remained alive (?); Zi-ud-sura alone, although (?) a human being, remained alive (?). Then you made me swear by heaven and by earth, and I swore that no human will be allowed to live forever (?) any more. Now, as we look at Gilgameš, could not he escape because of his mother?"
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
(Another god speaks:) "Let Gilgameš as a ghost, below among the dead, be the governor of the nether world. Let him be pre-eminent among the ghosts, so that he will pass judgments and render verdicts, and what he says will be as weighty as the words of Ninĝišzida and Dumuzid."
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
Then the young lord, Lord Gilgameš, became depressed because of (?) all mankind." You should not despair, you should not feel depressed. (1 line fragmentary)Mighty youths and …… a semicircle ……. Without him (i.e. Gilgameš) ……. Sisig (a god of dreams), the son of Utu, will provide light for him in the place of darkness."
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
"You must have been told (?) that this is what your being (?) a human involves. You must have been told (?) that this is what the cutting of your umbilical cord involved. The darkest day of humans awaits you now. The solitary place of humans awaits you now. The unstoppable flood-wave awaits you now. The unequal struggle awaits you now. The unavoidable battle awaits you now. The evil (?) from which there is no escape awaits you now. But you should not go to the underworld with heart knotted in anger. May it be …… before Utu. Let it be unravelled like palm-fibre and peeled (?) like garlic."
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
"Go ahead to the place where the Anuna gods, the great gods, sit at the funerary offerings, to the place where the en priests lie, to where the lagar priests lie, to where the lumaḫ priests and the nindiĝir priestesses lie, to where the gudug priests lie, to where the linen-clad priests lie, to where the nindiĝir priestesses lie, to where the …… lie, to the place where your father, your grandfather, your mother, your sisters, your ……, to where your precious friend, your companion, your friend Enkidu, your young comrade, and the governors appointed by the king to the Great City are, to the place where the sergeants of the army lie, to where the captains of the troops lie. …… the Great City Arali …… (1 line fragmentary)"
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
"He …… the Anuna gods. He will be counted a companion of the great gods. (unknown no. of lines missing)"
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
(5 lines fragmentary) His architect (?) designed his tomb like ……. His god Enki showed him where the solution of the dream lies by ……. No one but the …… of the king could solve the vision.
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
The lord imposed a levy on his city. The herald made the horn signal sound in all the lands: "Unug, arise! Open up the Euphrates! Kulaba, arise! Divert the waters of the Euphrates!" Unug's levy was a flood, Kulaba's levy was a clouded sky. Meanwhile not even the first month { had passed } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… }, it was not five or 10 days before they had opened up the Euphrates and diverted its high water. Utu looked at its shells with admiration. Then as soon as the water in the bed of the Euphrates had receded, his tomb was built there from stone. Its walls were built from stone. Its door leaves were installed in the sockets (?) of the entrance. Its bolt and thresholds were hard stone. Its door-pivots were hard stone. They installed its gold beams. Heavy blocks of stone were moved to ……. …… { was completely covered with a thick layer of } { (1 ms. has instead:) was completely covered (?) with } dark soil. …… for future days. (1 line fragmentary)…… who are searching for it should not find its precinct (?). He set up a solid house in the middle of Unug.
The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3
…… to the city ……. …… smeared with dust …….
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
In those days, in those distant days, in those nights, in those remote nights, in those years, in those distant years; in days of yore, when the necessary things had been brought into manifest existence, in days of yore, when the necessary things had been for the first time properly cared for, when bread had been tasted for the first time in the shrines of the Land, when the ovens of the Land had been made to work, when the heavens had been separated from the earth, when the earth had been delimited from the heavens, when the fame of mankind had been established, when An had taken the heavens for himself, when Enlil had taken the earth for himself, when the nether world had been given to Ereškigala as a gift; when he set sail, when he set sail, when the father set sail for the nether world, when Enki set sail for the nether world -- against the king a storm of small hailstones arose, against Enki a storm of large hailstones arose. The small ones were light hammers, the large ones were like stones from catapults (?). The keel of Enki's little boat was trembling as if it were being butted by turtles, the waves at the bow of the boat rose to devour the king like wolves and the waves at the stern of the boat were attacking Enki like a lion.
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
The woman planted the tree with her feet, but not with her hands. The woman watered it using her feet but not her hands. She said: "When will this be a luxuriant chair on which I can take a seat?" She said: "When this will be a luxuriant bed on which I can lie down?" Five years, 10 years went by, the tree grew massive; its bark, however, did not split. At its roots, a snake immune to incantations made itself a nest. In its branches, the Anzud bird settled its young. In its trunk, the phantom maid built herself a dwelling, the maid who laughs with a joyful heart. But holy Inana cried!
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
When dawn was breaking, when the horizon became bright, when the little birds, at the break of dawn, began to clamour, when Utu had left his bedchamber, his sister holy Inana said to the young warrior Utu: "My brother, in those days when destiny was determined, when abundance overflowed in the Land, when An had taken the heavens for himself, when Enlil had taken the earth for himself, when the nether world had been given to Ereškigala as a gift; when he set sail, when he set sail, when the father set sail for the nether world, when Enki set sail for the nether world -- against the lord a storm of small hailstones arose, against Enki a storm of large hailstones arose. The small ones were light hammers, the large ones were like stones from catapults (?). The keel of Enki's little boat was trembling as if it were being butted by turtles, the waves at the bow of the boat rose to devour the lord like wolves and the waves at the stern of the boat were attacking Enki like a lion."
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
"I, the woman, planted the tree with my feet, but not with my hands. I, { Inana } { (1 ms. has instead:) the woman }, watered it using my feet but not my hands. She said: "When will this be a luxuriant chair on which I can take a seat?" She said: "When will this be a luxuriant bed on which I can lie down?" Five years, 10 years had gone by, the tree had grown massive; its bark, however, did not split. At its roots, a snake immune to incantations made itself a nest. In its branches, the Anzud bird settled its young. In its trunk, the phantom maid built herself a dwelling, the maid who laughs with a joyful heart. But holy Inana cried!" Her brother, the young warrior Utu, however, did not stand by her in the matter.
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
When dawn was breaking, when the horizon became bright, when the little birds, at the break of dawn, began to clamour, when Utu had left his bedchamber, his sister holy Inana said to the warrior Gilgameš: "My brother, in those days when destiny was determined, when abundance overflowed in the Land, when An had taken the heavens for himself, when Enlil had taken the earth for himself, when the nether world had been given to Ereškigala as a gift; when he set sail, when he set sail, when the father set sail for the nether world, when Enki set sail for the nether world -- against the lord a storm of small hailstones arose, against Enki a storm of large hailstones arose. The small ones were light hammers, the large ones were like stones from catapults (?). The keel of Enki's little boat was trembling as if it were being butted by turtles, the waves at the bow of the boat rose to devour the lord like wolves and the waves at the stern of the boat were attacking Enki like a lion."
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
"The woman planted the tree with her feet, but not with her hands. Inana watered it using her feet but not her hands. She said: "When will this be a luxuriant chair on which I can take a seat?" She said: "When will this be a luxuriant bed on which I can lie down?" Five years, 10 years had gone by, the tree had grown massive; its bark, however, did not split. At its roots, a snake immune to incantations made itself a nest. In its branches, the Anzud bird settled its young. In its trunk, the phantom maid built herself a dwelling, the maid who laughs with a joyful heart. But { holy Inana } { (1 ms. has instead:) I, holy Inana, } cried!" In the matter which his sister had told him about, her brother, the warrior Gilgameš, stood by her.
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
He { strapped } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… } his …… belt of 50 minas weight to his waist -- 50 minas were to him as 30 shekels. He took his bronze axe used for expeditions, which weighs seven talents and seven minas, in his hand. He killed the snake immune to incantations living at its roots. The Anzud bird living in its branches took up its young and went into the mountains. The phantom maid living in its trunk left (?) her dwelling and sought refuge in the wilderness. As for the tree, he uprooted it and stripped its branches, and the sons of his city, who went with him, cut up its branches and { bundled them } { (1 ms. has instead:) piled them up }. He gave it to his sister holy Inana for her chair. He gave it to her for her bed. As for himself, from its roots, he manufactured his ball (?) and, from its branches, he manufactured his mallet (?).
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
He played with the ball (?) in the broad square, never wanting to stop playing it, and he praised himself in the broad square, never wanting to stop praising himself. { (mss. from Urim add:) The young men of his city were playing with the ball (?). } For (?) him who made the team of the widows' children ……, they lamented: "O my neck! O my hips!" For those that had a mother, the mother brought bread for her son; for those that had a sister, the sister poured water for her brother. As the evening came, he marked the spot where the ball (?) had been placed, and he picked up his ball (?) from in front of him and took it home. But early in the morning as he …… the place marked, the widows' accusation and the young girls' complaint caused his ball (?) and his mallet (?) to fall down to the bottom of the nether world. { (1 ms. adds:) He could not reach them by ……. } He tried with his hand but could not { reach } { (1 ms. has instead:) touch } them, tried with his foot but could not { reach } { (1 ms. has instead:) touch } them.
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
At the gate of Ganzer, in front of the nether world, he sat down. Gilgameš wept, crying bitterly: "O my ball (?)! O my mallet (?)! O my ball (?), I am still not satiated with its charms, the game with it has not yet palled for me! If only my ball (?) waited still in the carpenter's house for me! I would treat the carpenter's wife like my own mother -- if only it waited still there for me! I would treat the carpenter's child like my little sister -- if only it waited still there for me! { My ball (?) has fallen down to the nether world -- who will retrieve it for me? } { (1 ms. has instead:) Who will retrieve my ball (?) from the nether world? } { My mallet (?) has fallen down to Ganzer -- who will retrieve it for me? } { (1 ms. has instead:) Who will retrieve my mallet (?) from Ganzer? }"
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
His servant Enkidu { answered } { (1 ms. has instead:) said to } { him } { (1 ms. has instead:) Gilgameš }: "My king, you weep; why does your heart worry? Today I shall retrieve your ball (?) from the nether world, I shall retrieve your mallet (?) from Ganzer." Gilgameš answered Enkidu: "{ If today } { (1 ms. has instead:) If } you are going to go down to the nether world, let me advise you! My instructions should be followed. Let me talk to you! { Pay attention to my words } { (1 ms. has instead:) My words should be followed }!"
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
"You should not put on your clean garments: they would recognise immediately that you are alien. You should not anoint yourself with fine oil from a bowl: they would surround you at { its } { (1 ms. has instead:) your } scent. You should not hurl throw-sticks in the nether world: those struck down by the throw-sticks would surround you. You should not not hold a cornel-wood stick in your hand: the spirits would feel insulted by you. You should not put sandals on your feet. You should not shout in the nether world. You should not kiss your beloved wife. You should not hit your wife even if you are annoyed with her. You should not kiss your beloved child. You should not hit your son even if you are annoyed with him. The outcry aroused would detain you in the nether world."
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
"She who lies there, she who lies there, Ninazu's mother who lies there -- her pure shoulders are not covered with a garment, and no linen is spread over her pure breast. She has fingers like a pickaxe, she plucks her hair out like leeks."
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
Enkidu, however, did not heed not his master's words. He put on his clean garments and they recognised that he was alien. He anointed himself with fine oil from a bowl and they surrounded him at its scent. He hurled throw-sticks in the nether world and those struck down by the throw-sticks surrounded him. He held a cornel-wood stick in his hand and the spirits felt insulted by him. He put sandals on his feet. He caused irritation in the nether world. He kissed his beloved wife and hit his wife when he was annoyed with her. He kissed his beloved child and hit his son when he was annoyed with him. He aroused an outcry and was detained in the nether world.
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
They hugged and kissed. They wearied each other with questions: "Did you see the order of the nether world? -- If only you would tell me, my friend, if only you would tell me!" "If I tell you the order of the nether world, sit down and weep! I shall sit down and weep! ……, which your heart rejoiced to touch, is ……, worms infest it like an old garment (?); like …… of (?) a crevice, it is full of dust." "Alas!" he said and sat down in the dust.
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
"Did you see him who had one son?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "He weeps bitterly at the wooden peg which was driven into his wall." "Did you see him who had two sons?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "He sits on a couple of bricks, eating bread." "Did you see him who had three sons?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "He drinks water from a saddle waterskin." "Did you see him who had four sons?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "His heart rejoices like a man who has four asses to yoke." "Did you see him who had five sons?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "Like a good scribe he is indefatigable, he enters the palace easily." "Did you see him who had six sons?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "He is a cheerful as a ploughman." "Did you see him who had seven sons?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "As a companion of the gods, he sits on a throne and listens to judgments."
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
"Did you see the palace eunuch?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "Like a useless alala stick he is propped in a corner." "Did you see the woman who never gave birth?" "I saw her." "How does she fare?" "Like a …… pot, she is thrown away violently, she gives no man joy." "Did you see the young man who never undressed his wife?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "You finish a rope, and he weeps over the rope." "Did you see the young woman who never undressed her husband?" "I saw her." "How does she fare?" "You finish a reed mat, and she weeps over the reed mat." "Did you see him who had no heir?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "Like him who …… bricks (?), he eats bread." "……?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" (7 lines fragmentary or missing)
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
"Did you see ……?" "His food is set apart, his water is set apart, he eats the food offered (?) to him, he drinks the water offered (?) to him." { (1 ms. adds:) "Did you see him who was eaten by a lion?" "He cries bitterly "O my hands! O my legs!"" "Did you see him who fell down from the roof?" "They cannot …… his bones." } "Did you see the leprous man?" "He twitches like an ox as the worms eat at him." "Did you see him who fell in battle?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "His father and mother are not there to hold his head, and his wife weeps." "Did you see the spirit of him who has no funerary offerings?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "He eats the scraps and the crumbs …… tossed out in the street." "Did you see him hit by a ship's board { (1 ms. adds:) when diving (?) }? How does he fare?" ""Alas, my mother!" the man cries to her, as he pulls out the ship's board ……, he …… cross beam …… crumbs." "Did you see my little stillborn children who never knew existence?" "I saw them." "How do they fare?" "They play at a table of gold and silver, laden with honey and ghee." "Did you see him who died ……?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "He lies on a bed of the gods." "Did you see him who was set on fire?" "I did not see him. His spirit is not about. His smoke went up to the sky."
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
"Did you see him who fell down from the roof?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "They cannot …… his bones." "Did you see him who was struck in (?) a flood-storm of (?) Iškur?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "He twitches like an ox as the worms eat at him." "Did you see the leprous man?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "His food is set apart, his water is set apart, he eats the food offered (?) to him, he drinks the water offered (?) to him. He lives outside the city."
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
"Did you see him who had no respect for the word of his mother and father?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" ""O my body! O my limbs!" he never ceases to cry." "Did you see him who was reached by the curse of his mother and father?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "He is deprived of an heir. His spirit roams about." "Did you see him who …… the name of his god?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "His spirit ……." "Did you see the spirit of him who has no funerary offerings?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "He eats the scraps and the crumbs …… tossed out in the street." "Did you see my little stillborn children who never knew existence?""I saw them." "How do they fare?" "They play at a table of gold and silver, laden with honey and ghee." "Did you see him who was set on fire?" "I did not see him. His smoke went up to the sky. His spirit does not live in the underworld."
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
"Did you see him who lied to the gods while swearing an oath?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "He drinks …… which has been drunk …… the libation place at the entrance (?) to the nether world." "Did you see the citizen of Ĝirsu who refused (?) water to his father and his mother?" "I saw him." "How does he fare?" "In front of each of them are a thousand Martu, and his spirit can neither …… nor ……. The Martu at the libation place at the entrance (?) to the nether world ……." "Did you see the citizens of Sumer and Akkad?" "I saw them." "How do they fare?" "They drink the water of the …… place, muddy water." "Did you see where my father and my mother live?" "I saw them." "How do they fare?" "Both of them drink the water of the …… place, muddy water."
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
"Did you see him hit by a ship's board? How does he fare?" ""Alas, my mother!" the man cries to her, as he pulls out ……, he …… crossbeam …… crumbs." "Did you see him who fell down from the roof? How does he fare?" "He twitches like an ox as the worms eat at him." "Did you see him who was reached by the curse of his mother? How does he fare?" "He is deprived of an heir. His spirit roams (?) about." "Did you see him who had no respect for the word of his father and his mother? How does he fare?" (1 line fragmentary) (unknown no. of lines missing)
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
"His food is set apart, his water is set apart, he eats the food offered (?) to him, he drinks the water offered (?) to him." "Did you see him who fell in battle? How does he fare?" "His father and mother are not there to hold his head, and his wife weeps." "Did you see him who ……? How does he fare?" "…… from his (?) hand ……." "Did you see the spirit of him who has no funerary offerings? How does he fare?" "He eats the scraps and the crumbs tossed out in the street." "Did you see my little stillborn children who never knew existence? How do they fare?" "They play with a bucket of gold and silver, full of honey and ghee." "Did you see him who was set on fire?" "I did not see him. His spirit is not there. His smoke went up to the sky."
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
They returned to Unug, they returned to their city. He entered outfitted with tools and armaments, with an axe and a spear, and deposited them in his palace happily. Looking at the statue, the young men and women of Unug and the old men (?) and women of Kulaba rejoiced. As Utu came forth from his bedchamber, Gilgameš (?) raised his head and told them (?): "My father and my mother, drink clean water!" Midday had hardly passed when they touched the statue's (?) crown.
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
Gilgameš threw himself down at the place of mourning, he threw himself down for nine days at the place of mourning. The young men and women of Unug and the old men (?) and women of Kulaba wept. As soon as he had said that, he repulsed the citizen of Ĝirsu." My father and my mother, drink clean water!"
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
"Did you see him who had one son? How does he fare?" "He weeps bitterly ……." "Did you see him who had two sons? How does he fare?" "He sits on ……." "Did you see him who had three sons? How does he fare?" "He drinks water ……." "Did you see him who had four sons? How does he fare?" "His heart is happy { (1 ms. adds:) like a man who has four asses to yoke }." "Did you see him who had five sons? How does he fare?" "Like a good scribe he is indefatigable, he enters the palace easily." "Did you see him who had six sons? How does he fare?" "He is cheerful as a ploughman." "Did you see him who had seven sons? How does he fare?" "As a companion of the gods he sits on a throne and listens to judgments." "Did you see him who had no heir? How does he fare?" "Like (?) …… he eats bread." (approx. 3 lines missing)
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
"Did you see him ……? How does he fare?" "He drinks water ……." "Did you see him ……? How does he fare?" "He …… as the worms eat at him." "Did you see him who was eaten by a dog? How does he fare?" "He …… "O my hands! O my legs! O ……!"" "Did you see him hit (?) by the mast of a boat? How does he fare?" ""Alas, my mother" the man cries to her, …… wooden peg ……, he …… food, cross beam (?), crumbs ……." "Did you see the woman who never gave birth? How does she fare?" "Like a …… pot, she is thrown away violently, she …… nobody." "Did you see the young man who never undressed his wife? How does he fare?" "You finish a reed mat and he weeps over the reed mat." "Did you see the young woman who never undressed her husband? How does she fare?" "You finish a …… garment and she weeps over the …… garment."
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
"Did you see him who …… extolled himself? How does he fare?" "He bows down (?) like an ox as the worms eat at him." "Did you see him who fell down from the roof? How does he fare?" "His bones …… and his spirit ……." "Did you see ……? How does he fare?" "He ……." "Did you see the leprous man? How does he fare?" "His water is set apart, his food is set apart. He …… the spirits. He lives outside the city." "Did you see my stillborn children who never received a name? How do they fare?" "They play at a table of gold and silver ……." "Didn't you see him who was set on fire?" "Why, my friend, did not you spare this question?" "I asked it, my friend!" "His spirit is …… from the nether world, it went up to the sky with the smoke (?)."
Gilgameš, Enkidu and the nether world: c.1.8.1.4
His heart was smitten, his insides were ravaged. The king began to search for life. Now the lord once decided to set off for the mountain where the man lives. (These three lines create a transition to 1.8.1.5 Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A).)
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
"So come on now, you heroic bearer of a sceptre of wide-ranging power! Noble glory of the gods, angry bull standing ready for a fight! Young Lord Gilgameš, cherished in Unug!"
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
"In Unug people are dying, and souls are full of distress. People are lost -- that fills me with dismay. I lean out over the city wall: bodies in the water make the river almost overflow. That is what I see: that people die thus, which fills me with despair; that the end of life is unavoidable; that the grave, the all-powerful underworld, will spare no one; that no one is tall enough to block off the underworld; that no one is broad enough to cover over the underworld -- the boundary that a man cannot cross at the final end of life. By the life of my own mother Ninsumun, and of my father, holy Lugalbanda! My personal god Enki, Lord Nudimmud, (3 lines fragmentary)I will complete …… there. I will bring …… there."
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
Utu of heaven put on his lapis-lazuli diadem and came forward with head high. In his hand Gilgameš, the lord of Kulaba, held a holy staff before his nose: "Utu, I want to set off into the mountains! May you be my helper! I want to set off into the mountains of Cedar-felling! May you be my helper!"
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
(4 lines missing) "The first ……. The second ……. The third ……. The fourth ……. The fifth ……. The sixth beats at the flanks of the mountains like a battering flood. The seventh flashes like lightning, and no one can deflect its power. These shine in the heavens, but they know the routes on earth. In heaven they shine ……, raising ……; on earth they know the way even to Aratta. They know the destructive weather like the merchants. They know the mountain crannies like the pigeons. They will guide you to the place in the mountains where the boats have to be pulled from the water."
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
The king left the city. Gilgameš left Kulaba, to follow the route to the Mountains of Cedar-felling. He crossed the first mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the second mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the third mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the fourth mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the fifth mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the sixth mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. When he had crossed the seventh mountain range, there his intuition led him to find the cedars.
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
Then, as one warrior got closer to the other, the aura of Ḫuwawa …… sped towards them like a spear (?). …… he rested there peacefully. He was asleep (?) ……. (3 lines missing)
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
Gilgameš awoke from his dream, shuddering from his sleep. He rubbed his eyes; there was eery silence everywhere." By the life of my own mother Ninsumun and of my father, holy Lugalbanda! My personal god Enki, Lord Nudimmud ……! (2 lines missing)"
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
"I ……, he vexes (?) me -- the warrior whose face is a lion's grimace, and whose breast is like a raging flood. No one dare approach his brow, which devours the reedbeds. On his tongue, like that of a man-eating lion, the blood never dries. You do not have enough strength for the warrior, such is his might."
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
When Ḫuwawa had finally handed over to him his seventh aura, Gilgameš found himself beside Ḫuwawa. He punched him on the ear with his fist. Ḫuwawa furrowed his brows at him, baring his teeth at him. Gilgameš threw a halter over him, as over a captured wild bull. He tied him up by the elbows like a captured warrior.
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
The warrior began to weep, shedding tears. Ḫuwawa began to weep, shedding tears.
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
…… Gilgameš's noble heart took pity on him. He addressed his slave Enkidu: "Come on, let us set the warrior free! He could be our guide! He could be our guide who would spy out the pitfalls of the route for us! He could be my ……! He could carry all my things! (1 line fragmentary)"
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version B): c.1.8.1.5.1
{ His slave Enkidu replied to him } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… replied to Gilgameš }: "…… so lacking in understanding! …… with no ……! …… with not ……! A captured warrior set free! A captured high priestess returned to the ĝipar! A captured gudug priest restored to his wig of hair! Who has ever, ever seen such a thing? He would be able to …… the mountain routes. He would be able to mix up the mountain paths. Then we would never get back to the mother-city that bore us! (4 lines missing)"
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
Gilgameš { prepared } { (2 mss. have instead:) took hold of } a white kid. { He clasped a brown kid, a sacrificial animal, close to his breast. } { (1 ms. has instead:) He …… a brown kid. } In his hand he held a holy staff before his nose, as he addressed Utu of heaven:
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
From heaven Utu replied to him: "Young man, you are noble already in your own right -- but what would you want with the mountains?"
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
"Utu, I have something to say to you -- a word in your ear! I greet you -- please pay attention! In my city people are dying, and hearts are full of distress. People are lost -- that fills me with { (1 ms. adds:) wretched } dismay. I craned my neck over the city wall: corpses in the water make the river almost overflow. That is what I see. That will happen to me too -- that is the way things go. No one is tall enough to reach heaven; no one can reach wide enough to stretch over the mountains. Since a man cannot pass beyond the final end of life, I want to set off into the mountains, to establish my renown there. Where renown can be established there, I will establish my renown; and where no renown can be established there, I shall establish the renown of the gods."
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
Utu accepted his tears as a fitting gift. As befits a compassionate person, he turned to him full of compassion: "Now there are seven warriors, sons of a single mother. The first, their eldest brother, has lion's paws and eagle's talons. The second is a …… snake, ……. The third is a dragon snake, ……. The fourth blazes with fire ……. The fifth is a …… snake, ……. The sixth { (1 ms. adds:), a shackle that …… the rebel lands in the hills, } beats at the flanks of the mountains { like a battering flood } { (1 ms. has instead:), floodwater that destroys all }. The seventh …… flashes like lightning, and no one can deflect { it } { (1 ms. has instead:) its power }. { (1 ms. adds 4 lines:) (4 lines fragmentary) } { (another ms. adds instead 6 lines:) (2 lines fragmentary) …… kingship ……. Nisaba has bestowed …… on you in addition. They ……, and know the routes on earth. They will help you find the …… of the way. } They should guide you to the place in the mountains where the boats have to be pulled from the water! { The warrior, youthful Utu, gave these seven to Gilgameš. } { (3 mss. have instead the line, placed after line 43:) These seven the warrior, youthful Utu, gave to Lord Gilgameš. } The feller of cedars was filled with joy; Lord Gilgameš was filled with joy."
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
Whoever had a household went to his household. Whoever had a mother went to his mother. Bachelor males, types like him -- there were fifty -- joined him at his side. He made his way to the blacksmith's, and had them cast …… weapons and axes, the strength of warriors. Then he made his way to the deeply shaded plantations, where he had ebony trees felled, and ḫalub trees, apricot trees, and box trees. He …… to his fellow-citizens who were going with him. { (1 ms. adds:) Warriors, sons of a single mother ……. } The first, their eldest brother, has lion's paws and eagle's claws. They will guide him to the place in the mountains where the boats have to be pulled from the water.
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
He crossed the first mountain range, { but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there } { (1 ms. has instead:) the cedars did not catch his attention }. { (the same ms. adds:) He crossed the second mountain range, but the cedars did not catch his attention. He crossed the third mountain range, but the cedars did not catch his attention. He crossed the fourth mountain range, but the cedars did not catch his attention. He crossed the fifth mountain range, but the cedars did not catch his attention. He crossed the sixth mountain range, but the cedars did not catch his attention. } { (another ms. adds instead:) (unknown no. of lines missing) He crossed the third mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the fourth mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the fifth mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. He crossed the sixth mountain range, but his intuition did not lead him to find the cedars there. }
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
When he had crossed the seventh mountain range, there his intuition led him to find the cedars. He did not need to ask, nor did he have to search any further. Lord Gilgameš began to chop at the cedars, { { while Enkidu lopped off their branches, …… to Gilgameš. } { (1 ms. has instead:) while Enkidu …… their branches, and his fellow-citizens ……. } { (1 ms. adds:) to ……, Enkidu ……. } …… stacked them in piles. { (1 ms. adds:) Ḫuwawa ……. } He loosed his terrrors against ……. } { (instead of lines 65-67, 1 ms. has:) while Enkidu cut up the timbers, and the widows' sons who had come with him heaped them up in piles. Since, because of the ……, Ḫuwawa had been scared in his lair by Gilgameš, he began to radiate his terrors ……. }
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
Gilgameš …… was overcome by sleep, and it affected Enkidu …… as a powerful longing. His fellow-citizens who had come with him flailed around at his feet like puppies. Enkidu awoke from his dream, shuddering from his sleep. He rubbed his eyes; there was eery silence everywhere. He touched Gilgameš, but could not rouse him. He spoke to him, but he did not reply.
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
"You who have gone to sleep, you who have gone to sleep! Gilgameš, young lord of Kulaba, how long will you sleep for? The mountains are becoming indistinct as the shadows fall across them; the evening twilight lies over them. Proud Utu has already gone to the bosom of his mother Ningal. Gilgameš, how long will you sleep for? The sons of your city who came with you should not have to wait at the foot of the hills. Their own mothers should not have to twine string in the square of your city."
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
He thrust that into his right ear; he covered him with his aggressive words as if with a cloth { (1 ms. adds:), laid them out like linen }. He { gathered } { (3 mss. have instead:) picked up } in his hand a cloth with thirty shekels of oil on it and { smothered } { (1 ms. has instead:) rubbed } it over Gilgameš's chest. Then Gilgameš stood up like a bull on the great earth. Bending his neck downwards, he yelled at him:
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
The slave, trying to ameliorate the situation, trying to make life appear more attractive, answered his master:
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
"My master, you have not yet really seen that person, he should not vex you. -- But he vexes me -- me, who have seen him before. His pugnacious mouth is a dragon's maw; his face is a lion's grimace. His chest is like a raging flood; no one { dare approach } { (1 ms. has instead:) can escape from } his brow, which devours the reedbeds. { (2 mss. adds 1 line:) A man-eating lion, he never wipes away the blood from his slaver. } { (1 ms. adds instead 5 lines:) (1 line fragmentary) …… a lion eating a corpse, he never wipes away the blood (3 lines fragmentary) } Travel on, my master, up into the mountains! -- but I shall travel back to the city. If I say to your mother about you "He is alive!", she will laugh. But afterwards I shall say to her about you "He is dead!", and she will certainly weep { over you } { (1 ms. has instead:) bitterly }." { (1 ms. adds:) …… replied to ……: }
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
"Look, Enkidu, two people together will not perish! A grappling-pole does not sink! No one can cut through a three-ply cloth! Water cannot wash someone away from a wall! Fire in a reed house cannot be extinguished! You help me, and I will help you -- what can anyone do against us then? When it sank, when it sank, when the Magan boat sank, when the magilum barge sank, then at least the life-saving grappling-pole of the boat { was rescued } { (1 ms. has instead:) was not allowed to sink }! Come on, let's get after him and get a sight of him!"
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
Before a man can approach within even sixty times six yards, Ḫuwawa has already reached his house among the cedars. When he looks at someone, it is the look of death. When he shakes his head at someone, it is a gesture full of reproach. { (1 ms. adds:) When he speaks to someone, he should not prolong his words: } "You may still be a young man, but you will never again return to the city of your mother who bore you!"
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
Fear and terror spread through { his } { (1 ms. has instead:) Gilgameš's } sinews and his feet. He could not move (?) his feet on the ground; the big toenails of his feet stuck …… to the path (?). At his side …….
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
(Ḫuwawa addressed Gilgameš:) "So come on now, you heroic bearer of a sceptre of wide-ranging power! Noble glory of the gods, angry bull standing ready for a fight! Your mother knew well how to bear sons, and your nurse knew well how to nourish children on the breast! Don't be afraid, rest your hand on the ground!"
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
Gilgameš rested his hand on the ground, and addressed Ḫuwawa: "By the life of my own mother Ninsumun and of my father, holy Lugalbanda! No one really knows where in the mountains you live; they would like to know where in the mountains you live. Here, I have brought you En-me-barage-si, my big sister, to be your wife in the mountains."
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
And again he addressed him: "By the life of my mother Ninsumun and of my father, holy Lugalbanda! No one really knows where in the mountains you live; they would like to know where in the mountains you live. Here, I have brought you Ma-tur, my little sister, to be your concubine in the mountains. Just hand over your terrors to me! I want to become your kinsman!"
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
{ (Several mss. preserve a more elaborate, but repetitive, narrative built on the pattern of lines 145-148. Some preserve the repetitions in an extremely abbreviated form. No ms. known to be from Nibru preserves the additional lines. One ms. of unknown origin adds at least 53 lines (and another fragmentary ms. of unknown origin gives an abbreviated version of these, always replacing 'terror' by 'aura'):) And again he addressed him: "By the life of my mother Ninsumun and of my father, holy Lugalbanda! No one really knows where in the mountains you live; they would like to know where in the mountains you live. Here, I have brought to the mountains for you ……. Couldn't I get close to you and your family? Just hand over your terrors to me! I want to become your kinsman!" Then Ḫuwawa handed over to him his second terror. Gilgameš's fellow-citizens who had come with him began to lop off the branches and bundle them together, so as to lay them down at the foot of the hills. }
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
{ And a third time he addressed him: "By the life of my mother Ninsumun and of my father, holy Lugalbanda! No one really knows where in the mountains you live; they would like to know where in the mountains you live. Here, I have brought to the mountains for you some eša flour -- the food of the gods! -- and a waterskin of cool water. Couldn't I get close to you and your family? Just hand over your terrors to me! I want to become your kinsman!" Then Ḫuwawa handed over to him his third terror. Gilgameš's fellow-citizens who had come with him began to lop off the branches and bundle them together, so as to lay them down at the foot of the hills. }
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
{ And a fourth time he addressed him: "By the life of my mother Ninsumun and of my father, holy Lugalbanda! No one really knows where in the mountains you live; they would like to know where in the mountains you live. Here, I have brought to for you some big shoes for big feet. Couldn't I get close to you and your family? Just hand over your terrors to me! I want to become your kinsman!" Then Ḫuwawa handed over to him his fourth terror. Gilgameš's fellow-citizens who had come with him began to lop off the branches and bundle them together, so as to lay them down at the foot of the hills. }
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
{ And a fifth time he addressed him: "By the life of my mother Ninsumun and of my father, holy Lugalbanda! No one really knows where in the mountains you live; they would like to know where in the mountains you live. Here, I have brought to the mountains for you some tiny shoes for your tiny feet. Couldn't I get close to you and your family? Just hand over your terrors to me! I want to become your kinsman!" Then Ḫuwawa handed over to him his fifth terror. Gilgameš's fellow-citizens who had come with him began to lop off the branches and bundle them together, so as to lay them down at the foot of the hills. }
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
{ And a sixth time he addressed him: "By the life of my mother Ninsumun and of my father, holy Lugalbanda! No one really knows where in the mountains you live; they would like to know where in the mountains you live. Here, I have brought you rock-crystal, nir stone and lapis lazuli -- from the mountains. Couldn't I get close to you and your family? Just hand over your terrors to me! I want to become your kinsman!" Then Ḫuwawa handed over to him his sixth terror. Gilgameš's fellow-citizens who had come with him began to lop off the branches and bundle them together, so as to lay them down at the foot of the hills. }
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
When Ḫuwawa had finally handed over to him his seventh terror, Gilgameš found himself beside Ḫuwawa. He { went up to him gradually } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… } from behind, as one does with a …… snake. He made as if to kiss him, but then punched him on the cheek with his fist.
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
Ḫuwawa bared his teeth at him { (1 ms. adds:), furrowing his brows at him }. { (2 mss. from Urim add 8 lines:) Ḫuwawa addressed Gilgameš: "Hero, …… to act falsely!" The two of them …… on him ……. …… the warrior from his dwelling. …… said to him," Sit down!" …… Ḫuwawa from his dwelling. …… said to him," Sit down!" The warrior sat down and began to weep, shedding tears. Ḫuwawa sat down and began to weep, shedding tears. Ḫuwawa …… plea …… to Gilgameš. } { (instead of lines 152A-152H, 2 other mss. add 2 lines:) He threw a halter over him as over a captured wild bull. He tied up his arms like a captured man. { (1 of the mss. adds 1 further line:) Ḫuwawa wept, ……. } }
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
{ He tugged at Gilgameš's hand. } { (4 mss. have instead:) "Gilgameš, let me go!" } "I want to talk to Utu!" "Utu, I never knew a mother who bore me, nor a father who brought me up! I was born in the mountains -- you brought me up! Yet Gilgameš swore to me by heaven, by earth, and by the mountains."
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
Ḫuwawa clutched at Gilgameš's hand, and prostrated himself before him. Then Gilgameš's noble heart took pity on him. { Gilgameš addressed Enkidu } { (3 mss. have instead:) He addressed his slave Enkidu }:
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
{ Enkidu replied to Gilgameš } { (2 mss. have instead:) His slave Enkidu replied }: "Come on now, you heroic bearer of a sceptre of wide-ranging power! Noble glory of the gods, angry bull standing ready for a fight! Young Lord Gilgameš, cherished in Unug, your mother knew well how to bear sons, and your nurse knew well how to nourish children! -- One so exalted and yet so lacking in { understanding } { (1 ms. has instead:) judgment } will be devoured by fate without him ever understanding that fate. The very idea that a captured bird should run away home, or a captured man should return to his mother's embrace! -- Then you yourself would never get back to the mother-city that bore you! { (1 ms. adds:) A captured warrior set free! A captured high priestess …… to the ĝipar! A captured gudug priest restored to his wig of hair! …… ever, ever ……? (2 lines fragmentary) …… his attention to his words ……. }"
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
Ḫuwawa addressed Enkidu: "Enkidu, you speak such hateful { (1 ms. adds:) hostile } words against me to him! You hireling, who are hired for your keep! You who follow along after him -- { you speak such hateful words to him. } { (2 mss. have instead:) why do you speak such hateful words to him? }" { (1 ms. adds:) (2 lines fragmentary) }
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
As Ḫuwawa spoke thus to him, { Enkidu, full of rage and anger, cut his throat } { (2 mss. from Nibru have instead:) they cut his throat }. { He put } { (1 ms. has instead:) He chucked } { (the same 2 mss. from Nibru have instead:) They put } his head in a leather bag.
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
{ They entered before Enlil. After they had kissed the ground before Enlil, they threw the leather bag down, tipped out his head, and placed it before Enlil. When Enlil saw the head of Ḫuwawa, he spoke angrily to Gilgameš: } { (instead of lines 181-186, 1 ms. has:) They brought it before Enlil and Ninlil. When Enlil approached (?), …… went out the window (?), and Ninlil went out ……. When Enlil with Ninlil had returned (?), }
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
"Why did you act in this way? { …… did you act ……? } { (1 ms. has instead:) Was it commanded that his name should be wiped from the earth? } { He should have sat before you! } { (1 ms. has instead:) He should have sat ……, ……. } He should have eaten the bread that you eat, and should have drunk the water that you drink! { He should have been honoured …… you! } { (1 ms. has instead:) Ḫuwawa -- he …… honoured! }" { (1 other ms. has instead:) From his seat, Enlil assigned Ḫuwawa's heavenly auras to ……. }
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
(The ms. tradition for lines 193-199 is extremely confused about the order in which the various auras are assigned; the following sequence is a compromise:) He gave Ḫuwawa's first aura to the fields. He gave his second aura to the rivers. He gave his third aura to the reedbeds. He gave his fourth aura to the lions. He gave his fifth aura to the { palace } { (1 ms. has instead:) debt slaves }. He gave his sixth aura to the { forests } { (1 ms. has instead:) the hills }. He gave his seventh aura to Nungal(the goddess of prisoners).
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
{ …… his terror …… } { (1 ms. or possibly 2 mss. have instead:) …… the rest of the auras …… Gilgameš ……. }
Gilgameš and Ḫuwawa (Version A): c.1.8.1.5
{ Mighty one, Gilgameš, { who is cherished! } { (1 ms. has instead:) be praised! Enkidu, be praised }! Nisaba, be praised! } { (instead of lines 201-202, 1 ms. has:) Ḫuwawa, ……! …… cherished, ……! Enkidu, be praised ……! }
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
When in ancient days heaven was separated from earth, when in ancient days that which was fitting ……, when after the ancient harvests …… barley was eaten (?), when boundaries were laid out and borders were fixed, when boundary-stones were placed and inscribed with names, when dykes and canals were purified, when …… wells were dug straight down; when the bed of the Euphrates, the plenteous river of Unug, was opened up, when ……, when ……, when holy An removed ……, when the offices of en and king were famously exercised at Unug, when the sceptre and staff of Kulaba were held high in battle -- in battle, Inana's game; when the black-headed were blessed with long life, in their settled ways and in their ……, when they presented the mountain goats with pounding hooves and the mountain stags beautiful with their antlers to Enmerkar son of Utu --
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
-- now at that time the king set his mace towards the city, Enmerkar son of Utu prepared an …… expedition against Aratta, the mountain of the holy divine powers. He was going to set off to destroy the rebel land; the lord began a mobilization of his city. The herald made the horn signal sound in all the lands. Now levied Unug took the field with the wise king, indeed levied Kulaba followed Enmerkar. Unug's levy was a flood, Kulaba's levy was a clouded sky. As they covered the ground like heavy fog, the dense dust whirled up by them reached up to heaven. As if to rooks on the best seed, rising up, he called to the people. Each one gave his fellow the sign.
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Their king went at their head, to go at the …… of the army. Enmerkar went at their head, to go at the …… of the army. (2 lines unclear)…… gu-nida emmer-grain to grow abundantly. When the righteous one who takes counsel with Enlil (i.e. Enmerkar) took away the whole of Kulaba, like sheep they bent over at the slope of the mountains, …… at the edge of the hills they ran forward like wild bulls. He sought …… at the side -- they recognised the way. He sought …….
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Five days passed. On they sixth day they bathed. …… on the seventh day they entered the mountains. When they had crossed over on the paths -- an enormous flood billowing upstream into a lagoon …… Their ruler (i.e. Enmerkar), riding on a storm, Utu's son, the good bright metal, stepped down from heaven to the great earth. His head shines with brilliance, the barbed arrows flash past him like lightning; at his side the bronze pointed axe of his emblem shines for him, he strides forward keenly with the pointed axe, like a dog set on consuming a corpse.
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
At that time there were seven, there were seven -- the young ones, born in Kulaba, were seven. The goddess Uraš had borne these seven, the Wild Cow had nourished them with milk. They were heroes, living in Sumer, they were princely in their prime. They had been brought up eating at the god An's table. These seven were the overseers for those that are subordinate to overseers, were the captains for those that are subordinate to captains were the generals for those that are subordinate to generals. They were overseers of 300 men, 300 men each; they were captains of 600 men, 600 men each; they were generals of seven šar (25,200) of soldiers, 25,200 soldiers each. They stood at the service of the lord as his élite troops.
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Lugalbanda, the eighth of them, …… was washed in water. In awed silence he went forward, …… he marched with the troops. When they had covered half the way, covered half the way, a sickness befell him there, 'head sickness' befell him. He jerked like a snake dragged by its head with a reed; his mouth bit the dust, like a gazelle caught in a snare. No longer could his hands return the hand grip, no longer could he lift his feet high. Neither king nor contingents could help him. In the great mountains, crowded together like a dustcloud over the ground, they said: "Let them bring him to Unug." But they did not know how they could bring him." Let them bring him to Kulaba." But they did not know how they could bring him. As his teeth chattered (?) in the cold places of the mountains, they brought him to a warm place there.
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
…… a storehouse, they made him an arbour like a bird's nest. …… dates, figs and various sorts of cheese; they put sweetmeats suitable for the sick to eat, in baskets of dates, and they made him a home. They set out for him the various fats of the cowpen, the sheepfold's fresh cheese, butter ……, as if laying a table for the holy place, the valued place (i.e. as if for a funerary offering). Directly in front of the table they arranged for him beer for drinking, mixed with date syrup and rolls …… with butter. Provisions poured into leather buckets, provisions all put into leather bags -- his brothers and friends, like a boat unloading from the harvest-place, placed stores by his head in the mountain cave. They …… water in their leather waterskins. Dark beer, alcoholic drink, light emmer beer, wine for drinking which is pleasant to the taste, they distributed by his head in the mountain cave as on a stand for waterskins. They prepared for him incense resin, …… resin, aromatic resin, ligidba resin and first-class resin on pot-stands in the deep hole; they suspended them by his head in the mountain cave. They pushed into place at his head his axe whose metal was tin, imported from the Zubi mountains. They wrapped up by his chest his dagger of iron imported from the Gig (Black) mountains. His eyes -- irrigation ditches, because they are flooding with water -- holy Lugalbanda kept open, directed towards this. The outer door of his lips -- overflowing like holy Utu -- he did not open to his brothers. When they lifted his neck, there was no breath there any longer. His brothers, his friends took counsel with one another:
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
"If our brother rises like Utu from bed, then the god who has smitten him will step aside and, when he eats this food, when he drinks (?) this, will make his feet stable. May he bring him over the high places of the mountains to brick-built Kulaba."
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
"But if Utu calls our brother to the holy place, the valued place (i.e. the hereafter), the health of his limbs will leave (?) him. Then it will be up to us, when we come back from Aratta, to bring our brother's body to brick-built Kulaba."
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Like the dispersed holy cows of Nanna, as with a breeding bull when, in his old age, they have left him behind in the cattle pen, his brothers and friends abandoned holy Lugalbanda in the mountain cave; and with repeated tears and moaning, with tears, with lamentation, with grief and weeping, Lugalbanda's older brothers set off into the mountains.
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Then two days passed during which Lugalbanda was ill; to these two days, half a day was added. As Utu turned his glance towards his home, as the animals lifted their heads toward their lairs, at the day's end in the evening cool, his body was as if anointed with oil. But he was not yet free of his sickness.
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
When he lifted his eyes to heaven to Utu, he wept to him as if to his own father. In the mountain cave he raised to him his fair hands:
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
"Utu, I greet you! Let me be ill no longer! Hero, Ningal's son, I greet you! Let me be ill no longer! Utu, you have let me come up into the mountains in the company of my brothers. In the mountain cave, the most dreadful spot on earth, let me be ill no longer! Here where there is no mother, there is no father, there is no acquaintance, no one whom I value, my mother is not here to say "Alas, my child!" My brother is not here to say "Alas, my brother!" My mother's neighbour who enters our house is not here to weep over me. If the male and female protective deities were standing by, the deity of neighbourliness would say," A man should not perish." A lost dog is bad; a lost man is terrible. On the unknown way at the edge of the mountains, Utu, is a lost man, a man in an even more terrible situation. Don't make me flow away like water in a violent death! Don't make me eat saltpetre as if it were barley! Don't make me fall like a throw-stick somewhere in the desert unknown to me! Afflicted with a name which excites my brothers' scorn, let me be ill no longer! Afflicted with the derision of my comrades, let me be ill no longer! Let me not come to an end in the mountains like a weakling!"
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Utu accepted his tears. He sent down his divine encouragement to him in the mountain cave.
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
"Inana, if only this were my home, if only this were my city! If only this were Kulaba, the city in which my mother bore me ……! Even if it were to me as the waste land to a snake! If it were to me as a crack in the ground to a scorpion! My mighty people ……! My great ladies ……! …… to E-ana!" (2 lines unclear)"The little stones of it, the shining stones in their glory, saĝkal stones above, …… below, from its crying out in the mountain land Zabu, from its voice …… open -- may my limbs not perish in the mountains of the cypresses!"
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Inana accepted his tears. With power of life she let him go to sleep just like the sleeping Utu. Inana enveloped him with heart's joy as if with a woollen garment. Then, just as if ……, she went to brick-built Kulaba.
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
The bull that eats up the black soup, the astral holy bull-calf (i.e. the moon), came to watch over him. He shines (?) in the heavens like the morning star, he spreads bright light in the night -- Suen is greeted as the new moon; Father Nanna gives the direction for the rising Utu. The glorious lord whom the crown befits, Suen, the beloved son of Enlil, { the god } { (1 ms. has instead:) the lord } reached the zenith splendidly. His brilliance like { holy Šara } { (1 ms. has instead:) holy Utu } { (1 ms. has instead:) lapis lazuli }, his starry radiance illuminated for him the mountain cave. When Lugalbanda raised his eyes to heaven to Suen, he wept to him as if to his own father. In the mountain cave he raised to him his fair hands:
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
"King whom one cannot reach in the distant sky! Suen whom one cannot reach in the distant sky! King who loves justice, who hates evil! Suen who loves justice, who hates evil! Justice brings joy justly to your heart. A poplar, a great staff, forms a sceptre for you, you who loosen the bonds of justice, who do not loosen the bonds of evil. If you encounter evil before you, it is dragged away behind ……. When your heart becomes angry, you spit your venom at evil like a snake which drools poison."
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Suen accepted his tears and gave him life. He conferred on his feet the power to stand.
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
A second time (i.e. at the following sunrise), as the bright bull rising up from the horizon, the bull resting among the cypresses, a shield standing on the ground, watched by the assembly, a shield coming out from the treasury, watched by the young men -- the youth Utu extended his holy splendour down from heaven { (1 ms. from Urim adds:) …… holy, his brilliance illuminated for him the mountain cave }, he bestowed them on holy Lugalbanda in the mountain cave. His good protective god hovered ahead of him, his good protective goddess walked behind him. The god which had smitten him { stepped aside } { (1 ms. has instead:) went out from him } { (1 ms. has instead:) went up and away from him }. When he raised his eyes heavenward to Utu, he wept to him as to his own father. In the mountain cave he raised to him his fair hands:
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
"Utu, shepherd of the land, father of the black-headed, when you go to sleep, the people go to sleep with you; youth Utu, when you rise, the people rise with you. Utu, without you no net is stretched out for a bird, no slave is taken away captive. To him who walks alone, you are his brotherly companion; Utu, you are the third of them who travel in pairs. You are the blinkers for him who wears the neck-ring. Like a holy zulumḫi garment, your sunshine clothes the poor man and the scoundrel as well as him who has no clothes; as a garment of white wool it covers the bodies even of debt slaves. Like rich old men, the old women praise your sunshine sweetly, until their oldest days. Your sunshine is as mighty as oil. Great wild bulls run forward." (alludes to a proverb) (1 line unclear) "Hero, son of Ningal, …… to you." (2 lines unclear)"Brother …… his brother. He causes his plough to stand in the ……. Praise to you is so very sweet, it reaches up to heaven. Hero, son of Ningal, they laud you as you deserve."
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Holy Lugalbanda came out from the mountain cave. Then the righteous one who takes counsel with Enlil (i.e. Utu ?) caused life-saving plants to be born. The rolling rivers, mothers of the hills, brought life-saving water. He bit on the life-saving plants, he sipped from the life-saving water. After biting on the life-saving plants, after sipping from the life-saving water, here he on his own set a trap (?) in the ground, and from that spot he sped away like a horse of the mountains. Like a lone wild ass of Šakkan he darted over the mountains. Like a large powerful donkey he raced; a slim donkey, eager to run, he bounded along.
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
That night, in the evening, he set off, hurrying through the mountains, a waste land in the moonlight. He was alone and, even to his sharp eyes, there was not a single person to be seen. With the provisions stocked in leather pails, provisions put in leather bags, his brothers and his friends had been able to bake bread on the ground, with some cold water. Holy Lugalbanda had carried the things from the mountain cave. He set them beside the embers. He filled a bucket …… with water. In front of him he split what he had placed. He took hold of the …… stones. Repeatedly he struck them together. He laid the glowing (?) coals on the open ground. The fine flintstone caused a spark. Its fire shone out for him over the waste land like the sun. Not knowing how to bake cakes, not knowing an oven, with just seven coals he baked giziešta dough. While the bread was baking by itself, he pulled up šulḫi reeds of the mountains, roots and all, and stripped their branches. He packed up all the cakes as a day's ration. Not knowing how to bake cakes, not knowing an oven, with just seven coals he had baked giziešta dough. He garnished it with sweet date syrup.
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
A brown goat and a buck-goat -- flea-bitten goats, lousy goats, fatty (?) goats -- in this way they were chewing aromatic šimgig as if it were barley, they were grinding up the wood of the cypress as if it were esparto grass, they were sniffing with their noses at the foliage of the šenu shrub as if it were grass. They were drinking the water of the rolling rivers, they were belching from ilinnuš, the pure plant of the mountains. While the brown goats and the buck-goats were browsing about among the plants, Lugalbanda captured these two in his ambush (?). He uprooted a juniper tree of the mountains and stripped its branches. With a knife holy Lugalbanda cut off its roots, which were like the long rushes of the field. With chains he fettered the brown goat and the buck-goat, both the goats. { (1 ms. adds:) ……, he piled up ……. }
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
He was alone and, even to his sharp eyes, there was not a single person to be seen. Sleep overcame the king (i.e. Lugalbanda) -- sleep, the country of oppression; it is like a towering flood, like a hand demolishing a brick wall, a hand raised high, a foot raised high; covering like syrup that which is in front of it, overflowing like syrup onto that which is in front of it; it knows no overseer, knows no captain, yet it is overpowering for the hero. And by means of Ninkasi's wooden cask (i.e. with the help of beer), sleep finally overcame Lugalbanda. He laid down ilinnuš, pure herb of the mountains, as a couch, he spread out a zulumḫi garment, he unfolded there a white linen sheet. There being no …… room for bathing, he made do with that place. The king lay down not to sleep, he lay down to dream -- not turning back at the door of the dream, not turning back at the door-pivot. To the liar it talks in lies, to the truthful it speaks truth. It can make one man happy, it can make another man sing, but it is the closed tablet-basket of the gods. It is the beautiful bedchamber of Ninlil, it is the counsellor of Inana. The multiplier of mankind, the voice of one not alive -- Zangara, the god of dreams, himself like a bull, bellowed at Lugalbanda. Like the calf of a cow he lowed:
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
"Who will slaughter (?) a brown wild bull for me? Who will make its fat melt for me? He shall take my axe whose metal is tin, he shall wield my dagger which is of iron. Like an athlete I shall let him bring away the brown wild bull, the wild bull of the mountains, I shall let him like a wrestler make it submit. Its strength will leave it. When he offers it before the rising sun, let him heap up like barleycorns the heads of the brown goat and the buck-goat, both the goats; when he has poured out their blood in the pit -- let their smell waft out in the desert so that the alert snakes of the mountains will sniff it."
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
Lugalbanda awoke -- it was a dream. He shivered -- it was sleep. He rubbed his eyes, he was overawed. He took his axe whose metal was tin, he wielded his dagger which was of iron. Like an athlete he brought away the brown wild bull, the wild bull of the mountains, like a wrestler he made it submit. Its strength left it. He offered it before the rising sun. He heaped up like barleycorns the heads of the brown goat and the buck-goat, both of the goats. He poured out their blood in the pit so that their smell wafted out in the desert. The alert snakes of the mountains sniffed it.
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
As the sun was rising ……, Lugalbanda, invoking the name of Enlil, made An, Enlil, Enki and Ninḫursaĝa sit down to a banquet at the pit, at the place in the mountains which he had prepared. The banquet was set, the libations were poured -- dark beer, alcoholic drink, light emmer beer, wine for drinking which is pleasant to the taste. Over the plain he poured cool water as a libation. He put the knife to the flesh of the brown goats, and he roasted the dark livers there. He let their smoke rise there, like incense put on the fire. As if Dumuzid had brought in the good savours of the cattle pen, so An, Enlil, Enki and Ninḫursaĝa consumed the best part of the food prepared by Lugalbanda. Like the shining place of pure strength, the holy altar of Suen, ……. On top of the altar of Utu and the altar of Suen ……, he decorated the two altars with the lapis lazuli …… of Inana. Suen ……. He bathed the a-an-kar. When he had bathed the ……, he set out all the cakes properly.
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
(Description of the demons) They make …… Enki, father of the gods; they are ……, they ……; like a string of figs dripping with lusciousness, they hang their arms. They are gazelles of Suen running in flight, they are the fine smooth cloths of Ninlil, they are the helpers of Iškur; they pile up flax, they pile up barley; they are wild animals on the rampage, they descend like a storm on a rebel land hated by Suen, indeed they descend like a storm. They lie up during all the long day, and during the short night they enter …… houses (?); during the long day, during the short night they lie in beds ……, they give ……. At dead of night they ……, in the breeze …… swallows of Utu; they enter into house after house, they peer into street after street, they are talkers, they are repliers to talkers, seeking words with a mother, replying to a great lady; they nestle at the bedside, they smite ……, when the black …… are stolen, they leave …… the doors and tables of humans, they change ……, they tie the door-pivots together. The hero who ……, Utu who ……, the heroic youth Utu of the good word (2 lines unclear) the incantation …… of the youth Utu, which the Anuna, the great gods, do not know, from that time ……, (3 lines unclear)
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
The wise elders of the city …… (1 line unclear) the incantation …… of the youth Utu, which the Anuna, the great gods, do not know, (5 lines unclear) they are able to enter the presence of Utu, of Enlil, god of the ……, the bearded son of Ningal ……; they give to Suen ……, they confirm with their power the fate of the foreign lands. At dead of night they know the black wild boar, at midday to Utu …… he can …… his incantation, (3 lines unclear) They enter before An, Enlil, ……, Inana, the gods; they know ……, they watch ……, they …… at the window; the door of the shining mountain, the doorbolt of the shining mountain; (4 lines unclear) they stand ……, (1 line unclear)
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
They pursue …… Inana ……, who are favoured by Inana's heart, who stand in the battle, they are the fourteen torches of battle ……, at midnight they ……, at dead of night they pursue like wildfire, in a band they flash together like lightning, in the urgent storm of battle, which roars loudly like a great flood rising up; they who are favoured in Inana's heart, who stand in the battle, they are the seven torches of battle ……; they stand joyfully as she wears the crown under a clear sky, with their foreheads and eyes they are a clear evening. Their ears …… a boat, with their mouths they are wild boars resting in a reed thicket; they stand in the thick of battle, with their life-force they ……, (1 line unclear) who are favoured in Inana's heart, who stand in the battle, by Nintur of heaven they are numerous, by the life of heaven they hold ……; the holy shining battle-mace reaches to the edge of heaven and earth, …… reaches. (1 line unclear)
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
As Utu comes forth from his chamber, the holy battle-mace of An ……, the just god who lies alongside a man; they are wicked gods with evil hearts, they are …… gods. It is they, like Nanna, like Utu, like Inana of the fifty divine powers, …… in heaven and earth ……; they are the interpreters of spoken evil, the spies of righteousness, (2 lines unclear) …… a clear sky and numerous stars, (1 line unclear) …… fresh cedars in the mountains of the cypress, …… a battle-net from the horizon to the zenith, (unknown no. of lines missing)
Lugalbanda in the mountain cave: c.1.8.2.1
(7 lines unclear) (unknown no. of lines missing to end)
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Lugalbanda lies idle in the mountains, in the faraway places; he has ventured into the Zabu mountains. No mother is with him to offer advice, no father is with him to talk to him. No one is with him whom he knows, whom he values, no confidant is there to talk to him. In his heart he speaks to himself: "I shall treat the bird as befits him, I shall treat Anzud as befits him. I shall greet his wife affectionately. I shall seat Anzud's wife and Anzud's child at a banquet. An will fetch Ninguena for me from her mountain home -- the expert woman who redounds to her mother's credit, Ninkasi the expert who redounds to her mother's credit. Her fermenting-vat is of green lapis lazuli, her beer cask is of refined silver and of gold. If she stands by the beer, there is joy, if she sits by the beer, there is gladness; as cupbearer she mixes the beer, never wearying as she walks back and forth, Ninkasi, the keg at her side, on her hips; may she make my beer-serving perfect. When the bird has drunk the beer and is happy, when Anzud has drunk the beer and is happy, he can help me find the place to which the troops of Unug are going, Anzud can put me on the track of my brothers."
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Now the splendid 'eagle'-tree of Enki on the summit of Inana's mountain of multicoloured cornelian stood fast on the earth like a tower, all shaggy like an aru. With its shade it covered the highest eminences of the mountains like a cloak, was spread out over them like a tunic. Its roots rested like saĝkal snakes in Utu's river of the seven mouths. Nearby, in the mountains where no cypresses grow, where no snake slithers, where no scorpion stings, in the midst of the mountains the buru-az bird had put its nest and laid therein its eggs; nearby the Anzud bird had set his nest and settled therein his young. It was made with wood from the juniper and the box trees. The bird had made the bright twigs into a bower. When at daybreak the bird stretches himself, when at sunrise Anzud cries out, at his cry the ground quakes in the Lulubi mountains. He has a shark's teeth and an eagle's claws. In terror of him wild bulls run away into the foothills, stags run away into their mountains.
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Lugalbanda is wise and he achieves mighty exploits. In preparation of the sweet celestial cakes he added carefulness to carefulness. He kneaded the dough with honey, he added more honey to it. He set them before the young nestling, before the Anzud chick, gave the baby fatty meat to eat. He fed it sheep's fat. He popped the cakes into its beak. He settled the Anzud chick in its nest, painted its eyes with kohl, dabbed white cedar scent onto its head, put up a twisted roll of salt meat. He withdrew from the Anzud's nest, awaited him in the mountains where no cypresses grow. At that time the bird was herding together wild bulls of the mountains, Anzud was herding together wild bulls of the mountains. He held a live bull in his talons, he carried a dead bull across his shoulders. He poured forth his bile like 10 gur of water. The bird halted (?) once, Anzud halted (?) once. When the bird called back to the nest, when Anzud called back to the nest, his fledgling did not answer him from the nest. When the bird called a second time to the nest, his fledgling did not answer from the nest. Whenever the bird had called back to the nest before, his fledgling had answered from the nest; but now when the bird called back to the nest, his fledgling did not answer him from the nest. The bird uttered a cry of grief that reached up to heaven, his wife cried out "Woe!" Her cry reached the abzu. The bird with this cry of "Woe!" and his wife with this cry of grief made the Anuna, gods of the mountains, actually crawl into crevices like ants. The bird says to his wife, Anzud says to his wife," Foreboding weighs upon my nest, as over the great cattle-pen of Nanna. Terror lies upon it, as when wild lions start butting each other. Who has taken my child from its nest? Who has taken the Anzud from its nest?"
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
But it seemed to the bird, when he approached the nest, it seemed to Anzud, when he approached the nest, that it had been made like a god's dwelling-place. It was brilliantly festooned. His chick was settled in its nest, its eyes were painted with kohl, sprigs of white cedar were fixed on its head. A twisted piece of salt meat was hung up high. The bird is exultant, Anzud is exultant: "I am the prince who decides the destiny of rolling rivers. I keep on the straight and narrow path the righteous who follow Enlil's counsel. My father Enlil brought me here. He let me bar the entrance to the mountains as if with a great door. If I fix a fate, who shall alter it? If I but say the word, who shall change it? Whoever has done this to my nest, if you are a god, I will speak with you, indeed I will befriend you. If you are a man, I will fix your fate. I shall not let you have any opponents in the mountains. You shall be 'Hero-fortified-by-Anzud'."
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Lugalbanda, partly from fright, partly from delight, partly from fright, partly from deep delight, flatters the bird, flatters Anzud: "Bird with sparkling eyes, born in this district, Anzud with sparkling eyes, born in this district, you frolic as you bathe in a pool. Your grandfather, the prince of all patrimonies, placed heaven in your hand, set earth at your feet. Your wingspan extended is like a birdnet stretched out across the sky! …… on the ground your talons are like a trap laid for the wild bulls and wild cows of the mountains! Your spine is as straight as a scribe's! Your breast as you fly is like Niraḫ parting the waters! As for your back, you are a verdant palm garden, breathtaking to look upon. Yesterday I escaped safely to you, since then I have entrusted myself to your protection. Your wife shall be my mother" (he said)," You shall be my father" (he said)," I shall treat your little ones as my brothers. Since yesterday I have been waiting for you in the mountains where no cypresses grow. Let your wife stand beside you to greet me. I offer my greeting and leave you to decide my destiny."
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
The bird presents himself before him, rejoices over him, Anzud presents himself before him, rejoices over him. Anzud says to holy Lugalbanda," Come now, my Lugalbanda. Go like a boat full of precious metals, like a grain barge, like a boat going to deliver apples, like a boat piled up high with a cargo of cucumbers, casting a shade, like a boat loaded lavishly at the place of harvest, go back to brick-built Kulaba with head held high!" -- Lugalbanda who loves the seed will not accept this.
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
"Like Šara, Inana's beloved son, shoot forth with your barbed arrows like a sunbeam, shoot forth with reed-arrows like moonlight! May the barbed arrows be a horned viper to those they hit! Like a fish killed with the cleaver, may they be magic-cut! May you bundle them up like logs hewn with the axe!" -- Lugalbanda who loves the seed will not accept this.
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
"May Ninurta, Enlil's son, set the helmet Lion of Battle on your head, may the breastplate (?) that in the great mountains does not permit retreat be laid on your breast! May you …… the battle-net against the enemy! When you go to the city, ……!" -- Lugalbanda who loves the seed will not accept this.
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Holy Lugalbanda answers him: "Let the power of running be in my thighs, let me never grow tired! Let there be strength in my arms, let me stretch my arms wide, let my arms never become weak! Moving like the sunlight, like Inana, like the seven storms, those of Iškur, let me leap like a flame, blaze like lightning! Let me go wherever I look to, set foot wherever I cast my glance, reach wherever my heart desires and let me loosen my shoes in whatever place my heart has named to me! When Utu lets me reach Kulaba my city, let him who curses me have no joy thereof; let him who wishes to strive with me never say "Just let him come!" I shall have the woodcarvers fashion statues of you, and you will be breathtaking to look upon. Your name will be made famous thereby in Sumer and will redound to the credit of the temples of the great gods."
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
So Anzud says to holy Lugalbanda: "The power of running be in your thighs! Never grow tired! Strength be in your arms! Stretch your arms wide, may your arms never become weak! Moving like the sun, like Inana, like the seven storms of Iškur, leap like a flame, blaze like lightning! Go wherever you look to, set foot wherever you cast your glance, reach wherever your heart desires, loosen your shoes in whatever place your heart has named to you! When Utu lets you reach Kulaba your city, he who curses you shall have no joy thereof; he who wishes to strive with you shall never say "Just let him come!" When you have had the woodcarvers fashion statues of me, I shall be breathtaking to look upon. My name will be made famous thereby in Sumer and will redound to the credit of the temples of the great gods. May …… shake for you …… like a sandal. …… the Euphrates …… your feet ……."
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
He took in his hand such of his provisions as he had not eaten, and his weapons one by one. Anzud flew on high, Lugalbanda walked on the ground. The bird, looking from above, spies the troops. Lugalbanda, looking from below, spies the dust that the troops have stirred up. The bird says to Lugalbanda," Come now, my Lugalbanda. I shall give you some advice: may my advice be heeded. I shall say words to you: bear them in mind. What I have told you, the fate I have fixed for you, do not tell it to your comrades, do not explain it to your brothers. Fair fortune may conceal foul: it is indeed so. Leave me to my nest: you keep to your troops." The bird hurried to his nest. Lugalbanda set out for the place where his brothers were.
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Like a pelican emerging from the sacred reedbed, like laḫama deities going up from the abzu, like one who is stepping from heaven to earth, Lugalbanda stepped into the midst of his brothers' picked troops. His brothers chattered away, the troops chattered away. His brothers, his friends weary him with questions: "Come now, my Lugalbanda, here you are again! The troops had abandoned you as one killed in battle. Certainly, you were not eating the good fat of the herd! Certainly, you were not eating the sheepfold's fresh cheese. How is it that you have come back from the great mountains, where no one goes alone, whence no one returns to mankind?" Again his brothers, his friends weary him with questions: "The banks of the mountain rivers, mothers of plenty, are widely separated. How did you cross their waters? -- as if you were drinking them?"
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Holy Lugalbanda replies to them," The banks of the mountain rivers, mothers of plenty, are widely separated. With my legs I stepped over them, I drank them like water from a waterskin; and then I snarled like a wolf, I grazed the water-meadows, I pecked at the ground like a wild pigeon, I ate the mountain acorns." Lugalbanda's brothers and friends consider the words that he has said to them. Exactly as if they were small birds flocking together all day long they embrace him and kiss him. As if he were a gamgam chick sitting in its nest, they feed him and give him drink. They drive away sickness from holy Lugalbanda.
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Then the men of Unug followed them as one man; they wound their way through the hills like a snake over a grain-pile. When the city was only a double-hour distant, the armies of Unug and Kulaba encamped by the posts and ditches that surrounded Aratta. From the city it rained down javelins as if from the clouds, slingstones numerous as the raindrops falling in a whole year whizzed down loudly from Aratta's walls. The days passed, the months became long, the year turned full circle. A yellow harvest grew beneath the sky. They looked askance at the fields. Unease came over them. Slingstones numerous as the raindrops falling in a whole year landed on the road. They were hemmed in by the barrier of mountain thornbushes thronged with dragons. No one knew how to go back to the city, no was rushing to go back to Kulaba. In their midst Enmerkar son of Utu was afraid, was troubled, was disturbed by this upset. He sought someone whom he could send back to the city, he sought someone whom he could send back to Kulaba. No one said to him "I will go to the city." No one said to him "I will go to Kulaba." He went out to the foreign host. No one said to him "I will go to the city." No one said to him "I will go to Kulaba." He stood before the élite troops. No one said to him "I will go to the city." No one said to him "I will go to Kulaba." A second time he went out to the foreign host. No one said to him "I will go to the city." No one said to him "I will go to Kulaba." He stepped out before the élite troops.
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Lugalbanda alone arose from the people and said to him," My king, I will go to the city, but no one shall go with me. I will go alone to Kulaba. No one shall go with me." -- "If you go to the city, no one shall go with you. You shall go alone to Kulaba, no one shall go with you." He swore by heaven and by earth: "Swear that you will not let go from your hands the great emblems of Kulaba."
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
After he had stood before the summoned assembly, within the palace that rests on earth like a great mountain Enmerkar son of Utu berated Inana: "Once upon a time my princely sister holy Inana summoned me in her holy heart from the bright mountains, had me enter brick-built Kulaba. Where there was a marsh then in Unug, it was full of water. Where there was any dry land, Euphrates poplars grew there. Where there were reed thickets, old reeds and young reeds grew there. Divine Enki who is king in Eridu tore up for me the old reeds, drained off the water completely. For fifty years I built, for fifty years I was successful. Then the Martu peoples, who know no agriculture, arose in all Sumer and Akkad. But the wall of Unug extended out across the desert like a bird net. Yet now, here in this place, my attractiveness to her has dwindled. My troops are bound to me as a cow is bound to its calf; but like a son who, hating his mother, leaves his city, my princely sister holy Inana has run away from me back to brick-built Kulaba. If she loves her city and hates me, why does she bind the city to me? If she hates the city and yet loves me, why does she bind me to the city? If the mistress removes herself from me to her holy chamber, and abandons me like an Anzud chick, then may she at least bring me home to brick-built Kulaba: on that day my spear shall be laid aside. On that day she may shatter my shield. Speak thus to my princely sister, holy Inana."
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Thereupon holy Lugalbanda came forth from the palace. Although his brothers and his comrades barked at him as at a foreign dog trying to join a pack of dogs, he stepped proudly forward like a foreign wild ass trying to join a herd of wild asses." Send someone else to Unug for the lord." -- "For Enmerkar son of Utu I shall go alone to Kulaba. No one shall go with me" -- how he spoke to them!" Why will you go alone and keep company with no one on the journey? If our beneficent spirit does not stand by you there, if our good protective deity does not go with you there, you will never again stand with us where we stand, you will never again dwell with us where we dwell, you will never again set your feet on the ground where our feet are. You will not come back from the great mountains, where no one goes alone, whence no one returns to mankind!" -- "Time is passing, I know. None of you is going with me over the great earth." While the hearts of his brothers beat loudly, while the hearts of his comrades sank, Lugalbanda took in his hand such of his provisions as he had not eaten, and each of his weapons one by one. From the foot of the mountains, through the high mountains, into the flat land, from the edge of Anšan to the top of Anšan, he crossed five, six, seven mountains.
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
By midnight, but before they had brought the offering-table to holy Inana, he set foot joyfully in brick-built Kulaba. His lady, holy Inana, sat there on her cushion. He bowed and prostrated himself on the ground. With { (1 ms. adds:) joyful } eyes Inana looked at holy Lugalbanda as she would look at the shepherd Ama-ušumgal-ana. In a { (1 ms. adds:) joyful } voice, Inana spoke to holy Lugalbanda as she would speak to her son Lord Šara: "Come now, my Lugalbanda, why do you bring news from the city? How have you come here alone from Aratta?"
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Holy Lugalbanda answered her: "What Enmerkar son of Utu quoth and what he says, what your brother quoth and what he says, is: "Once upon a time my princely sister holy Inana summoned me in her holy heart from the mountains, had me enter brick-built Kulaba. Where there was a marsh then in Unug, it was full of water. Where there was any dry land, Euphrates poplars grew there. Where there were reed thickets, old reeds and young reeds grew there. Divine Enki who is king in Eridu tore up for me the old reeds, drained off the water completely. For fifty years I built, for fifty years I was successful. Then the Martu peoples, who know no agriculture, arose in all Sumer and Akkad. But the wall of Unug extended out across the desert like a bird net. Yet now, here in this place, my attractiveness to her has dwindled. My troops are bound to me as a cow is bound to its calf; but like a son who, hating his mother, leaves his city, my princely sister holy Inana has run away from me back to brick-built Kulaba. If she loves her city and hates me, why does she bind the city to me? If she hates the city and yet loves me, why does she bind me to the city? If the mistress removes herself from me to her holy chamber and abandons me like an Anzud chick, then may she at least bring me home to brick-built Kulaba: on that day my spear shall be laid aside. On that day she may shatter my shield. Speak thus to my princely sister, holy Inana.""
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
Holy Inana uttered this response: "Now, at the end, on the banks, in the water-meadows, of a clear river, of a river of clear water, of the river which is Inana's gleaming waterskin, the suḫurmaš fish eats the honey-herb; the toad eats the mountain acorns; and the …… fish, which is a god of the suḫurmaš fish, plays happily there and darts about. With his scaly tail he touches the old reeds in that holy place. The tamarisks of the place, as many as there are, drink water from that pool."
Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2
"It stands alone, it stands alone! One tamarisk stands alone at the side! When Enmerkar son of Utu has cut that tamarisk and has fashioned it into a bucket, he must tear up the old reeds in that holy place roots and all, and collect them in his hands. When he has chased out from it the …… fish, which is a god of the suḫurmaš fish, caught that fish, cooked it, garnished it and brought it as a sacrifice to the a-an-kar weapon, Inana's battle-strength, then his troops will have success for him; then he will have brought to an end that which in the subterranean waters provides the life-strength of Aratta."
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
City, majestic bull bearing vigour and great awesome splendour, Kulaba, ……, breast of the storm, where destiny is determined; Unug, great mountain, in the midst of ……. There the evening meal of the great abode of An was set. In those days of yore, when the destinies were determined, the great princes allowed Unug Kulaba's E-ana to lift its head high. Plenty, and carp floods, and the rain which brings forth dappled barley were then increased in Unug Kulaba. Before the land of Dilmun yet existed, the E-ana of Unug Kulaba was well founded, and the holy ĝipar of Inana in brick-built Kulaba shone forth like the silver in the lode. Before …… carried ……, before ……, before …… carried ……, before the commerce was practised; before gold, silver, copper, tin, blocks of lapis lazuli, and mountain stones were brought down together from their mountains, before …… bathed for the festival, ……, …… time passed. (2 lines missing)
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
…… was colourfully adorned, and ……, the holy place, was …… with flawless lapis lazuli, its interior beautifully formed like a white meš tree bearing fruit. The lord of Aratta placed on his head the golden crown for Inana. But he did not please her like the lord of Kulaba. Aratta did not build for holy Inana -- unlike the Shrine E-ana, the ĝipar, the holy place, unlike brick-built Kulaba.
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
At that time, the lord chosen by Inana in her heart, chosen by Inana in her holy heart from the bright mountain, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, made a plea to his sister, the lady who grants desires, holy Inana:
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"My sister, let Aratta fashion gold and silver skilfully on my behalf for Unug. Let them cut the flawless lapis lazuli from the blocks, let them …… the translucence of the flawless lapis lazuli ……. …… build a holy mountain in Unug. Let Aratta build a temple brought down from heaven -- your place of worship, the Shrine E-ana; let Aratta skilfully fashion the interior of the holy ĝipar, your abode; may I, the radiant youth, may I be embraced there by you. Let Aratta submit beneath the yoke for Unug on my behalf. Let the people of Aratta bring down for me the mountain stones from their mountain, build the great shrine for me, erect the great abode for me, make the great abode, the abode of the gods, famous for me, make my me prosper in Kulaba, make the abzu grow for me like a holy mountain, make Eridug gleam for me like the mountain range, cause the abzu shrine to shine forth for me like the silver in the lode. When in the abzu I utter praise, when I bring the me from Eridug, when, in lordship, I am adorned with the crown like a purified shrine, when I place on my head the holy crown in Unug Kulaba, then may the …… of the great shrine bring me into the ĝipar, and may the …… of the ĝipar bring me into the great shrine. May the people marvel admiringly, and may Utu witness it in joy."
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"Come, Enmerkar! I shall offer you advice: let my counsel be heeded. I shall speak words to you; let them be heard. Choose from the troops as a messenger one who is eloquent of speech and endowed with endurance. Where and to whom shall he carry the important message of wise Inana? Let him bring it up into the Zubi mountains, let him descend with it from the Zubi mountains. Let Susa and the land of Anšan humbly salute Inana like tiny mice. In the great mountain ranges, let the teeming multitudes grovel in the dust for her. Aratta shall submit beneath the yoke to Unug. The people of Aratta shall bring down the mountain stones from their mountains, and shall build the great shrine for you, and erect the great abode for you, will cause the great abode, the abode of the gods, to shine forth for you; will make your me flourish in Kulaba, will make the abzu grow for you like a holy mountain, will make Eridug shining for you like the mountain range, will cause the abzu shrine to shine forth for you like the glitter in the lode. When in the abzu you utter praise, when you bring the me from Eridug, when, in lordship, you are adorned with the crown like a purified shrine, when you place on your head the holy crown in Unug Kulaba, then may the …… of the great shrine bring you into the ĝipar, and may the …… of the ĝipar bring you into the great shrine. May the people marvel admiringly, and may Utu witness it in joy. Because …… shall carry daily, when …… in the evening cool ……, -- in the place of Dumuzid where the ewes, kids and lambs are numerous, the people of Aratta shall run around for you like the mountain sheep in the akalag fields, the fields of Dumuzid. Rise like the sun over my holy breast! You are the jewel of my throat! Praise be to you, Enmerkar, the son of Utu!"
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"You shall bring it up into the Zubi mountains, you shall descend with it from the Zubi mountains. Let Susa and the land of Anšan humbly salute Inana like tiny mice. In the great mountain ranges, let the teeming multitudes grovel in the dust for her. Messenger, speak to the lord of Aratta and say to him: "Lest I make the people fly off from that city like a wild dove from its tree, lest I make them fly around like a bird over its well-founded nest, lest I requite (?) them as if at a current market rate, lest I make it gather dust like an utterly destroyed city, lest like a settlement cursed by Enki and utterly destroyed, I too utterly destroy Aratta; lest like the devastation which swept destructively, and in whose wake Inana arose, shrieked and yelled aloud, I too wreak a sweeping devastation there -- let Aratta pack nuggets of gold in leather sacks, placing alongside it the kugmea ore; package up precious metals, and load the packs on the donkeys of the mountains; and then may the Junior Enlil of Sumer have them build for me, the lord whom Nudimmud has chosen in his sacred heart, a mountain of a shining me; have them make it luxuriant for me like a boxwood tree, have them make its shining horns colourful for me as when Utu comes forth from his chamber, have them make its doorposts gleam brightly for me.""
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"Chant to him the holy song, the incantation sung in its chambers -- the incantation of Nudimmud: "On that day when there is no snake, when there is no scorpion, when there is no hyena, when there is no lion, when there is neither dog nor wolf, when there is thus neither fear nor trembling, man has no rival! At such a time, may the lands of Šubur and Ḫamazi, the many-tongued, and Sumer, the great mountain of the me of magnificence, and Akkad, the land possessing all that is befitting, and the Martu land, resting in security -- the whole universe, the well-guarded people -- may they all address Enlil together in a single language! For at that time, for the ambitious lords, for the ambitious princes, for the ambitious kings, Enki, for the ambitious lords, for the ambitious princes, for the ambitious kings, for the ambitious lords, for the ambitious princes, for the ambitious kings -- Enki, the lord of abundance and of steadfast decisions, the wise and knowing lord of the Land, the expert of the gods, chosen for wisdom, the lord of Eridug, shall change the speech in their mouths, as many as he had placed there, and so the speech of mankind is truly one.""
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
The messenger gave heed to the words of his king. He journeyed by the starry night, and by day he travelled with Utu of heaven. Where and to whom will he carry the important message of Inana with its stinging tone? He brought it up into the Zubi mountains, he descended with it from the Zubi mountains. Susa and the land of Anšan humbly saluted Inana like tiny mice. In the great mountain ranges, the teeming multitudes grovelled in the dust for her. He traversed five mountains, six mountains, seven mountains. He lifted his eyes as he approached Aratta. He stepped joyfully into the courtyard of Aratta, he made known the authority of his king. Openly he spoke out the words in his heart. The messenger transmitted the message to the lord of Aratta:
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"This is what my master has spoken, this is what he has said. My king who from his birth has been fitted { for lordship } { (1 ms. has instead:) for the crown }, the lord of Unug, the saĝkal snake living in Sumer, who pulverises { mountains } { (2 mss. have instead:) heads } like flour, the stag of the tall mountains, endowed with princely antlers, wild cow, kid pawing the holy soapwort with its hoof, whom the good cow had given birth to in the heart of the mountains, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, has sent me to you." { (2 mss. add here:) (the lord of Aratta speaks): "What is it to me what your master has spoken? what is it to me what he has said?" } "This is what my master said: "Lest I make the people fly off from that city like a wild dove from its tree, lest I make them fly around like a bird over its well-founded nest, lest I requite (?) them as if at a current market rate, lest I make it gather dust like an utterly destroyed city, lest like a settlement cursed by Enki and utterly destroyed, I too utterly destroy Aratta; lest like the devastation which swept destructively, and in whose wake Inana arose, shrieked and yelled aloud, I too wreak a sweeping devastation there -- let Aratta pack nuggets of gold in leather sacks, placing alongside it the kugmea ore; package up precious metals, and load the packs on the donkeys of the mountains; and then may the Junior Enlil of Sumer have them build for me, the lord whom Nudimmud has chosen in his sacred heart, a mountain of a shining me; have them make it luxuriant for me like a boxwood tree, have them make its shining horns colourful for me as when Utu comes forth from his chamber, have them make its doorposts gleam brightly for me. Chant to him for me the holy song, the incantation sung in its chambers -- the Incantation of Nudimmud.""
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"Say whatever you will say to me, and I shall announce that message in the shrine E-ana as glad tidings to the scion of him with the glistening beard, whom his stalwart cow gave birth to in the mountain of the shining me, who was reared on the soil of Aratta, who was given suck at the udder of the good cow, who is suited for office in Kulaba, the mountain of great me, to Enmerkar, the son of Utu; I shall repeat it in his ĝipar, fruitful as a flourishing meš tree, to my king, the lord of Kulaba."
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
When he had spoken thus to him, (the lord of Aratta replied): "Messenger, speak to your king, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: "It is I, the lord suited to purification, I whom the huge heavenly neck-stock, the queen of heaven and earth, the goddess of the numerous me, holy Inana, has brought to Aratta, the mountain of the shining me, I whom she has let bar the entrance of the mountains as if with a great door. How then shall Aratta submit to Unug? Aratta's submission to Unug is out of the question!" Say this to him."
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
When he had spoken thus to him, the messenger replied to the lord of Aratta: "The great queen of heaven, who rides upon the awesome me, dwelling on the peaks of the bright mountains, adorning the dais of the bright mountains -- my lord and master, who is her servant, has had them instal her as the divine queen of E-ana. Aratta shall bow, O lord, in absolute submission! She has spoken to him thus, in brick-built Kulaba."
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
Thereupon, the lord became depressed and deeply troubled. He had no answer; he was searching for an answer. He stared at his own feet, trying to find an answer. He found an answer and gave a cry. He bellowed the answer to the message like a bull to the messenger:
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"Messenger! Speak to your king, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: "This great mountain range is a meš tree grown high to the sky; its roots form a net, and its branches are a snare. It may be a sparrow but it has the talons of an Anzud bird or of an eagle. The barrier of Inana is perfectly made and is impenetrable (?). Those eagle talons make the blood of the enemy run from the bright mountain. Although in Aratta there is weeping ……, water libations are offered and flour is sprinkled; on the mountain, sacrifices and prayers are offered in obeisance. With fewer than five or 10 men, how can mobilised Unug proceed against the Zubi mountains? Your king is heading in all haste against my military might, but I am equally eager for a contest. (As the proverb goes,) he who ignores a rival, does not get to eat everything up, like the bull which ignores the bull at its side. But he who acknowledges a contest can be the outright winner, like the bull which acknowledges the bull at its side -- or does he reject me in this contest? Like ……, …… can match no one -- or does he still reject me in this contest? Again, I have words to say to you, messenger: I have an artful proposal to make to you ……, may it get across to you ……. Repeat this to your master, to the lord of Kulaba, a lion lying on its paws in E-ana, a bull bellowing within it, within his ĝipar, fruitful as a flourishing meš tree. The mountain range is a warrior, …… high, like Utu going to his abode at twilight, like one from whose face blood drips; or like Nanna, who is majestic in the high heavens, like him whose countenance shines with radiance, who …… is like the woods in the mountains.""
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
""Now if Enmerkar just makes straight for the …… of Aratta, for the benevolent protective spirit of the mountain of holy powers, for Aratta, which is like a bright crown of heaven, then I shall make my pre-eminence clear, and he need not pour barley into sacks, nor have it carted, nor have that barley carried into the settlements, nor place collectors over the labourers.""
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
""But if he were actually to have barley poured into carrying-nets, and to have it loaded on the packasses at whose sides reserve donkeys have been placed, and were to have it heaped up in a pile in the courtyard of Aratta -- were he really to heap it up in such a manner; and were Inana, the luxuriance of the grain pile, who is the 'illuminator of the lands', the 'ornament of the settlements', who adorns the seven walls, who is the heroic lady, fit for battle, who, as the heroine of the battleground, makes the troops dance the dance of Inana -- were she actually to cast off Aratta as if to a carrion-pursuing dog, then in that case I should submit to him; he would indeed have made me know his preeminence; like the city, I in my smallness would submit to him." So say to him."
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had spoken thus to him, the lord of Aratta made the messenger repeat the message just as he himself had said it. The messenger turned on his thigh like a wild cow; like a sand fly he went on his way in the morning calm. He set foot joyfully in brick-built Kulaba. The messenger rushed to the great courtyard, the courtyard of the throne room. He repeated it word perfect to his master, the lord of Kulaba; he even bellowed at him like a bull, and Enmerkar listened to him like an ox driver. The king had him sit …… at his right side. As he turned his left side to him, he said: "Does Aratta really understand the implications of his own stratagem?"
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After day had broken and Utu had risen, the sun god of the Land lifted his head high. The king combined the Tigris with the Euphrates. He combined the Euphrates with the Tigris. Large vessels were placed in the open air, and he stood small vessels beside them, like lambs lying on the grass. …… vessels were placed in the open air adjacent to them. Then the king, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, placed wide apart the ešda vessels, which were of gold. Thereupon, the …… clay tablet, the pointed stylus of the assembly, the golden statue fashioned on a propitious day, beautiful Nanibgal, grown with a fair luxuriance, Nisaba, the lady of broad wisdom, opened for him her holy house of wisdom. He entered the palace of heaven, and became attentive. Then the lord opened his mighty storehouse, and firmly set his great lidga measure on the ground. The king removed his old barley from the other barley; he soaked the greenmalt all through with water; its lip …… the ḫirin plant. He narrowed the meshes of the carrying nets. He measured out in full (?) the barley for the granary, adding for the teeth of locusts. He had it loaded on the packasses at whose sides reserve donkeys were placed. The king, the lord of broad wisdom, the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba, despatched them directly to Aratta. He made the people go on to Aratta on their own, like ants out of crevices. Again the lord added instructions for the messenger going to the mountains, to Aratta:
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"Messenger, speak to the lord of Aratta and say to him: "The base of my sceptre is the divine power of magnificence. Its crown provides a protective shade over Kulaba; under its spreading branches holy Inana refreshes herself in the shrine E-ana. Let him snap off a splinter from it and hold that in his hand; let him hold it in his hand like a string of cornelian beads, a string of lapis lazuli beads. Let the lord of Aratta bring that before me." So say to him."
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had thus spoken to him, the messenger went on his way to Aratta; his feet raised the dust of the road, and made the little pebbles of the hills thud; like a dragon prowling the desert, he was unopposed. After the messenger reached Aratta, the people of Aratta stepped forward to admire the packasses. In the courtyard of Aratta, the messenger measured out in full (?) the barley for the granary, adding for the teeth of locusts. As if from the rains of heaven and the sunshine, Aratta was filled with abundance. As when the gods return to their seats (?), Aratta's hunger was sated. The people of Aratta covered their fields with the water-soaked greenmalt. Afterwards, couriers and šatam officials ……. (2 lines unclear)
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
The citizens of Aratta were mindful; he revealed the matter to Aratta. Consequently, in Aratta, from the hand ……. …… his hand …… to the lord of Unug.
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
The eloquent elders wrung their hands in despair, leaning against the wall; indeed, they were even placing their treasuries (?) at the disposal of the lord. His sceptre …… in the palace ……. Openly he spoke out the words in his heart:
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"What is it to me what your master has spoken? What is it to me what he has said?" "This is what my master has spoken, this is what he has said: "The base of my sceptre is the divine power of magnificence. Its crown provides a protective shade over Kulaba; under its spreading branches holy Inana refreshes herself in the shrine E-ana.Let him snap off a splinter from it and hold that in his hand; let him hold it in his hand like a string of cornelian beads, a string of lapis lazuli beads. Let the lord of Aratta bring that before me. So say to him.""
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had spoken thus to him, for that reason he went inside the sanctuary …… and lay himself down in a fast. Day broke. He discussed the matter at length, he spoke unspeakable words; he circulated with this matter as if it were barley eaten by a donkey.
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
And what did one speak to another? What did one say to another? What one said to another, so indeed it was.
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"Messenger, speak to your king, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: "Let him put in his hand and contemplate a sceptre that is not of wood, nor designated as wood { -- not ildag wood, nor šim-gig wood, not cedar wood, nor cypress wood, not ḫašur cypress, nor palm wood, not hardwood, nor zabalum wood } { (1 ms. has instead:) -- not ildag wood, nor šim-gig wood, not ḫašur cypress, nor palm wood, not cedar wood, nor zabalum wood, not cypress wood, nor hardwood }, not poplar as in a chariot, not reedwork as in whip handles; not gold, nor copper, not genuine kugmea metal nor silver, not cornelian, nor lapis lazuli -- let him snap off a splinter from that and hold it in his hand; let him hold it in his hand like a string of cornelian beads, a string of lapis lazuli beads. Let the lord of Kulaba bring that before me." So say to him."
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had spoken to him thus, the messenger went off like a young donkey, braying as it is cut off from the chariot tongue; he trotted like an onager running on dry land, he filled his mouth with wind; he ran in one track (?) like a long-woolled sheep butting other sheep in its fury. He set foot joyfully in brick-built Kulaba. He transmitted the message word for word to his master, the lord of Kulaba. Now Enki gave Enmerkar wisdom, and the lord gave instructions to his chief steward. In his house ……, the king received ……. He wrapped it up like ……, and inspected it. He pounded …… with a pestle like herbs, he poured it like oil on the …… reed. From the sunlight it emerged into the shade, and from the shade it emerged into the sunlight. After five years, 10 years had passsed, he split the …… reed with an axe. The lord looked at it, pleased, and poured on …… fine oil, fine oil of the bright mountains. The lord placed the sceptre in the hands of the messenger going to the mountains. The messenger, whose journeying to Aratta was like a pelican over the hills, like a fly over the ground, who darted through the mountains as swiftly as carp swim, reached Aratta. He set foot joyfully in the courtyard of Aratta, and put the sceptre in ……. He …… and …… it. The lord of Aratta, eying the sceptre, which was shining awesomely in the sanctuary, his holy dwelling -- he, the lord, called to his šatam official:
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"Aratta is indeed like a slaughtered sheep! Its roads are inded like those of the rebel lands! Since holy Inana has given the primacy of Aratta to the lord of Kulaba, now it seems that holy Inana is looking with favour on her man who has sent a messenger to make the severe message as clear as the light of Utu. So in Aratta where can one go in this crisis? How long before the yoke-rope becomes bearable? As for us, in the direst hunger, in our direst famine, are we to prostrate ourselves before the lord of Kulaba?"
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"Messenger! Speak to your master, the lord of Kulaba, and say to him: "A champion who is not black-coloured, a champion who is not white-coloured, a champion who is not brown-coloured, a champion who is not red-coloured, a champion who is not yellow-coloured, a champion who is not multicoloured -- let him give you such a champion. My champion will compete against his champion, and let the more able one prevail!" Say this to him."
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had spoken to him thus, the messenger set off, ulum, alam. In brick-built Kulaba, he was speechless, like a ……. He gazed like a goat on the mountain slopes, he …… as if it were a huge mir snake coming out from the brambles. In …… he lifted his head. …… of Aratta ……. From his seat, he addressed him like a raging torrent:
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"Messenger! Speak to the lord of Aratta and say to him: "A garment that is not black-coloured, a garment that is not white-coloured, a garment that is not brown-coloured, a garment that is not red-coloured, a garment that is not yellow-coloured, a garment that is not multicoloured -- I shall give him such a garment. My champion is embraced by Enlil. I shall send him such a champion. My champion will compete against his champion, and let the more able one prevail!" Say this to him. Second, speak to him and say: "Let him immediately pass from subterfuge ……. In his city, let them go before him like sheep. Let him, like their shepherd, follow behind them. As he goes, let the mountain of bright lapis lazuli humble itself before him like a crushed reed. And let them heap up its shining gold and silver in the courtyard of Aratta for Inana the lady of E-ana." Third, speak to him and say: "Lest I make the people fly off from that city like a wild dove from its tree, lest I smash them like ……, lest I requite (?) them as if at a current market rate, lest I make …… them walk in ……, when he goes, let them take the mountain stones, and rebuild for me the great shrine Eridug, the abzu, the E-nun; let them adorn its architrave for me ……. Let them make its protection spread over the Land for me." His speaking ……. Recite his omen to him. At that time, the lord ……, …… on the throne daises and on the chairs, the noble seed, ……."
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
His speech was substantial, and its contents extensive. The messenger, whose mouth was heavy, was not able to repeat it. Because the messenger, whose mouth was tired, was not able to repeat it, the lord of Kulaba patted some clay and wrote the message as if on a tablet. Formerly, the writing of messages on clay was not established. Now, under that sun and on that day, it was indeed so. The lord of Kulaba inscribed the message like a tablet. It was just like that. The messenger was like a bird, flapping its wings; he raged forth like a wolf following a kid. He traversed five mountains, six mountains, seven mountains. He lifted his eyes as he approached Aratta. He stepped joyfully into the courtyard of Aratta, he made known the authority of his king. Openly he spoke out the words in his heart. The messenger transmitted the message to the lord of Aratta:
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"This is what my master has spoken, this is what he has said. My king is like a huge meš tree, …… son of Enlil; this tree has grown high, uniting heaven and earth; its crown reaches heaven, its trunk is set upon the earth. He who is made to shine forth in lordship and kingship, Enmerkar, the son of Utu, has given me a clay tablet. O lord of Aratta, after you have examined the clay tablet, after you have learned the content of the message, say whatever you will say to me, and I shall announce that message in the shrine E-ana as glad tidings to the scion of him with the glistening beard, whom his stalwart cow gave birth to in the mountains of the shining me, who was reared on the soil of Aratta, who was given suck at the udder of the good cow, who is suited for office in Kulaba, the mountain of great me, to Enmerkar, the son of Utu; I shall repeat it in his ĝipar, fruitful as a flourishing meš tree, to my king, the lord of Kulaba."
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
After he had spoken thus to him, the lord of Aratta received his kiln-fired tablet from the messenger. The lord of Aratta looked at the tablet. The transmitted message was just nails, and his brow expressed anger. The lord of Aratta looked at his kiln-fired tablet. At that moment, the lord worthy of the crown of lordship, the son of Enlil, the god Iškur, thundering in heaven and earth, caused a raging storm, a great lion, in ……. He was making the mountains quake ……, he was convulsing the mountain range ……; the awesome radiance …… of his breast; he caused the mountain range to raise its voice in joy. On Aratta's parched flanks, in the midst of the mountains, wheat grew of its own accord, and chickpeas also grew of their own accord; they brought the wheat which grew of its own accord into the granary of …… for the lord of Aratta, and heaped it up before him in the courtyard of Aratta. The lord of Aratta looked at the wheat. The messenger's eyes looked askance ……. The lord of Aratta called to the messenger:
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"Inana, the lady of all the lands, has not run away from the primacy of her city, Aratta, nor has she stolen it for Unug; she has not run away from her E-zagin, nor has she stolen it for the shrine E-ana; she has not run away from the mountain of the shining me, nor has she stolen it for brick-built Kulaba; she has not run away from the adorned bed, nor has she stolen it for the shining bed; she has not run away from the purification for the lord, nor has she stolen it for the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba. Inana, the lady of all the lands, has surrounded Aratta, on its right and left, for her like a rising flood. They are people whom she has separated from other people, they are people whom Dumuzid has made step forth from other people, who firmly establish the holy words of Inana. Let the clever champion and the …… of Dumuzid whirl about! Quickly, come now, ……. After the flood had swept over, Inana, the lady of all the lands, from her great love of Dumuzid, has sprinkled the water of life upon those who had stood in the face of the flood and made the Land subject to them."
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
The clever champion, when he came, had covered his head with a colourful turban, and wrapped himself in a garment of lion skins. (4 lines unclear)Inana ……. Her song was pleasing to her spouse, Ama-ušumgal-ana. Since that time, she has made it perfect in the holy ear, the holy ear of Dumuzid, has sung it and has let the words be known.
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
When the old woman came to the mountain of the shining me, she went up to him like a maiden who in her day is perfect, painted her eyes with kohl, wrapped herself in a white garment, came forth with the good crown like the moonlight. She arranged the …… on her head. She made Enmerkar, her spouse, occupy the throne-dais with her. She raised up ……, and indeed, for Aratta, the ewes and their lambs now multiply; indeed, for Aratta, the mother goats and their kids multiply; indeed, for Aratta, the cows and their calves multiply; indeed, for Aratta, the donkey mares and their black, swift-footed foals multiply. In Aratta, they say together: "Let them heap up and pile up for the grain piles; the abundance is truly your abundance." After having made …… for the lord of Aratta, let him ……. He will ……. He came forth ……, he set right for her. (3 lines missing)
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
(An unidentified person speaks:) "…… befitting ……, …… the ilu song of the heart, …… your abundance in his ……. Enlil has granted you ……, and may …… be made known. …… his father was not luxuriantly fertile, and poured forth no semen. Enlil, king of all the lands ……. In accordance with the tasks which he has now established, the people of Aratta …… their task of plying gold, silver and lapis lazuli; the men who …… golden fruit, fruit trees, with their figs and grapes, shall heap the fruit up in great mounds ……; and shall dig out the flawless lapis lazuli from the roots of the trees, and shall remove the succulent part of the reeds from the crowns of the trees, and then shall heap them up in a pile in the courtyard of E-ana for Inana, the lady of E-ana."
Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta: c.1.8.2.3
"Come, my king, I shall offer you advice: let my counsel be heeded. I shall speak words to you; let them be heard. Let the people choose a man …… of the foreign lands, and let the people of Aratta speak ……. When I go from here, the ever-sparkling lady gives me my kingship. Ĝeštin-ana ……. In that city ……, festivals were not ……. Daily ……." (approx. 6 lines missing)
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
Brickwork rising out { from the pristine mountain } { (on the edge of ms. C:) of the shining plain } -- Kulaba, city which reaches from heaven to earth; Unug, whose fame like the rainbow reaches up to the sky, a multicoloured sheen, as the new moon standing in the heavens.
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
Built in magnificence with all the great powers, lustrous mount founded on a favourable day, like moonlight coming up over the land, like bright sunlight radiating over the land, the rear cow and …… cow coming forth in abundance: all this is Unug, the glory of which reaches the highland and its radiance, genuine refined silver, covers Aratta like a garment, is spread over it like linen.
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
"Let him submit to me, let him bear my yoke. If he submits to me, indeed submits to me, then as for him and me -- he may dwell with Inana within a walled enclosure (?), but I dwell with Inana in the E-zagin of Aratta; he may lie with her on the splendid bed, but I lie in sweet slumber with her on the adorned bed, he may see dreams with Inana at night, but I converse with Inana awake. He may feed the geese with barley, but I will definitely not feed the geese with barley. I will …… the geese's eggs in a basket and …… their goslings. The small ones into my pot, the large ones into my kettle, and the rulers of the land who submitted will consume, together with me, what remains from the geese." This is what he said to Enmerkar.
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
The messenger runs like a wild ram and flies like a falcon. He leaves in the morning and returns already at dusk, like small birds at dawn, he …… over the open country, like small birds at midnight, he hides himself in the interior of the mountains. Like a throw-stick, he stands at the side. Like a solitary donkey of Šakkan, he { runs over } { (1 ms. has instead:) cuts through } the mountains, he dashes like a large, powerful donkey. A slim donkey, eager to run, he rushes forth. A lion in the field at dawn, he lets out roars; like a wolf which has seized a lamb, he runs quickly. The small places he has reached, he fills with …… for him; the large places he has reached, he …… boundary (?).
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
He entered the presence of the lord in { his holy ĝipar } { (1 ms. has instead:) in his most holy place }. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) He entered the presence of Enmerkar in his most holy place. } "My king has sent me to you. The lord of Aratta, En-suḫgir-ana, has sent me to you." { (some mss. add the lines:) "What does your king have to tell me, what does he have to add to me? What does En-suḫgir-ana have to tell me, what does he have to add to me?" "This is what my king said, what he added, this is what En-suḫgir-ana said, what he added." } "This is what my king says: "Let him submit to me, let him bear my yoke. If he submits to me, indeed submits to me, then as for him and me -- he may dwell with Inana within a walled enclosure (?), but I dwell with Inana in the E-zagin of Aratta; he may lie with her on the splendid bed, but I lie in sweet slumber with her on the adorned bed, he may see dreams with Inana at night, but I converse with Inana awake. He may feed the geese with barley, but I will definitely not feed the geese with barley. I will …… the geese's eggs in a basket and …… their goslings. The small ones into my pot, the large ones into my kettle, and the rulers of the land who submitted will consume, together with me, what remains from the geese.""
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
The lord of Unug …… he is their ……, he is their rudder. …… he is the neck-stock which clamps down upon them, …… to the place of its foundation. He is their falcon which flies in the sky, he is their bird-net. The brickwork of the great temple of Aratta ……. …… in Aratta …… great ……. …… bring (?) …….
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
He patted it like a lump of clay, he examined it like a clay-tablet: "He may dwell with Inana in the E-zagin of Aratta, but I dwell with her …… as her earthly companion (?). He may lie with her in sweet slumber on the adorned bed, but I lie on Inana's splendid bed strewn with pure plants. Its back is an ug lion, its front is a piriĝ lion. The ug lion chases the piriĝ lion, the piriĝ lion chases the ug lion. As the ug lion chases the piriĝ lion and the piriĝ lion chases the ug lion, the day does not dawn, the night does not pass. I accompany Inana for a journey of 15 leagues and yet Utu the sun god cannot see my holy crown, when she enters my holy ĝipar. Enlil has given (?) me the true crown and sceptre. Ninurta, the son of Enlil, held me on his lap as the frame holds the waterskin. Aruru, the sister of Enlil, extended her right breast to me, extended her left breast to me. When I go up to the great shrine, the Mistress screeches like an Anzud chick, and other times when I go there, even though she is not a duckling, she shrieks like one. She …… from the city of her birth. No city was made to be so well-built as the city of Unug (?). It is Unug where Inana dwells and as regards Aratta, what does it have to do with this? It is brick-built Kulaba where she lives, and as regards the mount of the lustrous me, what can it do about this? For five or 10 years she will definitely not go to Aratta. Since the great holy lady of the E-ana took counsel with me (?) about whether to go also to Aratta, since she { let me know } { (1 ms. has instead:) told me } about this matter, I know that she will not go to Aratta. He who has nothing shall not feed the geese with barley, but I will feed the geese with barley. I will …… the geese's eggs in a basket and …… their goslings. The small ones into my pot, the old ones into my kettle, and the rulers { of the Land } { (some mss. has instead:) of Sumer } who submitted will consume, together with me, what remains from the geese."
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
The messenger of Enmerkar reached En-suḫgir-ana, reached his holy ĝipar, his most holy place, the most holy place where he was sitting, its ……. En-suḫgir-ana asked for instructions, he searched for an answer. He summoned the išib priests, the lumaḫ priests, the gudug priests, and girsiga attendants who dwell in the ĝipar and took counsel with them." What shall I say to him? What shall I say to him? What shall I say to the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba? His bull stood up to fight my bull and the bull of Unug has defeated it. His man has been struggling with my man and the man of Unug has defeated him. His warrior (?) has been struggling with my warrior (?) and the warrior (?) of Unug …… him."
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
The convened assembly answered him straightforwardly: "It was you who first sent a boastful (?) message to Unug for Enmerkar. You cannot hold back (?) Enmerkar, you have to hold back (?) yourself. Calm down; your heart will prompt you to achieve nothing, as far as can be known (?)." "If my city becomes a ruin mound, then I will be a potsherd of it, but I will never submit to the lord of Unug, the lord of Kulaba."
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
A sorcerer whose skill was that of a man of Ḫamazu, Ur-ĝiri-nuna, whose skill was that of a man of Ḫamazu, who came over to Aratta after Ḫamazu had been destroyed, practised (?) sorcery in the inner chamber at the E-ĝipar. He said to minister Ansiga-ria: "My lord, why is it that the great fathers of the city, the founders in earlier times (?), do not ……, do not give advice. I will make Unug dig canals. I will make Unug submit to the shrine of Aratta. After the word of Unug ……, I will make the territories from below to above, from the sea to the cedar mountain, from above to the mountain of the aromatic cedars, submit to my great army. Let Unug bring its own goods by boat, let it tie up boats as a transport flotilla towards the E-zagin of Aratta." The minister Ansiga-ria rose up in his city, he …….
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
…… Ansiga-ria ……, if only ……." My lord, why is it that the great fathers of the city, the founders in earlier times (?), do not ……, do not give advice. I will make Unug dig canals. I will make Unug submit to the shrine of Aratta. After the word of Unug ……, I will make the territories from below to above, from the sea to the cedar mountain, from above to the mountain of the aromatic cedars, submit to my great army. Let Unug bring its own goods by boat, let it tie up boats as a transport flotilla towards the E-zagin of Aratta."
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
This made the lord extremely happy, so he gave five minas of gold to him, he gave five minas of silver to him. He promised him that he would be allotted fine food to eat, he promised him that he would be allotted fine drink to drink." When their men are taken captive, your life …… happiness (?) in your hand (?) prosperity (?)," he promised to him.
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
The sorcerer, farmer of the best seeds, directed his steps towards Ereš, the city of Nisaba, and reached the animal pen, the house where the cows live. The cow trembled with fear at him in the animal pen. He made the cow speak so that it conversed with him as if it were a human being: "Cow, who will eat your butter? Who will drink your milk?" "My butter will be eaten by Nisaba, my milk will be drunk by Nisaba. My cheese, skilfully produced bright crown, was made fitting for the great dining hall, the dining hall of Nisaba. Until my butter is delivered from the holy animal pen, until my milk is delivered from the holy byre, the steadfast wild cow Nisaba, the first-born of Enlil, will not impose any levy on the people." "Cow, your butter to your shining horn; your milk to your back." So the cow's butter was …… to its shining horn; its milk was …… to its back …….
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
He reached the holy byre, the byre of Nisaba. The goat trembled with fear at him in the byre. He made the goat speak so that it conversed with him as if it were a human being." Goat, who will eat your butter? Who will drink your milk?" "My butter will be eaten by Nisaba, my milk will be drunk by Nisaba. My cheese, skilfully produced bright crown, was made fitting for the great dining hall, the dining hall of Nisaba. Until my butter is delivered from the holy animal pen, until my milk is delivered from the holy byre, the steadfast wild cow Nisaba, the first-born of Enlil, will not impose any levy on the people." "Goat, your butter to your shining horn, your milk to your back." So the goat's butter was …… to its shining horn; its milk was made to depart to its back.
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
On that day the animal pen and the byre were turned into a house of silence; they were dealt a disaster. There was no milk in the udder of the cow, the day darkened for the calf, its young calf was hungry and wept bitterly. There was no milk in the udder of the goat; the day darkened for the kid. The buck-goat lay starving, its life ……. The cow spoke bitterly to its calf. The goat …… to its kid. The holy churn was empty, …… was hungry, …… lay starving.
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
On that day the animal pen and the byre were turned into a house of silence; they were dealt a disaster. The cow-herd dropped his staff from his hand: he was shocked. The shepherd hung the crook at his side and wept bitterly. The shepherd boy did not enter (?) the byre and animal pen, but took another way; the milk carrier did not sing loudly, but took another road. The cow-herd and shepherd of Nisaba, sons born of the same mother, were brought up in the animal pen and byre. The name of the first one was Maš-gula, the name of the second one was Ur-edina. At the great gate, facing sunrise, the place marvelled at by the land, both of them crouched in the debris and appealed to Utu for help: "The sorcerer from Aratta entered the animal pen. He made the milk scarce, so the young calves could not get any. { In the animal pen and the byre he caused distress; he made the butter and milk scarce } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… diminished ……, …… he made the milk of the goat scarce }. He threw its ……, …… was dealt a disaster."
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
Both of them threw fish spawn (?) into the river. The sorcerer made a giant carp { come out } { (1 ms. has instead:) arise } from the water. Wise Woman Saĝburu, however, made an eagle { come out } { (1 ms. has instead:) arise } from the water. { The eagle seized the giant carp and fled to the mountains } { (1 ms. has instead:) The eagle seized the giant carp out of the waves and went up to the sky }.
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
A second time they threw fish spawn (?) into the river. The sorcerer made a ewe and its lamb { come out } { (1 ms. has instead:) arise } from the water. Wise Woman Saĝburu, however, made a wolf { come out } { (1 ms. has instead:) arise } from the water. The wolf seized the ewe and its lamb and dragged them to the wide desert.
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
A third time they threw fish spawn (?) into the river. The sorcerer made a cow and its calf { come out } { (1 ms. has instead:) arise } from the water. Wise Woman Saĝburu, however, made a lion { come out } { (1 ms. has instead:) arise } from the water. The lion seized the cow and its calf and { took } { (some mss. have instead:) dragged } them to the reedbeds.
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
A fourth time they threw fish spawn (?) into the river. The sorcerer made an ibex and a wild sheep { come out } { (1 ms. has instead:) arise } from the water. Wise Woman Saĝburu, however, made a mountain leopard { come out } { (1 ms. has instead:) arise } from the water. The leopard seized the ibex and the wild sheep and took them to the mountains.
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
A fifth time they threw fish spawn (?) into the river. The sorcerer made a gazelle kid come out from the water. Wise Woman Saĝburu, however, made a tiger and a …… lion come out from the water. The tiger and the …… lion seized the gazelle kid and { took } { (1 ms. has instead:) dragged } them to the forest. What happened made the face of the sorcerer darken, made his mind confused.
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
Wise Woman Saĝburu said to him: "Sorcerer, you do have magical powers, but where is your sense? How on earth could you think of going to do sorcery at Ereš, which is the city of Nisaba, a city whose destiny was decreed by An and Enlil, the primeval city, the beloved city of Ninlil?"
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
The sorcerer answered her: "I went there without knowing all about this. I acknowledge your superiority -- please do not be bitter." He pleaded, he prayed to her: "Set me free, my sister; set me free. Let me go in peace to my city. Let me return safely to Aratta, the mount of the lustrous me. I will { make known } { (1 ms. has instead:) declare } your greatness in all the lands. I will sing your praise in Aratta, the mount of the lustrous me."
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
Wise Woman Saĝburu answered to him: "You have caused distress in the animal pen and the byre; you have made the butter and milk scarce there. You have removed the lunch-table, the morning- and evening-table. You have cut off butter and milk from the evening meal of the great dining hall, ……… distress ……. Your sin that butter and milk …… cannot be forgiven. Nanna the king …… the byre …… milk; …… established that it was a capital offence and I am not pardoning your life." Wise Woman Saĝburu …… her decision about the sorcerer in the assembly (?). She threw her prisoner from the bank of the Euphrates. She seized from him his life-force and then returned to her city, Ereš.
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
Having heard this matter, En-suḫgir-ana sent a man to Enmerkar: "You are the beloved lord of Inana, you alone are exalted. Inana has truly chosen you for her holy lap, you are her beloved. From the south to the highlands, you are the great lord, and I am only second to you; from the moment of conception I was not your equal, you are the older brother. I cannot match you ever."
Enmerkar and En-suḫgir-ana: c.1.8.2.4
(3 lines unclear) The sorcerer ……. Ur-ĝiri-nuna ……. The sorcerer …… minister Ansiga-ria. (1 line unclear)
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alalĝar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years. Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira. In Bad-tibira, En-men-lu-ana ruled for 43200 years. En-men-gal-ana ruled for 28800 years. Dumuzid, the shepherd, ruled for 36000 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 108000 years. Then Bad-tibira fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Larag. In Larag, En-sipad-zid-ana ruled for 28800 years. 1 king; he ruled for 28800 years. Then Larag fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Zimbir. In Zimbir, En-men-dur-ana became king; he ruled for 21000 years. 1 king; he ruled for 21000 years. Then Zimbir fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Šuruppag. In Šuruppag, Ubara-Tutu became king; he ruled for 18600 years. 1 king; he ruled for 18600 years. In 5 cities 8 kings; they ruled for 241200 years. Then the flood swept over.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kiš. In Kiš, Ĝušur became king; he ruled for 1200 years. Kullassina-bēl ruled for { 960 } { (ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 900 } years. Nanĝišlišma ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) { 670 } (?) years. En-taraḫ-ana ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) { 420 } years ……, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days. Babum …… ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) { 300 } years. Puannum ruled for { 840 } { (ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 240 } years. Kalibum ruled for { 960 } { (ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 900 } years. Kalūmum ruled for { 840 } { (mss. P3+BT14, Su1 have instead:) 900 } years. Zuqāqīp ruled for { 900 } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) 600 } years. (in mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5, the 10th and 11th rulers of the dynasty precede the 8th and 9th) { Atab } { (mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5 have instead:) A-ba } ruled for 600 years. Mašda, the son of Atab, ruled for { 840 } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) 720 } years. Arwium, the son of Mašda, ruled for 720 years. Etana, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries, became king; he ruled for { 1500 } { (ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 635 } years. Baliḫ, the son of Etana, ruled for { 400 } { (mss. P2+L2, Su1 have instead:) 410 } years. En-me-nuna ruled for { 660 } { (ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 621 } years. Melem-Kiš, the son of En-me-nuna, ruled for 900 years. { (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1560 are the years of the dynasty of En-me-nuna. } { Barsal-nuna, the son of En-me-nuna, } { (mss. P5, P3+BT14 have instead:) Barsal-nuna } ruled for 1200 years. Zamug, the son of Barsal-nuna, ruled for 140 years. Tizqār, the son of Zamug, ruled for 305 years. { (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1620 + X ……. } Ilku ruled for 900 years. Iltasadum ruled for 1200 years. En-me-barage-si, who made the land of Elam submit, became king; he ruled for 900 years. Aga, the son of En-me-barage-si, ruled for 625 years. { (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1525 are the years of the dynasty of En-me-barage-si. } 23 kings; they ruled for 24510 years, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days. Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In E-ana, Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer, the son of Utu, became lord and king; he ruled for { 324 } { (ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 325 } years. Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer entered the sea and disappeared. Enmerkar, the son of Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer, the king of Unug, { who built Unug } { (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have instead:) under whom Unug was built }, became king; he ruled for { 420 } { (ms. TL has instead:) 900 + X } years. { (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 745 are the years of the dynasty of Meš-ki-aĝ-gašer. } { (ms TL adds instead:) ……; he ruled for 5 + X years. } Lugalbanda, the shepherd, ruled for 1200 years. Dumuzid, the fisherman whose city was Kuara, ruled for { 100 } { (ms. TL has instead:) 110 } years. { (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) He captured En-me-barage-si single-handed. } Gilgameš, whose father was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba, ruled for 126 years. Ur-Nungal, the son of Gilgameš, ruled for 30 years. Udul-kalama, the son of { Ur-Nungal } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) Ur-lugal }, ruled for 15 years. Lā-ba’šum ruled for 9 years. En-nun-taraḫ-ana ruled for 8 years. Meš-ḫe, the smith, ruled for 36 years. { Melem-ana } { (ms. Su2 has instead:) Til-kug (?) …… } ruled for { 6 } { (ms. Su2 has instead:) 900 } years. Lugal-kitun (?) ruled for { 36 } { (ms. Su2 has instead:) 420 } years. 12 kings; they ruled for { 2310 } { (ms. Su2 has instead:) 3588 } years. Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Urim, Meš-Ane-pada became king; he ruled for 80 years. { Meš-ki-aĝ-Nanna } { (ms. P2+L2 has instead:) Meš-ki-aĝ-nuna }, the son of Meš-Ane-pada, became king; he ruled for { 36 } { (ms. P2+L2 has instead:) 30 } years. Elulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) { 25 } years. Balulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) { 36 } years. (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have:) { 4 } kings; they ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) { 171 } years. Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Awan, …… became king; he ruled for …… years. …… ruled for …… years. …… ruled for 36 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 356 years. Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kiš.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Kiš, Susuda, the fuller, became king; he ruled for 201 + X years. Dadasig ruled for (ms. vD has:) { 81 } years. Mamagal, the boatman, ruled for { 360 } { (ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 420 } years. Kalbum, the son of { Mamagal } { (ms. WB has instead:) Magalgal }, ruled for { 195 } { (ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 132 } years. Tuge (?) ruled for 360 years. Men-nuna { ,(ms. L1+N1 adds:) the son of Tuge (?), } ruled for 180 years. (in mss. L1+N1, TL, the 7th and 8th rulers of the dynasty are in reverse order) …… ruled for 290 years. Lugalĝu ruled for { 360 } { (ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 420 } years. 8 kings; they ruled for { 3195 } { (ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 3792 } years. Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to Ḫamazi.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Ḫamazi, Hadaniš became king; he ruled for 360 years. 1 king; he ruled for 360 years. Then Ḫamazi was defeated and the kingship { was taken } { (ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) was returned a second time } to Unug.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Unug, En-šag-kuš-ana became king; he ruled for 60 years. { Lugal-ure } { (ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) Lugal-kiniše-dudu (?) } ruled for 120 years. Argandea ruled for 7 years. (ms. L1+N1 has:) { 3 } kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) { 187 } years. Then Unug was { defeated } { (ms. TL has instead:) destroyed } and the kingship was taken to Urim.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Urim, Nanni became king; he ruled for { (ms. vD has:) 120 + X } { (ms. IB has instead:) 54 + X } years. Meš-ki-aĝ-Nanna, the son of Nanni, ruled for (ms. vD has:) { 48 } years. { ……, the son (?) of ……, ruled for (ms. IB has:) { 2 } years. (ms. IB has:) { 3 } kings; they ruled for { (ms. IB has:) 582 } { (ms. TL has instead:) 578 } years. } { (ms. vD has instead:) 2 kings; they ruled for 120 + X years. } Then Urim was { defeated } { (ms. TL has instead:) destroyed } and the kingship was taken to Adab.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Adab, Lugal-Ane-mundu became king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) { 90 } years. (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) { 1 } king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) { 90 } years. Then Adab was { defeated } { (ms. TL has instead:) destroyed } and the kingship was taken to Mari.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Mari, Anbu (?) became king; he ruled for { 30 } { (ms. TL has instead:) 90 } years. Anba (?), the son of Anbu (?), ruled for { 17 } { (ms. TL has instead:) 7 } years. Bazi, the leatherworker, ruled for 30 years. Zizi, the fuller, ruled for 20 years. Limer, the gudug priest, ruled for 30 years. Šarrum-īter ruled for { 9 } { (ms. TL has instead:) 7 } years. 6 kings; they ruled for { 136 } { (ms. TL has instead:) 184 } years. Then Mari was { defeated } { (ms. TL has instead:) destroyed } and the kingship was taken to Kiš.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Kiš, Kug-Bau, the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kiš, became king; she ruled for 100 years. 1 king; she ruled for 100 years. Then Kiš was { defeated } { (ms. TL has instead:) destroyed } and the kingship was taken to Akšak.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Akšak, Unzi became king; he ruled for 30 years. Undalulu ruled for { 6 } { (mss. L1+N1, S have instead:) 12 } years. Urur { ruled for } { (ms. IB has instead:) was king (?) for } 6 years. Puzur-Niraḫ ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) { 20 } years. Išu-Il ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) { 24 } years. Šu-Suen, the son of Išu-Il, ruled for { (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, TL have:) 7 } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) 24 } years. { (mss. S, Su1, TL have:) { 6 } kings; they ruled for { (mss. L1+N1, S, TL have:) 99 } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) 116 } years } { (ms. IB has instead:) 5 kings; they ruled for (ms. IB has:) { 87 } years }. { Then Akšak was defeated } { (ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Akšak was abolished } and the kingship was taken to Kiš.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Kiš, Puzur-Suen, the son of Kug-Bau, became king; he ruled for 25 years. Ur-Zababa, the son of Puzur-Suen, ruled for { 400 } { (mss. P3+BT14, S have instead:) 6 } { (ms. IB has instead:) 4 + X } years. { (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 131 are the years of the dynasty of Kug-Bau. } { Zimudar } { (ms. TL has instead:) Ziĝu-iake } ruled for { 30 } { (ms. IB has instead:) 30 + X } years. Usi-watar, the son of { Zimudar } { (ms. TL has instead:) Ziĝu-iake }, ruled for { 7 } { (ms. S has instead:) 6 } years. Eštar-muti ruled for { 11 } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) 17 (?) } years. Išme-Šamaš ruled for 11 years. { (ms. Su1 adds:) Šu-ilīšu ruled for 15 years. } { Nanniya, the jeweller, } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) Zimudar } { (ms. IB has instead:) …… } ruled for { 7 } { (ms. S has instead:) 3 } years. { 7 kings; they ruled for { 491 } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) 485 } years } { (ms. S has instead:) 8 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) { 586 } years }. { Then Kiš was defeated } { (ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Kiš was abolished } and the kingship { was taken } { (ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) was returned a third time } to Unug.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Unug, Lugal-zage-si became king; he ruled for { 25 } { (ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) 34 } years. 1 king; he ruled for { 25 } { (ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) 34 } years. { Then Unug was defeated } { (ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Unug was abolished } and the kingship was taken to Agade.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Agade, Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, { who built Agade } { (ms. L1+N1 has instead:) under whom Agade was built }; he ruled for { 56 } { (ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 55 } { (ms. TL has instead:) 54 } years. Rīmuš, the son of Sargon, ruled for { 9 } { (ms. IB has instead:) 7 } { (ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 15 } years. Man-ištiššu, the older brother of Rīmuš, the son of Sargon, ruled for { 15 } { (ms. L1+N1 has instead:) 7 } years. Narām-Suen, the son of Man-ištiššu, ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P3+BT14 have:) { 56 } years. Šar-kali-šarrī, the son of Narām-Suen, ruled for { (ms. L1+N1, Su+Su4 have:) 25 } { (ms. P3+BT14 has instead:) 24 } years. { (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 157 are the years of the dynasty of Sargon. } Then { who was the king? Who was not the king? } { (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) who was the king? Who indeed was the king? } Irgigi was king, Imi was king, Nanûm was king (in mss. L1+N1, Su3+Su4, Imi and Nanûm are in reverse order), Ilulu was king, and the (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) { 4 } of them ruled for only (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) { 3 } years. Dudu ruled for 21 years. Šu-Durul, the son of Dudu, ruled for { 15 } { (ms. IB has instead:) 18 } years. { 11 kings; they ruled for 181 years } { (ms. S has instead:) 12 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) { 197 } years } { (mss. Su1, Su3+Su4, which omit Dudu and Šu-Durul, have instead:) 9 kings; they ruled for { (ms. Su1 has:) 161 } { (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 177 } years }. { Then Agade was defeated } { (ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Agade was abolished } and the kingship was taken to Unug.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Unug, Ur-niĝin became king; he ruled for { 7 } { (mss. IB, S have instead:) 3 } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) 15 } { (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 30 } years. Ur-gigir, the son of Ur-niĝin, ruled for { 6 } { (ms. IB has instead:) 7 } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) 15 } { (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 7 } years. Kuda ruled for 6 years. Puzur-ilī ruled for { 5 } { (ms. IB has instead:) 20 } years. { Ur-Utu ruled for 6 } { (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) Ur-Utu, the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 25 } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) Lugal-melem, the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 7 } years. { 5 kings; they ruled for { 30 } { (ms. IB has instead:) 43 } { (mss. P&s4;+Ha, S have instead:) 26 } years } { (ms. Su3+Su4, which omits Kuda and Puzur-ilī, has instead:) 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. Su3+Su4 has:) { 47 } years }. { Unug was defeated } { (ms. S has instead:) Then the reign of Unug was abolished } and the kingship was taken to the { army } { (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) land } of Gutium.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In the { army } { (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) land } of Gutium, at first { no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years } { (ms. L1+N1 has instead:) they had no king; they ruled themselves for 5 years }. Then { Inkišuš } { (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) …… } ruled for { 6 } { (ms. L1+Ni1 has instead:) 7 } years. Zarlagab ruled for 6 years. { Šulme } { (ms. L1+N1 has instead:) Yarlagaš } ruled for 6 years. { Silulumeš } { (ms. Mi has instead:) Silulu } ruled for { 6 } { (ms. G has instead:) 7 } years. { Inimabakeš ruled for 5 } { (ms. Mi has instead:) Duga ruled for 6 } years. { Igešauš ruled for 6 } { (ms. Mi has instead:) Ilu-an (?) ruled for 3 } years. Yarlagab ruled for { 15 } { (ms. Mi has instead:) 5 } years. Ibate ruled for 3 years. { Yarla } { (ms. L1+N1 has instead:) Yarlangab (?) } ruled for 3 years. { Kurum } { (ms. L1+N1 has instead:) …… } ruled for { 1 } { (ms. Mi has instead:) 3 } years. Apilkin ruled for 3 years. Lā-erabum (?) ruled for 2 years. Irarum ruled for 2 years. Ibranum ruled for 1 year. Ḫablum ruled for 2 years. Puzur-Suen, the son of Ḫablum, ruled for 7 years. Yarlaganda ruled for 7 years. …… ruled for 7 years. Tirigan (?) ruled for 40 days. 21 kings; they ruled for { (ms. L1+N1 has:) 124 years and 40 days } { (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 25 years }. Then the army of Gutium was { defeated } { (ms. TL has instead:) destroyed } and the kingship was taken to Unug.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Unug, Utu-ḫeĝal became king; he ruled for { 427 years, …… days } { (ms. IB has instead:) 26 years, 2 + X months, and 15 days } { (ms. J has instead:) 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days } { (ms. TL has instead:) 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days }. 1 king; he ruled for { 427 years, …… days } { (ms. J has instead:) 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days } { (ms. TL has instead:) 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days }. Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Urim, Ur-Namma became king; he ruled for 18 years. Šulgi, the son of Ur-Namma, ruled for { 46 } { (mss. Su3+Su4, TL have instead:) 48 } { (ms. P5 has instead:) 58 } years. Amar-Suena, the son of Šulgi, ruled for { 9 } { (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 25 } years. Šu-Suen, the son of Amar-Suena, ruled for { 9 } { (ms. P5 has instead:) 7 } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) 20 + X } { (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 16 } years. Ibbi-Suen, the son of Šu-Suen, ruled for { 24 } { (mss. P5, Su1 have instead:) 25 } { (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 15 } { (ms. TL has instead:) 23 (?) } years. { 4 kings; they ruled for 108 years } { (mss. J, P5, Su1, Su3+Su4 have instead:) 5 kings; they ruled for { (ms. P5 has:) 117 } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) 120 + X } { (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead:) 123 } years }. { Then Urim was defeated } { (ms. P5 has instead:) Then the reign of Urim was abolished }. { (ms. Su3+Su4 adds:) The very foundation of Sumer was torn out (?). } The kingship was taken to Isin.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
In Isin, Išbi-Erra became king; he ruled for { 33 } { (ms. P5 has instead:) 32 } years. Šu-ilīšu, the son of Išbi-Erra, ruled for { 20 } { (ms. P5 has instead:) 10 } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) 15 } years. Iddin-Dagan, the son of Šu-ilīšu, ruled for { 21 } { (ms. Su1 has instead:) 25 } years. Išme-Dagan, the son of Iddin-Dagan, ruled for { (mss. P2, P5 have:) 20 } { (ms. Mi has instead:) 18 } years. Lipit-Eštar, the son of { Išme-Dagan } { (ms. P2 has instead:) Iddin-Dagan }, ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2, P5 have:) { 11 } years. Ur-Ninurta { (mss. L1+N1, P2 add:), the son of Iškur -- may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life -- } ruled for (ms. P5 has:) { 28 } years. Būr-Suen, the son of Ur-Ninurta, ruled for 21 years. Lipit-Enlil, the son of Būr-Suen, ruled for 5 years. Erra-imitti ruled for { 8 } { (mss. P5, TL have instead:) 7 } years. { (ms. P5 adds:) …… ruled for …… 6 months. } Enlil-bāni ruled for 24 years. Zambiya ruled for 3 years. Iter-piša ruled for 4 years. Ur-du-kuga ruled for 4 years. Suen-magir ruled for 11 years. { (ms. P5 adds:) Damiq-ilišu, the son of Suen-magir, ruled for 23 years. } 14 kings; they ruled for { 203 years } { (ms. P5 has instead:) 225 years and 6 months }.
The Sumerian king list: c.2.1.1
A total of 39 kings ruled for 14409 + X years, 3 months and 3 1/2 days, 4 times in Kiš. A total of 22 kings ruled for 2610 + X years, 6 months and 15 days, 5 times in Unug. A total of 12 kings ruled for 396 years, 3 times in Urim. A total of 3 kings ruled for 356 years, once in Awan. A total of 1 king ruled for 420 years, once in Ḫamazi. (16 lines missing) A total of 12 (?) kings ruled for 197 (?) years, once in Agade. A total of { 21 } { (ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 23 } kings ruled for { 125 years and 40 days } { (ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 99 years }, once in the army of Gutium. A total of { 11 } { (ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 16 } kings ruled for { 159 } { (ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 226 } years, once in Isin. There are 11 cities, cities in which the kingship was exercised. A total of { 134 } { (ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 139 } kings, who altogether ruled for { 28876 + X } { (ms. P4+Ha has instead:) 3443 + X } years. 21.
The rulers of Lagaš: c.2.1.2
After the flood had swept over and brought about the destruction of the countries; when mankind was made to endure, and the seed of mankind was preserved and the black-headed people all rose; when An and Enlil called the name of mankind and established rulership, but kingship and the crown of the city had not yet come out from heaven, and Ninĝirsu had not yet established for the multitude of well-guarded (?) people the pickaxe, the spade, the earth basket and the plough, which mean life for the Land -- in those days, the carefree youth of man lasted for 100 years and, following his upbringing, he lasted for another 100 years.
The rulers of Lagaš: c.2.1.2
However, he did not do any work. He became smaller and smaller, ……; his sheep died (?) in the sheepfold. In those days, because the water of Lagaš was held back, there was famine in Ĝirsu. Canals were not dug, the levees and ditches were not cleaned. The large arable tracts were not ……, there was no water to irrigate abundantly all the cultivated fields: the people relied on rain; Ezina did not make dappled barley grow, furrows were not yet opened, they bore no yield; the high plain was not tilled, it bore no yield.
The rulers of Lagaš: c.2.1.2
In order to dig canals, to clean the levees and ditches, to …… the large arable tracts, to …… all the cultivated fields, he established for the people the pickaxe, the spade, the earth basket, and the plough, which mean life for the Land. Then he turned his attention to making barley sprout. He made the people stand before the maiden, and they raised their heads day and night, at the appointed times. Before Ezina who makes the seeds grow, they prostrated themselves and she made them grow (?). Before (?) Ezina who makes the dappled barley grow, they …… (33 lines missing or uncertain)
The rulers of Lagaš: c.2.1.2
…… acted for …… years. …… dug the canal ……, he acted for 2760 years.
The rulers of Lagaš: c.2.1.2
En-akigalaguba: his personal god was ……, he dug the canal Niĝin-ĝiš-tukuam, he acted for 1200 years. In those days there was no writing, ……, canals were not dug, earth baskets were not carried. In those days, ……, the people …… offerings of refined gold (2 lines uncertain)a good shepherd rose over the Land; he gave them (?) …… as a gift. En-Ninĝirsu-ki-aĝ, the son of En-akigalaguba: he acted for 1320 years. En-Enlile-ki-aĝ, the son of En-Ninĝirsu-ki-aĝ: he acted for 1800 years. Ur-Bau the son of En-Enlile-ki-aĝ: he acted for 900 years.
The rulers of Lagaš: c.2.1.2
A-gal: his personal god was Ig-alim, he acted for 660 years. Kue (?), the son of A-gal: he acted for 1200 years. Ama-alim, son of Kue (?): ……, he acted for 600 years.
The rulers of Lagaš: c.2.1.2
(12 lines unclear or missing) (the lines list further rulers with unrecoverable names and length of rule)
The rulers of Lagaš: c.2.1.2
(2 lines missing) he dug the Maḫ canal, the …… canal, the Piriĝgin-ĝen canal, the …… canal, the Piriĝ canal at the mouth of the Lugal canal, the Gana-hili-ana canal, the …… canal, and the Nanše-pada canal. To care, single-handedly, for the great arable lands, he dug irrigation ditches and ……, he acted for 2220 years. Ur-Nanše, the son of ……, who built the E-Sirara, her temple of happiness and Niĝin, her beloved city, acted for 1080 years. Ane-tum, the son of Ur-Nanše, in whose …… place the gods stood, who …… the land register of great Enlil: his personal god was Šul-utul, he acted for 690 years. ……, the son of Ane-tum: he acted for X + 360 years.
The rulers of Lagaš: c.2.1.2
En-entar-zid: his god was Meš-an-du (?), of the seed of ancient days, who had grown together with the city, he acted for 990 years. ……, the son of En-entar-zid: he dug the canal Urmaḫ-banda, and the canal Tabta-kug-ĝal, his personal god was Meš-an-du (?); his master Ninĝirsu commanded him to build his temple; he acted for 960 years.
The rulers of Lagaš: c.2.1.2
En-Enlile-su: he acted for 600 years. ……, the son of En-Enlile-su: his personal god was Ninazu; he acted for 660 years.
The rulers of Lagaš: c.2.1.2
……: he acted for 1110 years.
The rulers of Lagaš: c.2.1.2
Puzur-Ninlil: he acted for X × 60 + 1 years. En-Meš-an-du (?), the son of Puzur-Ninlil: his personal god was ……, he acted for 120 years. Dadu, the son of En-Meš-an-du (?): he acted for 160 years. Tuggur, the son of Dadu: he acted for 160 years.
The rulers of Lagaš: c.2.1.2
……: he acted for 120 years.
The rulers of Lagaš: c.2.1.2
Puzur-Mama, the scribe of Ninki: his personal god was Zazaru; he acted for …… years. Lamku-niĝgena (?), the administrator of Puzur-Mama, who built the wall of Ĝirsu, his ……, and the Tiraš palace in Lagaš: he acted for 280 years. Ḫenĝal, the son of Lamku-niĝgena (?): his god was Pabilsaĝ (?), he acted for 140 years. ……, the son of Ḫenĝal: he acted for 144 years.
The rulers of Lagaš: c.2.1.2
Ur-Ninmarki, the scribe and scholar: ……, his personal gods were Ḫaya and Nisaba, he acted for X + 20 years. Ur-Ninĝirsu, the son of Ur-Ninmarki: he acted for X × 60 years. Ur-Bau, the scribe of Ur-Ninĝirsu, who …… in the assembly: he acted for X + 30 years. Gudea, the younger brother of Ur-Bau, ……, who was not the son of his mother nor the son of his father: he acted for …… years.
The history of the Tummal: c.2.1.3
From the years of { Amar-Suena } { (1 ms. has instead:) Šu-Suen } until King Ibbi-Suen chose { En-am-gal-ana } { (1. ms. has instead:) En-me-gal-ana } by extispicy as the high priest of Inana of Unug, Ninlil came regularly to the Tummal.
The history of the Tummal: c.2.1.3
Written according to the words of Lu-Inana the chief leatherworker of Enlil.
Sargon and Ur-Zababa: c.2.1.4
To …… the sanctuary like a cargo ship; to …… its great furnaces; to see that its canals …… waters of joy, to see that the hoes till the arable tracts and that …… the fields; to turn the house of Kiš, which was like a haunted town, into a living settlement again -- its king, shepherd Ur-Zababa, rose like Utu over the house of Kiš. An and Enlil, however, authoritatively (?) decided (?) by their holy command to alter his term of reigning and to remove the prosperity of the palace.
Sargon and Ur-Zababa: c.2.1.4
Then Sargon -- his city was the city of ……, his father was La’ibum, his mother …… -- Sargon …… with happy heart. Since he was born ……. (unknown no. of lines missing)
Sargon and Ur-Zababa: c.2.1.4
One day, after the evening had arrived and Sargon had brought the regular deliveries to the palace, Ur-Zababa was sleeping (and dreaming) in the holy bed-chamber, his holy residence. He realised what the dream was about, but did not put into words, did not discuss it with anyone. After Sargon had received the regular deliveries for the palace, Ur-Zababa appointed him cupbearer, putting him in charge of the drinks cupboard. Holy Inana did not cease to stand by him.
Sargon and Ur-Zababa: c.2.1.4
It was then that the cupbearer of Ezina's wine-house, Sargon, lay down not to sleep, but lay down to dream. In the dream, holy Inana drowned Ur-Zababa in a river of blood. The sleeping Sargon groaned and gnawed the ground. When King Ur-Zababa heard about this groaning, he was brought into the king's holy presence, Sargon was brought into the presence of Ur-Zababa (who said:) "Cupbearer, was a dream revealed to you in the night?" Sargon answered his king: "My king, this is my dream, which I will tell you about: There was a young woman who was as high as the heavens and as broad as the earth. She was firmly set as the base of a wall. For me, she drowned you in a great river, a river of blood."
Sargon and Ur-Zababa: c.2.1.4
Ur-Zababa chewed his lips, he became seriously afraid. He spoke to ……, his chancellor: "My royal sister, holy Inana, is going to change (?) my finger into a …… of blood; she will drown Sargon, the cupbearer, in the great river. Beliš-tikal, chief smith, man of my choosing, who can write tablets, I will give you orders, let my orders be carried out! Let my advice be followed! Now then, when the cupbearer has delivered my bronze hand-mirror (?) to you, in the E-sikil, the fated house, throw them (the mirror and Sargon) into the mould like statues."
Sargon and Ur-Zababa: c.2.1.4
Beliš-tikal heeded his king's words and prepared the moulds in the E-sikil, the fated house. The king spoke to Sargon: "Go and deliver my bronze hand-mirror (?) to the chief smith!" Sargon left the palace of Ur-Zababa. Holy Inana, however, did not cease to stand at his right hand side, and before he had come within five or 10 nindan of the E-sikil, the fated house, holy Inana turned around toward him and blocked his way, (saying:) "The E-sikil is a holy house! No one polluted with blood should enter it!" Thus he met the chief smith of the king only at the gate of the fated house. After he delivered the king's bronze hand-mirror (?) to the chief smith, Beliš-tikal, the chief smith, …… and threw it into the mould like statues.
Sargon and Ur-Zababa: c.2.1.4
After five or 10 days had passed, Sargon came into the presence of Ur-Zababa, his king; he came into the palace, firmly founded like a great mountain. King Ur-Zababa …… and became frightened in his residence. He realised what was it about, but did not put into words, did not discuss it with anyone. Ur-Zababa became frightened in the bed-chamber, his holy residence. He realised what was it about, but did not put into words, did not discuss it with anyone.
Sargon and Ur-Zababa: c.2.1.4
In those days, although writing words on tablets existed, putting tablets into envelopes did not yet exist. King Ur-Zababa despatched Sargon, the creature of the gods, to Lugal-zage-si in Unug with a message written on clay, which was about murdering Sargon. (unknown no. of lines missing)
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
After Enlil's frown had slain Kiš as if it were the Bull of Heaven, had slaughtered the house of the land of Unug in the dust as if it were a mighty bull, and then Enlil had given the rulership and kingship from the south as far as the highlands to Sargon, king of Agade -- at that time, holy Inana established the sanctuary of Agade as her celebrated woman's domain; she set up her throne in Ulmaš.
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
Like a young man building a house for the first time, like a girl establishing a woman's domain, holy Inana did not sleep as she ensured that the warehouses would be provisioned; that dwellings would be founded in the city; that its people would eat splendid food; that its people would drink splendid beverages; that those bathed for holidays would rejoice in the courtyards; that the people would throng the places of celebration; that acquaintances would dine together; that foreigners would cruise about like unusual birds in the sky; that even Marhaši would be re-entered on the tribute rolls; that monkeys, mighty elephants, water buffalo, exotic animals, as well as thoroughbred dogs, lions, { mountain ibexes } { (some mss. have instead:) mountain beasts (?) } { (some mss. have instead:) horses }, and alum sheep with long wool would jostle each other in the public squares.
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
She then filled Agade's stores for emmer wheat with gold, she filled its stores for white emmer wheat with silver; she delivered copper, tin, and blocks of lapis lazuli to its granaries and sealed its silos from outside. She endowed its old women with the gift of giving counsel, she endowed its old men with the gift of eloquence. She endowed its young women with the gift of entertaining, she endowed its young men with martial might, she endowed its little ones with joy. The nursemaids { who cared for } { (some mss. have instead:) of } the general's children played the drumsticks. Inside the city tigi drums sounded; outside it, flutes and zamzam instruments. Its harbour where ships moored was full of joy. All foreign lands rested contentedly, and their people experienced happiness.
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
Its king, the shepherd Naram-Suen, rose as the daylight on the holy throne of Agade. Its city wall { , like a mountain, } { (1 ms. has instead:), a great mountain, } reached the heavens. It was like the Tigris { going to } { (some mss. have instead:) flowing into } the sea as holy Inana opened the portals of its city-gates and made Sumer bring its own possessions upstream by boats. The highland Martu, people ignorant of agriculture, brought spirited cattle and kids for her. The Meluḫans, the people of the black land, brought { exotic wares } { (some mss. have instead:) wares of foreign countries } up to her. Elam and Subir loaded themselves with goods for her as if they were packasses. All the governors, the { temple administrators } { (1 ms. has instead:) generals }, and the accountants of the Gu-edina regularly supplied the monthly and New Year offerings. What a weariness all these caused at Agade's city gates! Holy Inana could hardly receive all these offerings. As if she were a citizen there, she could not restrain (?) the desire (?) to prepare the ground for a temple.
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
But the statement coming from the E-kur was disquieting. Because of Enlil (?) all Agade was reduced (?) to trembling, and terror befell Inana in Ulmaš. She left the city, returning to her home. Holy Inana abandoned the sanctuary of Agade like someone abandoning the young women of her woman's domain. Like a warrior hurrying to arms, she { removed } { (some mss. have instead:) tore away } the gift of battle and fight from the city and handed them over to the enemy.
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
Not even five or 10 days had passed and Ninurta brought the jewels of rulership, the royal crown, the emblem and the royal throne bestowed on Agade, back into his E-šu-me-ša. Utu took away the eloquence of the city. Enki took away its wisdom. An took { up } { (some mss. have instead:) out } { (1 ms. has instead:) away } into the midst of heaven its fearsomeness that reaches heaven. Enki tore out its well-anchored holy mooring pole from the abzu. Inana took away its weapons.
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
The life of Agade's sanctuary was brought to an end as if it had been only the life of a tiny carp in the deep waters, and all the cities were watching it. Like a mighty elephant, it bent its neck to the ground while they all raised their horns like mighty bulls. Like a dying dragon, it dragged its head on the earth and they jointly deprived it of honour as in a battle.
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
Naram-Suen saw in a nocturnal vision that Enlil would not let the kingdom of Agade occupy a pleasant, lasting residence, that he would make its future altogether unfavourable, that he would make its temples shake and would { scatter its treasures } { (1 ms. has instead:) destroy its treasuries }. He realised what the dream was about, but did not put into words, and did not discuss it with anyone. { (1 ms. adds 2 lines:) …… temples shake ……, …… perform (?) extispicy regarding (?) his temple ……. } Because of the E-kur, he put on mourning clothes, { covered his chariot with a reed mat } { (1 ms. has instead:) pulled out the outside pin of his chariot }, tore the reed canopy off { his ceremonial barge } { (1 ms. has instead:) the prow of his ceremonial barge } { (1 ms. has instead:) the cabin of his ceremonial barge }, and gave away his royal paraphernalia. Naram-Suen persisted for seven years! Who has ever seen a king burying his head in his hands for seven years? { (some mss. add the line:) He realised what the dream was about, but did not put into words, and did not discuss it with anyone. }
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
Because his subjects were dispersed, he now began a mobilization of his troops. Like a wrestler who is about to enter the great courtyard, he …… his hands towards (?) the E-kur. Like an athlete bent to start a contest, he treated the giguna as if it were worth only thirty shekels. Like a robber plundering the city, he set tall ladders against the temple. To demolish E-kur as if it were a huge ship, to break up its soil like the soil of mountains where precious metals are mined, to splinter it like the lapis lazuli mountain, to prostrate it like a city inundated by Iškur -- alhough the temple was not the Mountains of Cedar-felling, he had large axes cast, he had double-edged agasilig axes sharpened to be used against it. He set spades against its roots and it sank as low as the foundation of the Land. He put axes against its top, and the temple, like a dead soldier, bowed its neck before him, and all the foreign lands bowed their necks before him.
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
He ripped out its drain pipes, and all the rain went back to the heavens. He tore off its upper lintel and { the Land was deprived of its ornament } { (1 ms. has instead:) the ornament of the Land disappeared }. From its Gate from which Grain is never Diverted, he diverted grain, and the Land was deprived of grain. He struck the Gate of Well-Being with the pickaxe, and well-being was subverted in all the foreign lands. As if they were for great tracts of land with wide carp-filled waters, he cast large { spades } { (1 ms. has instead:) axes } to be used against the E-kur. The people could see the bedchamber, its room which knows no daylight. The Akkadians could look into the holy treasure chest of the gods. Though they had committed no sacrilege, its laḫama deities of the great pilasters standing at the temple were thrown into the fire by Naram-Suen. The cedar, cypress, juniper and boxwood, the woods of its giguna, were …… by him. He put its gold in containers and put its silver in leather bags. He filled the docks with its copper, as if it were a huge transport of grain. The silversmiths were re-shaping its silver, jewellers were re-shaping its precious stones, smiths were beating its copper. Large ships were moored at the temple, large ships were moored at Enlil's temple and its possessions were taken away from the city, though they were not the goods of a plundered city. With the possessions being taken away from the city, good sense left Agade. As the ships { moved away from } { (some mss. have instead:) juddered } the docks, Agade's { intelligence } { (1 ms. has instead:) sanctuary } was removed.
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
Enlil, the roaring storm that subjugates the entire land, the rising deluge that cannot be confronted, was considering what should be destroyed in return for the wrecking of his beloved E-kur. He lifted his gaze towards the Gubin mountains, and made all the inhabitants of the broad mountain ranges descend (?). Enlil brought out of the mountains those who do not resemble other people, who are not reckoned as part of the Land, the Gutians, an unbridled people, with human intelligence but canine { instincts } { (some mss. have instead:) feelings } and monkeys' features. Like small birds they swooped on the ground in great flocks. Because of Enlil, they stretched their arms out across the plain like a net for animals. Nothing escaped their clutches, no one left their grasp. Messengers no longer travelled the highways, the courier's boat no longer passed along the rivers. The Gutians drove the trusty (?) goats of Enlil out of their folds and compelled their herdsmen to follow them, they drove the cows out of their pens and compelled their cowherds to follow them. Prisoners manned the watch. Brigands { occupied } { (1 ms. has instead:) attacked } the highways. The doors of the city gates of the Land { lay dislodged in } { (1 ms. has instead:) were covered with } mud, and all the foreign lands uttered bitter cries from the walls of their cities. They { established gardens for themselves } { (1 ms. has instead:) made gardens grow } within the cities, and not as usual on the wide plain outside. As if it had been before the time when cities were built and founded, the large { (some mss. add:) fields and } arable tracts yielded no grain, the inundated { (some mss. add:) fields and } tracts yielded no fish, the irrigated orchards yielded no syrup or wine, the thick clouds (?) did not rain, the mašgurum plant did not grow.
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
In those days, oil for one shekel was only half a litre, grain for one shekel was only half a litre, wool for one shekel was only one mina, fish for one shekel filled only one ban measure -- these sold at such prices in the markets of the cities! Those who lay down on the roof, died on the roof; those who lay down in the house were not buried. People were flailing at themselves from hunger. By the Ki-ur, Enlil's great place, dogs were packed together in the silent streets; if two men walked there they would be devoured by them, and if three men walked there they would be devoured by them. Noses were punched (?), heads were smashed (?), noses (?) were piled up, heads were sown like seeds. Honest people were confounded with traitors, heroes lay dead on top of heroes, the blood of traitors ran upon the blood of honest men.
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
At that time, Enlil rebuilt his great sanctuaries into small reed (?) sanctuaries and from east to west he reduced their storehouses. The old women who survived those days, the old men who survived those days and the chief lamentation singer who survived those years set up seven balaĝ drums, as if they stood at the horizon, and together with ub { , meze, and lilis } { (some mss. have instead:), šem, and lilis } { (1 ms. has instead:) and bronze šem } drums made them resound to Enlil like Iškur for seven days and seven nights. The old women did not restrain the cry "Alas for my city!". The old men did not restrain the cry "Alas for its people!". The lamentation singer did not restrain the cry "Alas for the E-kur!". Its young women did not restrain from tearing their hair. Its young men did not restrain from sharpening their knives. Their laments were as if Enlil's ancestors were performing a lament in the awe-inspiring Holy Mound by the holy knees of Enlil. Because of this, Enlil entered his holy bedchamber and lay down fasting.
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
At that time, Suen, Enki, Inana, Ninurta, Iškur, Utu, Nuska, and Nisaba, { the great gods } { (1 ms. has instead:) all the gods whosoever }, { cooled } { (1 ms. has instead:) sprinkled } Enlil's heart with cool water and prayed to him: "Enlil, may the city that destroyed your city be treated as your city has been treated! May the one that defiled your giguna be treated as Nibru! In this city, may heads fill the wells! May no one find his acquaintances there, may brother not recognise brother! May its young woman be cruelly killed in her woman's domain, may its old man cry in distress for his slain wife! May its pigeons moan on their window ledges, may its small birds be smitten in their nooks, may it live in constant anxiety like a timid pigeon!"
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
Again, Suen, Enki, Inana, Ninurta, Iškur, Utu, Nuska and Nisaba, all the gods whosoever, turned their attention to the city, and cursed Agade severely: "City, you pounced on E-kur: it is as if you had pounced on Enlil! Agade, you pounced on E-kur: it is as if you had pounced on Enlil! May your holy walls, to their highest point, resound with mourning! May your giguna be reduced to a pile of dust! May your pilasters with the standing lahama deities fall to the ground like tall young men drunk on wine! May your clay be returned to its abzu, may it be clay cursed by Enki! May your grain be returned to its furrow, may it be grain cursed by Ezina! May your timber be returned to its forest, may it be timber cursed by Ninilduma! May { the } { (1 ms. has instead:) your } cattle slaughterer slaughter his wife, may { your } { (some mss. have instead:) the } sheep butcher butcher his child! May water wash away your pauper as he is looking for ……! May your prostitute hang herself at the entrance to her brothel! May your pregnant (?) priestesses and cult prostitutes abort (?) their children! May your gold be bought for the price of silver, may your silver be bought for the price of pyrite (?), and may your copper be bought for the price of lead!"
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
"Agade, may your strong man be deprived of his strength, so that he will be unable to lift his sack of provisions and ……, and will not have the joy of controlling your superior asses; may he lie idle all day! May this make the city die of hunger! May your citizens, who used to eat fine food, lie hungry, may your …… man eat the coating on his roof, may he chew (?) the leather hinges on the main door of his father's house! May depression descend upon your { palace, built for joy } { (1 ms. has instead:) joyous palace }! May the evils of the desert, the silent place, howl continuously!"
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
"May foxes that frequent ruin mounds brush with their tails your uzga precinct, established for purification ceremonies! May the ukuku, the bird of depression, make its nest in your gateways, established for the Land! In your city that could not sleep because of the tigi drums, that could not rest from its joy, may the bulls of Nanna that fill the pens bellow like those who wander in the desert, the silent place! May the grass grow long on your canal-bank tow-paths, may the grass of mourning grow on your highways laid for waggons! Moreover, may …… wild rams (?) and alert snakes of the mountains allow no one to pass on your tow-paths built up with canal sediment! In your plains where fine grass grows, may the reed of lamentation grow! { Agade, may brackish water flow } { (1 ms. has instead:) May brackish water flow in the river, } where fresh water flowed for you! If someone decides," I will dwell in this city!", may he not enjoy the pleasures of a dwelling place! If someone decides," I will rest in Agade!", may he not enjoy the pleasures of a resting place!"
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
And before Utu on that very day, so it was! On its canal bank tow-paths, the grass grew long. On its highways laid for waggons, the grass of mourning grew. Moreover, on its tow-paths built up with canal sediment, …… wild rams (?) and alert snakes of the mountains allowed no one to pass. On its plains, where fine grass grew, now the reeds of lamentation grew. Agade's flowing fresh water flowed as brackish water. When someone decided," I will dwell in that city!", he could not enjoy the pleasures of a dwelling place. When someone decided," I will rest in Agade!", he could not enjoy the pleasures of a resting place!
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
Enki took away its wisdom. An took up into the midst of heaven its fearsomeness that reaches heaven. Enki tore out its well-anchored holy mooring pole from the abzu. (unknown no. of lines missing)
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
Naram-Suen saw in a nocturnal vision that he would make its future altogether unfavourable, that he would make its temples shake and would scatter its treasures! (unknown no. of lines missing)
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
His subjects were dispersed, so he began a mobilization of his troops. Like a wrestler who is about to enter the great courtyard, he …… his hands towards (?) the E-kur. Like an athlete bent to start a contest, he treated the giguna as if it were worth only thirty shekels. Like a robber plundering the city, he set tall ladders against the temple. Though the temple was not a mountain of cedars, he had large axes cast to be used against it. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) He had double-edged agasilig axes sharpened to be used against it. } As if they were for great tracts of land with { huge } { (1 ms. has instead:) wide } carp-filled waters, he cast large { spades } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… to be used against the E-kur }. He put spades against its roots. (unknown no. of lines missing)
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
(4 lines unclear) (unknown no. of lines missing)
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
Noses were punched, heads were smashed (?), noses (?) were piled up, heads were sown like seeds. Heroes lay (?) dead on top of heroes, the blood of traitors ran (?) upon honest men.
The cursing of Agade: c.2.1.5
Enlil rebuilt his great sanctuaries into small reed (?) sanctuaries and from the south to the uplands …….
The victory of Utu-ḫeĝal: c.2.1.6
The enemy troops established themselves everywere. Tirigan, the king of Gutium …… the mouths of the channels (?). Nobody came out of his city to face him; he already occupied both banks of the Tigris. In the south, in Sumer, he blocked the water from the fields, in the uplands he closed off the roads. Because of him the grass grew high on the highways of the land.
The victory of Utu-ḫeĝal: c.2.1.6
But the king, endowed with power by Enlil, chosen by Inana with her { (1 ms. adds:) holy } heart -- Utu-ḫeĝal, the mighty man, came out from Unug to face him and set up camp (?) at the temple of Iškur. He addressed a speech to the citizens of his city: "Enlil has given Gutium to me and my lady Inana will be my help! Dumuzid-ama-ušumgal-ana has declared "It is a matter for me!" and assigned Gilgameš, the son of Ninsumun, to me as a constable!" The citizens of Unug and Kulaba rejoiced and followed him with one accord. He lined up his élite troops.
The victory of Utu-ḫeĝal: c.2.1.6
After departing from the shrine at Ili-tappê, on the sixth day he set up camp (?) at Karkara. He went to Iškur and prayed to him: "O Iškur, Enlil has provided me with weapons, may you be my help!" In the middle of that night, …… he departed (?) and above Adab he went to the rising (?) Utu and prayed to him: "O Utu, Enlil has given Gutium to me, may you be my help!" He laid a trap (?) there behind the Gutian. Utu-ḫeĝal, the mighty man, defeated their generals.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
On the day when in heaven and earth the fates had been decided, Lagaš raised its head high in full grandeur, and Enlil looked at Lord Ninĝirsu with approval. In our city there was perfection.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The heart overflowed with joy, Enlil's heart, a river in flood, overflowed with joy. The heart overflowed with joy, and just as the Tigris brings sweet water, so Enlil, whose will is an enormous flood, sparkling and awe-inspiring, came to a sweet decision:
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"The lord called for his house and I intend to make the grandeur of E-ninnu known everywhere. Using his wisdom, the ruler (i.e. Gudea) will achieve great things. He will direct faultless cattle and kids for offering. It is for him the fated brick is waiting. It is by him that the building of the holy house is to be done."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
On that day, in a nocturnal vision Gudea saw his master, Lord Ninĝirsu. Ninĝirsu spoke to him of his house, of its building. He showed him an E-ninnu with full grandeur. Outstanding though his mind was, the message remained to be understood for him.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"Well, I have to tell her about this! Well, I have to tell her about this! I will ask her to stand by me in this matter. Profound things (?) came suddenly to me, the shepherd, but the meaning of what the nocturnal vision brought to me I do not understand. So I will take my dream to my mother and I will ask my dream-interpreter, an expert on her own, my divine sister from Sirara, Nanše, to reveal its meaning to me."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
He stepped aboard his boat, directed it on the canal Id-Niĝin-dua towards her city Niĝin, and merrily cut through the waves of the river. After he had reached Bagara, the house extending as far as the river, he offered bread, poured cold water and went to the master of Bagara to pray to him.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"Warrior, rampant lion, who has no opponent! Ninĝirsu, important in the abzu, respected in Nibru! Warrior, I want to carry out faithfully what you have commanded me; Ninĝirsu, I want to build up your house for you, I want to make it perfect for you, so I will ask your sister, the child born of Eridug, an authority on her own, the lady, the dream-interpreter among the gods, my divine sister from Sirara, Nanše, to show me the way." His call was heard; his master, Lord Ninĝirsu, accepted from Gudea his prayer and supplication.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Gudea celebrated the ešeš festival in the house of Bagara. The ruler set up his bed near to Ĝatumdug. He offered bread and poured cold water and went to holy Ĝatumdug to pray to her: "My lady, child begotten by holy An, an authority on her own, proud goddess, living in the Land, …… of her city! Lady, mother, you who founded Lagaš, if you but look upon your people, it brings abundance; the worthy young man on whom you look will enjoy a long life."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"Tonight I shall lie down here (?). You are my great dagger (?), being attached to my side; you are a …… planted in great waters, providing me with life; you are a broad sunshade; let me cool off in your shade. May the favourable, right-hand palm of your lofty hands, my lady Ĝatumdug, lend me protection! I am going to the city, may my sign be favourable! May your friendly guardian go before me, and may your friendly protecting genius walk with me on the way towards Niĝin, the mountain rising from the water."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"Well, I have to tell her about this! Well, I have to tell her about this! I will ask her to stand by me in this matter. I will take my dream to my mother and I will ask my dream-interpreter, an expert on her own, my divine sister from Sirara, Nanše, to reveal its meaning to me." His call was heard; his lady, holy Ĝatumdug, accepted from Gudea his prayer and supplication.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
He stepped aboard his boat, directed it towards her city Niĝin, mooring it at the quay of Niĝin. The ruler raised his head high in the courtyard of the goddess from Sirara. He offered bread, poured cold water and went to Nanše to pray to her: "Nanše, mighty lady, lady of most precious (?) powers, lady who like Enlil determine fates, my Nanše, what you say is trustworthy and takes precedence. You are the interpreter of dreams among the gods, you are the lady of all the lands. Mother, my matter today is a dream:"
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"In the dream there was someone who was as enormous as the heavens, who was as enormous as the earth. His head was like that of a god, his wings were like those of the Anzud bird, his lower body was like a flood storm. Lions were lying at his right and his left. He spoke to me about building his house, but I could not understand what he exactly meant, then daylight rose for me on the horizon."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"Then there was a woman -- whoever she was. She …… sheaves. She held a stylus of refined silver in her hand, and placed it on a tablet with propitious stars, and was consulting it."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"There was, furthermore, a warrior. His arm was bent, holding a lapis lazuli tablet in his hand, and he was setting down the plan of the house. The holy basket stood in front of me, the holy brick mould was ready and the fated brick was placed in the mould for me. In a fine ildag tree standing before me tigidlu birds were spending the day twittering. My master's right-side donkey stallion was pawing the ground for me."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
His mother Nanše answered the ruler: "My shepherd, I will explain your dream for you in every detail. The person who, as you said, was as enormous as the heavens, who was as enormous as the earth, whose head was like that of a god, whose wings, as you said, were like those of the Anzud bird, and whose lower body was, as you said, like a flood storm, at whose right and left lions were lying, was in fact my brother Ninĝirsu. He spoke to you about the building of his shrine, the E-ninnu."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"The young woman …… sheaves, who held a stylus of refined silver in her hand, who had placed it on a tablet with propitious stars and was consulting it, was in fact my sister Nisaba. She announced to you the holy stars auguring the building of the house."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"As regards the holy basket standing in front of you, the holy brick mould which was ready and the fated brick placed in the mould, this part of the dream concerns the good brick of the E-ninnu."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"As regards the fine ildag tree standing before you, in which, as you said, tigidlu birds were spending the day twittering, this means that the building of the house will not let sweet sleep come into your eyes."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"Let me advise you and may my advice be taken. Direct your steps to Ĝirsu, the foremost house of the land of Lagaš, open your storehouse up and take out wood from it; build (?) a chariot for your master and harness a donkey stallion to it; decorate this chariot with refined silver and lapis lazuli and equip it with arrows that will fly out from the quiver like sunbeams, and with the an-kar weapon, the strength of heroism; fashion for him his beloved standard and write your name on it, and then enter before the warrior who loves gifts, before your master Lord Ninĝirsu in E-ninnu-the-white-Anzud-bird, together with his beloved balaĝ drum Ušumgal-kalama, his famous instrument to which he keeps listening. Your requests will then be taken as if they were commands; and the drum will make the inclination of the lord -- which is as inconceivable as the heavens -- will make the inclination of Ninĝirsu, the son of Enlil, favourable for you so that he will reveal the design of his house to you in every detail. With his powers, which are the greatest, the warrior will make the house thrive (?) for you."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The true shepherd Gudea is wise, and able too to realise things. Accepting what Nanše had told him, he opened his storehouse up and took out wood from it. Gudea checked (?) the wood piece by piece, taking great care of the wood. He smoothed meš wood, split ḫalub wood with an axe and built (?) a blue chariot from them for him. He harnessed to it the stallion Piriĝ-kaše-pada. He fashioned for him his beloved standard, wrote his name on it, and then entered before the warrior who loves gifts, before his master Lord Ninĝirsu in E-ninnu-the-white-Anzud-bird, together with his beloved balaĝ drum Ušumgal-kalama, his famous instrument to which he keeps listening. He joyfully brought the drum to him in the temple. Gudea came out of the shrine E-ninnu with a radiant face.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Thereafter the house was the concern of all the days and all the nights that he made pass by. He levelled what was high, rejected chance utterances (?), he removed the sorcerers' spittle (?) from the roads. Facing Šu-galam, the fearful place, the place of making judgments, from where Ninĝirsu keeps an eye on all lands, the ruler had a fattened sheep, a fat-tail sheep, and a grain-fed kid rest on hides of a virgin kid. He put juniper, the mountains' pure plant, onto the fire, and raised smoke with cedar resin, the scent of gods.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
He rose to his master in public and prayed to him; he went to him in the Ubšu-unkena and saluted him: "My master Ninĝirsu, lord who has turned back the fierce waters, true lord, semen ejaculated by the Great Mountain, noble young hero who has no opponent! Ninĝirsu, I am going to build up your house for you, but I lack an ominous sign. Warrior, you asked for perfection, but, son of Enlil, Lord Ninĝirsu, you did not let me know your will as to how to achieve it."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"Your will, ever-rising as the sea, crashing down as a destructive flood, roaring like gushing waters, destroying cities (?) like a flood-wave, battering against the rebel lands like a storm; my master, your will, gushing water that no one can stem; warrior, your will inconceivable as the heavens -- can I learn anything about it from you, son of Enlil, Lord Ninĝirsu?"
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Afterwards, Ninĝirsu stepped up to the head of the sleeper, briefly touching him: "You who are going to build it for me, you who are going to build it for me, ruler, you who are going to build my house for me, Gudea, let me tell you the ominous sign for building my house, let me tell you the pure stars of heaven indicating my regulations (?)."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"As if at the roaring of the Anzud bird, the heavens tremble at my house, the E-ninnu founded by An, the powers of which are the greatest, surpassing all other powers, at the house whose owner looks out over a great distance. Its fierce halo reaches up to heaven, the great fearsomeness of my house settles upon all the lands. In response to its fame all lands will gather from as far as heaven's borders, even Magan and Meluḫa will come down from their mountains."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"I am Ninĝirsu who has turned back the fierce waters, the great warrior of Enlil's realm, a lord without opponent. My house the E-ninnu, a crown, is bigger than the mountains; my weapon the Šar-ur subdues all the lands. No country can bear my fierce stare, nobody escapes my outstretched arms."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"Because of his great love, my father who begot me called me "King, Enlil's flood, whose fierce stare is never lifted from the mountains, Ninĝirsu, warrior of Enlil", and endowed me with fifty powers."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"I founded the Tiraš shrine with as much majesty as the abzu. Each month at the new moon the great rites (?), my "Festival of An", are performed for me perfectly in it."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"Like a fierce snake, I built E-ḫuš, my fierce place, in a dread location. When my heart gets angry at a land that rebels against me -- unutterable idea (?) -- it will produce venom for me like a snake that dribbles poison."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"In the E-babbar, where I issue orders, where I shine like Utu, there I justly decide the lawsuits of my city like Ištaran. In the E-bagara, my dining place, the great gods of Lagaš gather around me."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"When you, true shepherd Gudea, really set to work for me on my house, the foremost house of all lands, the right arm of Lagaš, the Anzud bird roaring on the horizon, the E-ninnu, my royal house, I will call up to heaven for humid winds so that plenty comes down to you from heaven and the land will thrive under your reign in abundance."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"Laying the foundations of my temple will bring immediate abundance: the great fields will grow rich for you, the levees and ditches will be full to the brim for you, the water will rise for you to heights never reached by the water before. Under you more oil than ever will be poured and more wool than ever will weighed in Sumer."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"When you drive in my foundation pegs for me, when you really set to work for me on my house, I shall direct my steps to the mountains where the north wind dwells and make the man with enormous wings, the north wind, bring you wind from the mountains, the pure place, so that this will give vigour to the Land, and thus one man will be able to do as much work as two. At night the moonlight, at noon the sun will send plentiful light for you so the day will build the house for you and the night will make it rise for you."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"I will bring ḫalub and neḫan trees up from the south, and cedar, cypress and zabalumwood together will be brought for you from the uplands. From the ebony mountains I will have ebony trees brought for you, in the mountains of stones I will have the great stones of the mountain ranges cut in slabs for you. On that day I will touch your arm with fire and you will know my sign."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Gudea rose -- it was sleep; he shuddered -- it was a dream. Accepting Ninĝirsu's words, he went to perform extispicy on a white kid. He performed it on the kid and his omen was favourable. Ninĝirsu's intention became as clear as daylight to Gudea.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
He is wise, and able too to realise things. The ruler gave instructions to his city as to one man. The land of Lagaš became of one accord for him, like children of one mother. He opened manacles, removed fetters; established ……, rejected legal complaints, and locked up (?) those guilty of capital offences (instead of executing them).
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
He undid the tongue of the goad and the whip, replacing them with wool from lamb-bearing sheep. No mother shouted at her child. No child answered its mother back. No slave who …… was hit on the head by his master, no misbehaving slave girl was slapped on the face by her mistress. Nobody could make the ruler building the E-ninnu, Gudea, let fall a chance utterance. The ruler cleansed the city, he let purifying fire loose over it. He expelled the persons ritually unclean, unpleasant to look at, and …… from the city.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
In respect of the …… of the brick-mould he had a kid lie down, and he requested from the kid an omen about the brick. He looked at the excavated earth (?) approvingly, and the shepherd, called by his name by Nanše, …… it with majesty. After making a drawing on the …… of the brick mould and …… the excavated earth with majesty, he made the Anzud bird, the standard of his master, glisten there as a banner.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The citizens were purifying an area of 24 iku for him, they were cleansing that area for him. He put juniper, the mountains' pure plant, onto the fire and raised smoke with cedar resin, the scent of gods. For him the day was for praying, and the night passed for him in supplications. In order to build the house of Ninĝirsu, the Anuna gods of the land of Lagaš stood by Gudea in prayer and supplication, and all this made the true shepherd Gudea extremely happy.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Now the ruler imposed a levy on his Land. He imposed a levy on his realm of abundant ……, on Ninĝirsu's Gu-edina. He imposed a levy on his built-up cities and settlements, on Nanše's Gu-ĝišbara.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
There was a levy for him on the clan of Nanše "Both river banks and shores rising out of the waters, the huge river, full of water, which spreads its abundance everywhere", and he placed the holy pelican (?), the standard of Nanše, in front of them.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
There was a levy for him on the clans of Inana "The net suspended for catching the beasts of the steppe" and "Choice steeds, famous team, the team beloved by Utu", and he placed the rosette, the standard of Inana, in front of them.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The Elamites came to him from Elam, the Susians came to him from Susa. Magan and Meluḫa loaded wood from their mountains upon their shoulders for him, and to build the house of Ninĝirsu, they gathered for Gudea at his city Ĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Ninzaga was commanded and he made his copper, as much as if it were a huge grain transport, reach Gudea, the man in charge of building the house. Ninsikila was also instructed and she made large ḫalub logs, ebony, and aba wood reach the ruler building the E-ninnu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Lord Ninĝirsu directed Gudea into the impenetrable mountain of cedars and he cut down its cedars with great axes and carved the Šar-ur, the right arm of Lagaš, his master's flood-storm weapon, out of it.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
It was like a giant serpent floating on the water as, for Lord Ninĝirsu, Gudea had the long rafts floating downstream moor at the main quay of Kan-sura: logs of cedar wood from the cedar hills, logs of cypress wood from the cypress hills, logs of zabalum wood from the zabalum hills, tall spruce trees, plane trees, and eranum trees.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Lord Ninĝirsu directed Gudea into the impenetrable mountains of stones and he brought back great stones in the form of slabs. For Lord Ninĝirsu, Gudea had ships with ḫauna dock there, and ships with gravel, with dried bitumen, …… bitumen, and gypsum from the hills of Madga, cargoes like boats bringing grain from the fields.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Great things came to the succour of the ruler building the E-ninnu: a copper mountain in Kimaš revealed itself to him. He mined its copper onto rafts. To the man in charge of building his master's house, the ruler, gold was brought in dust form from its mountains. For Gudea refined silver was brought down from its mountains. Translucent cornelian from Meluḫa was spread before him. From the alabaster mountains alabaster was brought down to him.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The heavy hammer-stones roared for him like a storm. The dolerite, the light hammer-stones, …… two …… three. …… like a huge mass of water gushing forth, (1 line fragmentary) (1 line missing)
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
He …… the days (?). Gudea prolonged the nights (?) for Ninĝirsu. Because of building the house for his master, he neither slept at night, nor did he rest his head during the siesta.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
For the one looked on with favour by Nanše, for the favourite of Enlil, for the ruler …… by Ninĝirsu, for Gudea, born in the august sanctuary by Ĝatumdug, Nisaba opened the house of understanding and Enki put right the design of the house.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Towards the house whose halo reaches to heaven, whose powers embrace heaven and earth, whose owner is a lord with a fierce stare, whose warrior Ninĝirsu is expert at battle, towards E-ninnu-the-white-Anzud-bird, Gudea went from the south and admired it northwards. From the north he went towards it and admired it southwards. He measured out with rope exactly one iku. He drove in pegs at its sides and personally verified them. This made him extremely happy.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
When the night fell, he went to the old temple to pray, so that the inclination of the one from the dais of Ĝir-nun (i.e. Ninĝirsu) would become favourable for Gudea. When day broke, he took a bath and arranged his outfit correctly. Utu let abundance come forth for him. Gudea left Iri-kug a second time; he sacrificed a perfect bull and a perfect kid. He went to the house and saluted it.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
He poured clear water into the …… of the brick mould -- adab, sim and ala drums were playing for the ruler. He prepared the excavated earth for making (?) the brick, and hoed honey, ghee and precious oil into it. He worked balsam (?) and essences from all kinds of trees into the paste. He lifted up the holy carrying-basket and put it next to the brick mould. Gudea placed the clay into the brick mould and acted exactly as prescribed, bringing the first brick of the house into existence in it, while all the bystanders sprinkled oil or cedar perfume. His city and the land of Lagaš spent the day with him in joy.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
He shook the brick mould and left the brick to dry. He looked at the …… with satisfaction. He anointed it with cypress essence and balsam (?). Utu rejoiced over the brick put into the mould by Gudea, and King Enki …… the …… rising like a great river. …… and Gudea went into the house.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
He raised the brick out of the …… of the mould, and it looked as a holy crown worn by An. He lifted up the brick and went around among his people: it was like Utu's holy team tossing (?) their heads. The brick lifting its head toward the house was as if Nanna's cows were eager to be tethered in their pen. He put down the brick, entered the house and as if he himself were Nisaba knowing the inmost secrets (?) of numbers, he started setting down (?) the ground plan of the house. As if he were a young man building a house for the first time, sweet sleep never came into his eyes. Like a cow keeping an eye on its calf, he went in constant worry to the house. Like a man who takes but little food into his mouth, he went around untiringly. The intention of his master had become clear for him, the words of Ninĝirsu had become as conspicuous as a banner to Gudea. In (?) his heart beating loudly because of building the house, someone …… a propitious ominous remark. This made him extremely happy.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
He performed extispicy on a kid and his omen was favourable. He cast grain on to …… and its appearance was right. Gudea lay down for a dream oracle, and while he was sleeping a message came to him: in the vision he saw his master's house already built, the E-ninnu separating heaven and earth. This made him extremely happy.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Gudea, in charge of building the house, placed on his head the carrying-basket for the house, as if it were a holy crown. He laid the foundation, set the walls on the ground. He marked out a square, aligned the bricks with a string. He marked out a second square on the site of the temple, saying," It is the line-mark for a topped-off jar of 1 ban capacity (?)." He marked out a third square on the site of the temple, saying," It is the Anzud bird enveloping its fledgling with its wings." He marked out a fourth square on the site of the temple, saying," It is a panther embracing a fierce lion." He marked out a fifth square on the site of the temple, saying," It is the blue sky in all its splendour." He marked out a sixth square on the site of the temple, saying," It is the day of supply, full of luxuriance." He marked out a seventh square on the site of the temple, saying," It is the E-ninnu bathing the Land with moonlight at dawn."
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
They inserted the wooden door frames, which were like a crown worn in the blue sky. As Gudea sat down at a wooden door frame, from there it was like a huge house embracing heaven. As he built the house and laid wooden scaffolding against it, it was like Nanna's lagoon attended by Enki. They made the house grow as high as the hills, they mad it float in the midst of heaven as a cloud, they made it lift its horns as a bull and they made it raise its head above all the lands, like the ĝišgana tree over the abzu. As the house had been made to lift its head so high as to fill the space between heaven and earth like the hills, it was like a luxuriant cedar growing among high grass (?); E-ninnu was decorated most alluringly among Sumer's buildings.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
As they placed wooden beams on the house, they looked like dragons of the abzu coming out all together, they were like …… of heaven ……, they were like huge serpents of the foothills ……. The reeds cut for the house were like mountain snakes sleeping together. Its upper parts were covered with luxuriant cedar and cypress, and they put white cedars in its inner room of cedar, marvellous to behold. They treated them with good perfume and precious oil. The mud-wall of the house was covered with the abundance (?) of the abzu and they tied its …… to it. The shrine of E-ninnu was thus placed in the …… hand of An.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The ruler built the house, he made it high, high as a great mountain. Its abzu foundation pegs, big mooring stakes, he drove into the ground so deep they could take counsel with Enki in the E-engura. He had heavenly foundation pegs surround the house like warriors, so that each one was drinking water at the libation place of the gods. He fixed the E-ninnu, the mooring stake, he drove in its pegs shaped like praying wizards. He planted the pleasant poplars of his city so that they cast their shadow. He embedded its Šar-ur weapon beside Lagaš like a big standard, placed it in its dreadful place, the Šu-galam, and made it emanate fearsome radiance. On the dais of Ĝir-nun, on the place of making judgments, the provider of Lagaš lifted his horns like a mighty bull.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
It took one year to bring the great stones in slabs and it took another year to fashion them, although not even two or three days did he let pass idly. Then it needed a day's work to set up each one but by the seventh day he had set them all up around the house. He laid down the trimmings from the slabs as stairs, or fashioned basins from them, and had them stand in the house.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The stela which he set up in the great courtyard he named as "The king who …… the courtyard, Lord Ninĝirsu, has recognised Gudea from the Ĝir-nun".
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The stela which he set up at the Kan-sura gate he named as "The king, Enlil's flood storm, who has no opponent, Lord Ninĝirsu, has looked with favour at Gudea".
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The stela which he set up facing the rising sun he named as "The king, the roaring storm of Enlil, the lord without rival, Lord Ninĝirsu, has chosen Gudea with his holy heart".
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The stela which he set up facing Šu-galam he named as "The king, at whose name the foreign countries tremble, Lord Ninĝirsu, has made Gudea's throne firm".
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The stela which he set up facing E-uru-ga he named as "Lord Ninĝirsu has decided a good fate for Gudea".
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The stela which he set up by the inner room (?) of Bau he named as "The eyes of An know the E-ninnu, and Bau is the life source of Gudea".
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
He built his master's house exactly as he had been told to. The true shepherd Gudea made it grow so high as to fill the space between heaven and earth, had it wear a tiara shaped like the new moon, and had its fame spread as far as the heart of the highlands. Gudea made Ninĝirsu's house come out like the sun from the clouds, had it grow to be like hills of lapis lazuli and had it stand to be marvelled at like hills of white alabaster.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
He made its door-sockets stand like wild bulls and he flanked them with dragons crouching on their paws like lions. He had its terraced tower (?) grow on a place as pure as the abzu. He made the metal tops of its standards twinkle as the horns of the holy stags of the abzu. Gudea made the house of Ninĝirsu stand to be marvelled at like the new moon in the skies.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The built-in door-sockets of the house are laḫama deities standing by the abzu. Its timber store (?) looks like waves (?) of an enormous lagoon where snakes have dived (?) into the water. Its …… is …… full of fearsomeness. Its …… is a light floating in the midst of heaven. On the Gate where the King Enters an eagle is raising its eyes toward a wild bull. Its curved wooden posts joining above the gate are a rainbow stretching over the sky. Its upper lintel of the gate like (?) the E-ninnu stands among rumbling, roaring storms. Its awe-inspiring eyebrow-shaped arch (?) meets the admiring eyes of the gods. His white dais …… of the house is a firmly founded lapis lazuli mountain connecting heaven and earth.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
They installed the great dining hall for the evening meals: it was as if An himself were setting out golden bowls filled with honey and wine. They built the bedchamber: it is the abzu's fruit-bearing holy meš tree among innumerable mountains. He finished with the building, which made the hearts of the gods overflow with joy.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The true shepherd Gudea is wise, and able too to realise things. In the inner room (?) where the weapons hang, at the Gate of Battle he had the warriors Six-headed wild ram and …… head take their stand. Facing the city, its place laden with awe, he had the Seven-headed serpent take its stand. In Šu-galam, its awesome gate, he had the Dragon and the Date palm take their stand. Facing the sunrise, where the fates are decided, he erected the standard of Utu, the Bison head, beside others already there. At the Kan-sura gate, at its lookout post, he had the Lion, the terror of the gods, take its stand. In the Tar-sirsir, where the orders are issued, he had the Fish-man and the Copper take their stand. In Bau's inner room (?), where the heart can be soothed, he had the Magilum boat and the Bison take their stand. Because these were warriors slain by Ninĝirsu, he set their mouths towards libation places. Gudea, the ruler of Lagaš, made their names appear among those of the gods.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The cedar doors installed in the house are Iškur roaring above. The locks of the E-ninnu are bisons, its door-pivots are lions, from its bolts horned vipers and fierce snakes are hissing at wild bulls. Its jambs, against which the door leaves close, are young lions and panthers lying on their paws.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The shining roof-beam nails hammered into the house are dragons gripping a victim. The shining ropes attached to the doors are holy Niraḫ parting the abzu. Its …… is pure like Keš and Aratta, its …… is a fierce lion keeping an eye on the Land; nobody going alone can pass in front of it.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The fearsomeness of the E-ninnu covers all the lands like a garment. The house! It is founded by An on refined silver, it is painted with kohl, and comes out as the moonlight with heavenly splendour. The house! Its front is a great mountain firmly grounded, its inside resounds with incantations and harmonious hymns, its exterior is the sky, a great house rising in abundance, its outer assembly hall is the Anuna gods' place of rendering judgments, from its …… words of prayer can be heard, its food supply is the abundance of the gods, its standards erected around the house are the Anzud bird spreading its wings over the bright mountain. E-ninnu's clay plaster, harmoniously blended clay taken from the Edin canal, has been chosen by its master Lord Ninĝirsu with his holy heart, and was painted by Gudea with the splendours of heaven as if kohl were being poured all over it.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
From its cow-pen butter and milk are brought in. From its huge oven, great cakes and croissants come. Its …… feeds cattle and sheep. Its house of food rations …… an uzga shrine. Its wine-cellar (?) is a mountain oozing wine, from its brewery as much beer comes as the Tigris at high water.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Its storehouse is full of gems, silver and tin. Its coach-house is a mountain set on the ground. Its drum hall is a roaring bull. Its courtyard resounds with holy prayers, sim and ala drums. Its stone stairs, laid before the house, are like a mountain range lying down in princely joy. Its upper stairs leading (?) to the roof are like a light clearly visible as far as the mountains. Its vineyard "Black garden in the steppe", planted near the house, is a mountain oozing wine and grows in a place with fearsomeness and radiance.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The seven stones surrounding the house are there to take counsel with its owner. Its chapel for funerary offerings is as pure as the clean abzu. The stone basins set up in the house are like the holy room of the lustration priest where water never ceases to flow. Its high battlements where pigeons live is …… Eridug ……. E-ninnu offers rest to pigeons, it is a protective cover with large branches and a pleasant shade, with swallows and other birds chirping loudly there. It is Enlil's E-kur when a festival takes place in it. The house's great awesomeness settles upon the whole Land, its praise reaches to the highlands, the awesomeness of the E-ninnu covers all lands like a garment.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The house has been built most sumptuously by its lord. It was built on a pedestal by Ninĝišzida. Its foundation pegs were driven in by Gudea, the ruler of Lagaš.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
For the restoration of E-ninnu, the house that rises like the sun over the Land, stands like a great bull in the …… sand, illuminates the assembly like delightful moonlight, is as sumptuous as lush green foothills, and stands to be marvelled at, praise be to Ninĝirsu!
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
House, mooring post of the Land, grown so high as to fill the space between heaven and earth, E-ninnu, the true brickwork, for which Enlil determined a good fate, green hill standing to be marvelled at, standing out above all the lands!
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The house is a great mountain reaching up to the skies. It is Utu filling the midst of the heavens; E-ninnu is the white Anzud bird spreading its talons upon the mountain land.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
All the people were placed (?) before it, the whole Land was detailed (?) to it. The Anuna gods stood there in admiration. The ruler, who is wise, who is knowledgeable, kissed the ground before that godly company. He touched the ground in prostration (?), with supplications and prayers; the ruler, the god of his city prayed.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
For the bread-consuming house he added more and more bread, for the suppers in need of mutton he added sheep. In front of the house he lined up bowls like …… abundance …….
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
He went to the Anuna gods and prayed to them: "O all you Anuna gods, admired by the land of Lagaš, protectors of all the countries, whose command, a massive breach in a dam, carries away any who try to stop it. The worthy young man on whom you have looked will enjoy a long life. I, the shepherd, built the house, and now I will let my master enter his house. O Anuna gods, may you pray on my behalf!"
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The true shepherd Gudea is wise, and able too to realise things. His friendly guardian went before him and his friendly protecting genius followed him. For his master, Lord Ninĝirsu, Gudea gave numerous gifts to the house of yore, the old house, his dwelling place. He went into the E-ninnu to the lord, and prayed to him:
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
"My master Ninĝirsu, lord who has turned back the fierce waters, lord whose commands take precedence, male child of Enlil, warrior, I have carried out faithfully what you have ordered me to do. Ninĝirsu, I have built up your house for you; now I shall let you enter it in joy! My goddess Bau, I have set up your E-mi quarters for you: take up pleasant residence in them." His call was heard, his hero Lord Ninĝirsu accepted from Gudea his prayer and supplication.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The year ended and the month was completed. A new year started, a month began and three days elapsed in that month. As Ninĝirsu arrived from Eridug, beautiful moonlight shone illuminating the Land, and the E-ninnu competed with the new-born Suen.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Gudea made a paste with cornelian and lapis lazuli and applied it to the corners. He sprinkled the floor with precious oil. He made the ……, who worked there (?), leave the house. Syrup, ghee, wine, sour milk, ĝipar fruit, fig-cakes topped with cheese, dates, …… and small grapes, things untouched by fire, were the foods for the gods which he prepared with syrup and ghee.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
On the day when the true god was to arrive, Gudea was busy with the evening meal from early morning. Asari cared for the maintenance of the house. Ninmada took care of its cleaning. King Enki gave oracular pronouncements concerning it. Nindub, the chief purification priest of Eridug, filled it with the smoke of incense. The lady of precious rites, Nanše, versed in singing holy songs, sang songs for the house.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
They sheared the black ewes and milked the udder of the cow of heaven. They cleaned the E-ninnu, they polished it with brooms of tamarisk and ……. The ruler made the whole city kneel down, made the whole land prostrate itself. He levelled what was high, rejected chance utterances (?); the sorcerers' spittle (?) was removed from the roads. In the city only the mother of a sick person administered a potion. The wild animals, creatures of the steppe, all had crouched together. The lions and the dragons of the steppe were lying asleep.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The day was for supplication, the night was for prayer. The moonlight …… early morning. Its master …….
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Warrior Ninĝirsu entered the house, the owner of the house had arrived. He was an eagle raising its eyes toward a wild bull. The warrior's entering his house was a storm roaring into battle. Ninĝirsu entered his house and it became the shrine of the abzu when there is a festival. The owner came out of his house and he was Utu rising over the land of Lagaš. Bau's going to her E-mi quarters was a true woman's taking her house in hand. Her entering her bedroom was the Tigris at high water. When she sat down beside her ……, she was the lady, the daughter of holy An, a green garden bearing fruit.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The daylight came out, the fate had been decided. Bau entered her E-mi quarters, and there was abundance for the land of Lagaš. The day dawned. Utu of Lagaš lifted his head over the Land.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Wine was poured from big jars while …… was heaped up in the E-ninnu. Nindub caused the sanctuary to be filled with clatter and noise (?) and with fresh bread and hind's milk available day and night; he woke from sleep the noble one, the beloved son of Enlil, the warrior Ninĝirsu. Ninĝirsu raised his head with all the great powers, and …… rituals, …… for (?) the sanctuary E-ninnu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to guide the hand of the righteous one; to force the evil-doer's neck into a neck stock; to keep the house safe; to keep the house pleasant; to instruct his city and the sanctuaries of Ĝirsu; to set up an auspicous throne; to hold the sceptre of never-ending days; to raise high the head of the shepherd called by Ninĝirsu, as if he wore a blue crown; and to appoint to their offices in the courtyard of E-ninnu the skin-clad ones, the linen-clad ones and those whose head is covered, Gudea introduced Ig-alim, the Great Door (ig gal), the Pole (dim) of Ĝir-nun, the chief bailiff of Ĝirsu, his beloved son, to Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to keep the house clean; to let hands always be washed; to serve water to the lord with holy hands; to pour beer into bowls; to pour wine into jars; to make emmer beer in the brewery, the house of pure strength, fizz like the water of the Papsir canal; to make certain that faultless cattle and goats, grain-fed sheep, fresh bread and hind's milk are available day and night; to wake from sleep the noble one, Enlil's beloved son, the warrior Ninĝirsu, by offering (?) food and drink, Gudea introduced Šul-šaga, the lord of the pure hand-washings (šu-luḫ), the first-born son of E-ninnu, to Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to carry the seven-headed mace; to open the door of the an-kar house, the Gate of Battle; to hit exactly with the dagger blades, with the mitum mace, with the "floodstorm" weapon and with the marratum club, its battle tools; to inundate Enlil's enemy land, Gudea introduced Lugal-kur-dub, the warrior Šar-ur, who in battle subdues all the foreign lands, the mighty general of the E-ninnu, a falcon against the rebel lands, his general, to Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
After the heavenly mitum mace had roared against the foreign lands like a fierce storm -- the Šar-ur, the flood storm in battle, the cudgel for the rebel lands -- after the lord had frowned at the rebellious land, the foreign country, hurled at it his furious words, driven it insane (the text here seems to be corrupt, and there may be some lines missing),
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, Gudea introduced the lord's second general, Kur-šuna-buruam, to the son of Enlil.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to send entreaties on behalf of the land of Lagaš; to perform supplications and prayers for it, propitious ones; to greet pleasantly the warrior departing for Eridug; and until (?) Ninĝirsu comes from Eridug, to keep the throne of the built-up city firm; to pray, with hand placed before the nose, together with Gudea, for the life of the true shepherd, Gudea introduced his adviser, Lugal-si-sa, to Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to request; to command; to co-operate with the one speaking straightforwardly; to …… the one speaking evil; to inform Ninĝirsu, the warrior sitting on a holy dais in the E-ninnu, Gudea introduced Šakkan, the wild ram, the minister of the E-duga, his ……, to Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to clean with water; to clean with soap; to …… with oil from white bowls and with (?) soap; to urge him to sweet sleep on his bed strewn with fresh herbs; to let him enter the E-duga, his bed chamber, from outside (?) and to make him not wish to leave it, Gudea introduced Kinda-zid, the man in charge of the E-duga, to Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to yoke up the holy chariot decorated with stars; to harness the donkey stallion, Piriĝ-kaše-pada, before it; to …… a slender donkey from Eridug with the stallion; to have them joyfully transport their owner Ninĝirsu, Gudea introduced En-šeg-nun, who roars like a lion, who rises like a flood storm, Ninĝirsu's hurrying bailiff, his donkey herdsman, to Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely, to make the butter abundant; to make the cream abundant; to see that the butter and the milk of the holy goats, the milking goats, and the hind, the mother of Ninĝirsu, do not cease to flow in the E-ninnu sanctuary, Gudea introduced En-lulim, the herdsman of the hinds, to Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to tune properly the sweet-toned tigi instrument; to fill the courtyard of E-ninnu with joy; to make the alĝar and miritum, instruments of the E-duga, offer their best in the E-ninnu to Ninĝirsu, the warrior with an ear for music, Gudea introduced his beloved musician, Ušumgal-kalama, to Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to soothe the heart, to soothe the spirits; to dry weeping eyes; to banish mourning from the mourning heart; to …… the heart of the lord that rises like the sea, that washes away like the Euphrates, that hits like a flood storm, that has overflowed with joy after inundating a land which is Enlil's enemy, Gudea introduced his balaĝ drum, Lugal-igi-ḫuš, to Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Zazaru, Iškur-pa-e, Ur-agrunta-ea, Ḫe-Ĝir-nuna, Ḫe-šaga, Zurĝu and Zarĝu, who are Bau's septuplets, the offspring of Lord Ninĝirsu, his beloved lukur maidens, who create plenty for the myriads, stepped forward to Lord Ninĝirsu with friendly entreaties on behalf of Gudea.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to see that the great fields grow rich; to see that the levees and ditches of Lagaš will be full to the brim; to see that Ezina-Kusu, the pure stalk, will raise its head high in the furrows in Gu-edina, the plain befitting its owner; to see that after the good fields have provided wheat, emmer and all kinds of pulses, numerous grain heaps -- the yield of the land of Lagaš -- will be heaped up, Gudea introduced Ĝišbar-e, Enlil's surveyor, the farmer of Gu-edina, to Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to make sure that Imin-šatam, the messenger of Gu-edina, informs Ninĝirsu in the E-ninnu about the amount of carp and perch (?) yielded by the marshes, and about the quantity of new shoots of reed yielded by the green reedbeds, Gudea introduced Lama, the inspector of the fisheries of Gu-edina, to Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to administer the open country, the pleasant place; to give directions concerning the Gu-edina, the pleasant open country; to make its birds propagate (?); to have them lay their eggs in nests (?); to have them rear their young; to see that the multiplication of the beasts of Ninĝirsu's beloved countryside does not diminish, Gudea introduced Dim-gal-abzu, the herald of Gu-edina, to Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his divine duties, namely to erect cities; to found settlements; to build guard-houses for the wall of the Iri-kug; to have its divine resident constable, the mace of white cedar with its enormous head, patrol around the house, Gudea introduced Lugal-ennu-iri-kugakam to Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Holy An made the location appropriate. Enlil wound (?) a turban (?) round its top. Ninḫursaĝa looked at it approvingly. Enki, the king of Eridug, drove in its foundation pegs. The true lord with a pure heart, Suen, made its powers the largest in heaven and on earth. Ninĝirsu chose it among shrines of sprouting seeds with his heart. Mother Nanše cared for it especially among the buildings of the land of Lagaš. But it was the god of most reliable progeny who built the house and made its name famous.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The mighty steward of Nanše, the accomplished shepherd of Ninĝirsu, is wise, and able too to realise things; the man in charge of building the house, Gudea the ruler of Lagaš, was to make presents for the house.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Gudea, the ruler in charge of building the house, the ruler of Lagaš, presented it with the chariot "It makes the mountains bow down", which carries awesome radiance and on which great fearsomeness rides and with its donkey stallion, Ud-gu-dugduga, to serve before it; with the seven-headed mace, the fierce battle weapon, the weapon unbearable both for the North and for the South, with a battle cudgel, with the mitum mace, with the lion-headed weapon made from nir stone, which never turns back before the highlands, with dagger blades, with nine standards, with the "strength of heroism", with his bow which twangs like a meš forest, with his angry arrows which whizz like lightning flashes in battle, and with his quiver, which is like a lion, a piriĝ lion, or a fierce snake sticking out its tongue -- strengths of battle imbued with the power of kingship.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
With his duties, namely to fill the channels with flowing water; to make the marshes full with carp and perch (?) and to have the inspector of fisheries and the inspector of dykes stand at their posts; to fill the great waters with boats carrying grain; to see that tons, heaps and tons -- the yield of the land of Lagaš -- will be piled up; to see that cattle-pens and sheepfolds will be erected; to see that lambs abound around healthy ewes; to have the rams let loose on the healthy ewes; to see that numerous calves stand beside healthy cows; to see that breed bulls bellow loudly among them; to have the oxen properly yoked and to have the farmers and ox drivers stand beside them; to have donkeys carry packsaddles and to have their drivers, who feed them, follow behind them; to see that large copper …… will be strapped onto jackasses; to see that the principal mill will produce (?); to …… the house of Ninĝirsu's young slave women; to set …… right; to see that the courtyard of the E-ninnu will be filled with joy; to see that the ala drums and balaĝ drum will sound in perfect concert with the sim drums, and to see that his beloved drum Ušumgal-kalama will walk in front of the procession, the ruler who had built the E-ninnu, Gudea, himself entered before Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The temple towered upwards in full grandeur, unparallelled in fearsomeness and radiance. Like a boat it …… and ……. Its owner, the warrior Ninĝirsu, came out as the daylight on the dais of Ĝir-nun. Its …… resting on supports was like the blue sky in all its splendour. Its standards and their caps (?) were Ninĝirsu himself emanating fearsomeness; their leather straps stretched out in front of them were green snake-eater birds bathing. Its owner, the warrior Ninĝirsu, stood like Utu in his most fascinating blue chariot. Its throne, standing in the guena hall, was An's holy seat which is sat upon joyfully. Its bed, standing in the bedroom, was a young cow kneeling down in its sleeping place. On its holy quilt (?), strewn with fresh herbs, Mother Bau was resting comfortably with Lord Ninĝirsu.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Large bronze plates (?) offered all sorts of food (?). In the good house …… were cooked in shining bronze vessels (?). Its pure bowls standing in the great dining hall were troughs in various sizes that never lack water, and the goblets beside them were the Tigris and Euphrates continually carrying abundance.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
He had everything function as it should in his city. Gudea had built the E-ninnu, made its powers perfect. He brought butter and cream into its dairy and provided its …… with bread (?). He had debts remitted and made all hands clear. When his master entered the house, for seven days the slave woman was allowed to became equal to her mistress and the slave was allowed to walk side by side with his master. But the ritually unclean ones could sleep only at the border of his city. He silenced the evil-speaking tongue and locked up evil.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
Like Utu, he rose on the horizon for the city. He wound (?) a turban (?) on his head. He made himself known by the eyes of holy An. He entered the shrine of E-ninnu with raised head like a bull and sacrificed there faultless oxen and kids. He set bowls in the open air and filled them full with wine. Ušumgal-kalama was accompanied by tigi drums, and ala drums roared for him like a storm. The ruler stepped onto the outer wall (?) and his city looked up to him in admiration. Gudea ……. (6 lines missing)
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
…… made abundance come forth for him. The earth produced mottled barley for him. Lagaš thrived in abundance with the ruler.
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
For the warrior who entered his new house, for Lord Ninĝirsu, he arranged a rich banquet. He seated An at the place of honour for him, he seated Enlil next to An and Ninmaḫ next to Enlil. (12 lines missing) (1 line fragmentary)
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
…… determined a fate for the brickwork of E-ninnu: "O brickwork, let there be a fate determined, brickwork of E-ninnu, let there be a good fate determined! House …… embers (?) …… embracing heaven. …… holy ……." (14 lines missing) (1 line fragmentary)
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
(3 lines fragmentary) "…… grown as tall as Gilgameš. No one shall remove its throne set up there. Your god, Lord Ninĝišzida, is the grandson of An; your divine mother is Ninsumun, the bearing mother of good offspring, who loves her offspring; you are a child born by the true cow. You are a true youth made to rise over the land of Lagaš by Ninĝirsu; your name is established from below to above. Gudea, nobody …… what you say. You are …… a man known to An. You are a true ruler, for whom the house has determined a good fate. Gudea, son of Ninĝišzida, you will enjoy a long life!"
The building of Ninĝirsu's temple (Gudea, cylinders A and B): c.2.1.7
The house reaches up to heaven like a huge mountain and its fearsomeness and radiance have settled upon the Land. An and Enlil have determined the fate of Lagaš; Ninĝirsu's authority has become known to all the countries; E-ninnu has grown so high as to fill the space between heaven and earth. Ninĝirsu be praised!
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
The protective goddess has abandoned E-tar-sirsir and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. The mother of Lagaš has abandoned it and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. Ĝatumdug has abandoned that house Lagaš and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. She of Niĝin has abandoned it and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. The great queen has abandoned that house Sirara and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. She of Kinirša has abandoned it and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. Dumuzid-abzu has abandoned that house Kinirša and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. She of Gu-aba has abandoned it and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. Ninmarki has abandoned the shrine Gu-aba and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
O brick-built Urim, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O E-kiš-nu-ĝal, your lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O shrine Agrun-kug, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O great place Ki-ur, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O shrine Nibru, city, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O brick-built E-kur, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O Ĝa-ĝiš-šua, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O Ubšu-unkena, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you. O brick-built Iri-kug, the lament is bitter, the lament made for you.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
Together with the lord whose house had been devastated, his city was given over to tears. Together with Nanna whose Land had perished, Urim joined the lament. The good woman, to disquiet the lord concerning his city, Ningal, to give him no rest concerning his Land, approached him for the sake of his city -- bitterly she weeps. She approached the lord for the sake of his house -- bitterly she weeps. She approached him for the sake of his devastated city -- bitterly she weeps. She approached him for the sake of his devastated house -- before him she makes its bitter lament.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
The woman, after she had composed her song (?) for the tearful balaĝ instrument, herself utters softly a lamentation for the silent house: "The storm that came to be -- its lamentation hangs heavy on me. Raging about because of the storm, I am the woman for whom the storm came to be. The storm that came to be -- its lamentation hangs heavy on me. The bitter storm having come to be for me during the day, I trembled on account of that day but I did not flee before the day's violence. Because of this debilitating storm I could not see a good day for my rule, not one good day for my rule."
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
"The bitter lament having come to be for me during the night, I trembled on account of that night but I did not flee before the night's violence. The awesomeness of this storm, destructive as the flood, truly hangs heavy on me. Because of its existence, in my nightly sleeping place, even in my nightly sleeping place truly there was no peace for me. Nor, because of this debilitating storm, was the quiet of my sleeping place, not even the quiet of my sleeping place, allowed to me. { (2 mss. add 1 line:) Truly I did not forsake my Land. }"
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
"Because there was bitterness in my Land, I trudged the earth like a cow for its calf. My Land was not granted succcess. Because there was bitter distress in my city, I beat my wings like a bird of heaven and flew to my city; and my city was destroyed in its foundations; and Urim perished where it lay. Because the hand of the storm appeared above, I screamed and cried to it "Return, O storm, to the plain". The storm's breast did not rise."
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
"To me, the woman, in the Agrun-kug, my house of queenship, they did not grant a reign of distant days. Indeed they established weeping and lamentation for me. As for the house which used to be where the spirit of the black-headed people was soothed, instead of its festivals wrath and terror indeed multiply. Because of this debilitating storm, depression, and lament and bitterness, lament and bitterness have been brought into my house, the favourable place, my devastated righteous house upon which no eye had been cast. My house founded by the righteous was pushed over on its side like a garden fence."
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
"For E-kiš-nu-ĝal, my house of royalty, the good house, my house which has been given over to tears, they granted to me as its lot and share: its building, falsely, and its perishing, truly. Wind and rain have been made to fall on it, as onto a tent, a shelter on the denuded harvest ground, as onto a shelter on the denuded harvest ground. Urim, my all-surpassing chamber, the house and the smitten city, all have been uprooted. Like a shepherd's sheepfold it has been uprooted. The swamp has swallowed my possessions accumulated in the city."
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
Urim has been given over to tears.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
"On that day, when such a storm had pounded, when in the presence of the queen her city had been destroyed, on that day, when such a storm had been created, when they had pronounced the utter destruction of my city, when they had pronounced the utter destruction of Urim, when they had directed that its people be killed, on that day I did not abandon my city, I did not forsake my land."
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
"Truly I shed my tears before An. Truly I myself made supplication to Enlil." Let not my city be destroyed," I implored them." Let not Urim be destroyed," I implored them." Let not its people perish," I implored them. But An did not change that word. Enlil did not soothe my heart with an "It is good -- so be it"."
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
"A second time, when the council had settled itself in the pre-eminent place, and the Anuna had seated themselves to ratify decisions, I prostrated (?) myself and stretched out my arms. Truly I shed my tears before An. Truly I myself made supplication to Enlil." Let not my city be destroyed," I implored them." Let not Urim be destroyed," I implored them." Let not its people perish," I implored them. But An did not change that word. Enlil did not soothe my heart with an "It is good -- so be it"."
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
Enlil brought Gibil as his aid. He called the great storm of heaven -- the people groan. The great storm howls above -- the people groan. The storm that annihilates the Land roars below -- the people groan. The evil wind, like a rushing torrent, cannot be restrained. The weapons in the city smash heads and consume indiscriminately. The storm whirled gloom around the base of the horizon -- the people groan. In front of the storm, heat blazes -- the people groan. A fiery glow burns with the raging storm.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
The scorching potsherds made the dust glow (?) -- the people groan. He swept the winds over the black-headed people -- the people groan. Sumer was overturned by a snare -- the people groan. It attacked (?) the Land and devoured it completely. Tears cannot influence the bitter storm -- the people groan.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
The reaping storm dragged across the Land. Like a flood storm it completely destroyed the city. The storm that annihilates the Land silenced the city. The storm that will make anything vanish came doing evil. The storm blazing like fire performed its task upon the people. The storm ordered by Enlil in hate, the storm which wears away the Land, covered Urim like a garment, was spread out over it like linen.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
The storm, like a lion, has attacked unceasingly -- the people groan.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
Then the storm was removed from the city, that city reduced to ruin mounds. It was removed from Father Nanna's city reduced to ruin mounds -- the people groan. Then, the storm was taken from the Land -- the people groan. { (2 mss. add 1 line:) The good storm was taken from Sumer -- the people groan. } Its people littered its outskirts just as if they might have been broken potsherds. Breaches had been made in its walls -- the people groan. On its lofty city-gates where walks had been taken, corpses were piled. On its boulevards where festivals had been held, heads lay scattered (?). In all its streets where walks had been taken, corpses were piled. In its places where the dances of the Land had taken place, people were stacked in heaps. They made the blood of the Land flow down the wadis like copper or tin. Its corpses, like fat left in the sun, melted away of themselves.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
The heads of its men slain by the axe were not covered with a cloth. Like a gazelle caught in a trap, their mouths bit the dust. Men struck down by the spear were not bound with bandages. As if in the place where their mothers had laboured, they lay in their own blood. Its men who were finished off by the battle-mace were not bandaged with new (?) cloth. Although they were not drunk with strong drink, their necks drooped on their shoulders. He who stood up to the weapon was crushed by the weapon -- the people groan. He who ran away from it was overwhelmed (?) by the storm -- the people groan. The weak and the strong of Urim perished from hunger. Mothers and fathers who did not leave their houses were consumed by fire. The little ones lying in their mothers' arms were carried off like fish by the waters. Among the nursemaids with their strong embrace, the embrace was pried open.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
The Land's judgment disappeared -- the people groan. The Land's counsel was swallowed by a swamp -- the people groan. The mother absconded before her child's eyes -- the people groan. The father turned away from his child -- the people groan. In the city the wife was abandoned, the child was abandoned, possessions were scattered about. The black-headed people were carried off from their strongholds. Its queen like a bird in fright departed from her city. Ningal like a bird in fright departed from her city. All the treasures accumulated in the Land were defiled. In all the storehouses abounding in the Land fires were kindled. In its ponds Gibil, the purifier, relentlessly did his work.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
"My possessions, like a flock of rooks rising up, have risen in flight -- I shall cry "O my possessions". He who came from the south has carried my possessions off to the south -- I shall cry "O my possessions". He who came from the highlands has carried my possessions off to the highlands -- I shall cry "O my possessions". My silver, gems and lapis lazuli have been scattered about -- I shall cry "O my possessions". The swamp has swallowed my treasures -- I shall cry "O my possessions". Men ignorant of silver have filled their hands with my silver. Men ignorant of gems have fastened my gems around their necks. My small birds and fowl have flown away -- I shall say "Alas, my city". My slave-girls and children have been carried off by boat -- I shall say "Alas, my city". Woe is me, my slave-girls bear strange emblems in a strange city. My young men mourn in a desert they do not know."
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
The woman tears at her hair as if it were rushes. She beats the holy ub drum at her chest, she cries "Alas, my city". Her eyes well with tears, she weeps bitterly: "Woe is me, my city which no longer exists -- I am not its queen. Nanna, the shrine Urim which no longer exists -- I am not its owner. Woe is me, I am one whose cow-pen has been torn down, I am one whose cows have been scattered. I am Ningal on whose ewes the weapon has fallen, as in the case of an unworthy herdsman. Woe is me, I have been exiled from the city, I can find no rest. I am Ningal, I have been exiled from the house, I can find no dwelling place. I am sitting as if a stranger with head high in a strange city. Debt-slaves …… bitterness ……."
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
"Woe is me, untrustworthy was your building, and bitter your destruction. I am the woman at whose shrine Urim the food offerings have been terminated. O my Agrun-kug, the all-new house whose charms never sated me, O my city no longer regarded as having been built -- devastated for what reason? O my house both destroyed and devastated -- devastated for what reason? Nobody at all escaped the force of the storm ordered in hate. O my house of Suen in Urim, bitter was its destruction."
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
O queen, how is your heart ……! How you have become! O Ningal, how is your heart ……! How you have become! O good woman whose city has been destroyed, now how do you exist? O Ningal whose Land has perished, how is your heart ……! After your city has been destroyed, now how do you exist? After your house has been destroyed, how is your heart ……! Your city has become a strange city, now how do you exist? Your house has turned to tears, how is your heart ……! You are not a bird of your city which has been reduced to ruin mounds. You cannot live there as a resident in your good house given over to the pickaxe. You cannot act as queen of a people led off to slaughter.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
Your tears have become strange tears, your Land no longer weeps. With no lamentation prayers, it dwells in foreign lands. Your Land like ……. Your city has been made into ruins; now how do you exist? Your house has been laid bare, how is your heart ……! Urim, the shrine, is haunted by the breezes, now how do you exist?
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
Its gudug priest no longer walks in his wig, how is your heart ……! Its en priestess no longer lives in the ĝipar, now how do you exist? In the uzga shrine the priest who cherishes purification rites makes no purification rites for you. Father Nanna, your išib priest does not make perfect holy supplications to you. Your lumaḫ priest does not dress in linen in your holy giguna shrine. Your righteous en priestess chosen in your ardent heart, she of the E-kiš-nu-ĝal, does not proceed joyously from the shrine to the ĝipar. The aua priests do not celebrate the festivals in your house of festivals. They do not play for you the šem and ala instruments which gladden the heart, nor the tigi. The black-headed people do not bathe during your festivals. Like …… mourning has been decreed for them; their appearance has indeed changed.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
Alas, storm after storm swept the Land together: the great storm of heaven, the ever-roaring storm, the malicious storm which swept over the Land, the storm which destroyed cities, the storm which destroyed houses, the storm which destroyed cow-pens, the storm which burned sheepfolds, which laid hands on the holy rites, which defiled the weighty counsel, the storm which cut off all that is good from the Land, the storm which pinioned the arms of the black-headed people.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
The storm which knows no mother, the storm which knows no father, the storm which knows no wife, the storm which knows no child, the storm which knows no sister, the storm which knows no brother, the storm which knows no neighbour, the storm which knows no female companion, the storm which caused the wife to be abandoned, which caused the child to be abandoned, the storm which caused the light in the Land to disappear, the storm which swept through, ordered in hate by Enlil -- Father Nanna, may that storm swoop down no more on your city. May your black-headed people see it no more.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
May that storm, like rain pouring down from heaven, never recur. May that storm, which struck down all the black-headed living beings of heaven and earth, be entirely destroyed. May the door be closed on it, like the great city-gate at night-time. May that storm not be given a place in the reckoning, may its record be hung from a nail outside the house of Enlil.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
From distant days when the Land was founded, O Nanna, the humble people who lay hold of your feet have brought to you their tears for the silent house, playing music before you. May the black-headed people, cast away from you, make obeisance to you. In your city reduced to ruin mounds may a lament be made to you. O Nanna, may your restored city be resplendent before you. Like a bright heavenly star may it not be destroyed, may it pass before you.
The lament for Urim: c.2.2.2
The personal deity of a man brings you a greeting gift; a supplicant utters prayers to you. Nanna, you who have mercy on the Land, Lord Ašimbabbar -- as concerns him who speaks your heart's desire, Nanna, after you have absolved that man's sin, may your heart relent towards him who utters prayers to you. { (3 mss. add 1 line:) The personal deity of this man brings you a present. } He looks favourably on the man who stands there with his offering. Nanna, you whose penetrating gaze searches hearts, may its people who suffered that evil storm be pure before you. May the hearts of your people who dwell in the Land be pure before you. Nanna, in your restored city may you be fittingly praised.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
An, Enlil, Enki and { Ninḫursaĝa } { (2 mss. have instead:) Ninmaḫ } have decided its fate -- to overturn the divine powers of Sumer, to lock up the favourable reign in its home, to destroy the city, to destroy the house, to destroy the cattle-pen, to level the sheepfold; that the cattle should not stand in the pen, that the sheep should not multiply in the fold, that watercourses should carry brackish water, that weeds should grow in the fertile fields, that mourning plants should grow in the open country,
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
that the mother should not seek out her child, that the father should not say "O my dear wife!", that the junior wife should take no joy in his embrace, that the young child should not grow vigorous on his knee, that the wet-nurse should not sing lullabies; to change the location of kingship, to defile the seeking of oracles, to take kingship away from the Land, to cast the eye of the storm on all the land, to obliterate the divine plans by the order of An and Enlil;
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
after An had frowned upon all the lands, after Enlil had looked favourably on an enemy land, after Nintur had scattered the creatures that she had created, after Enki had altered the course of the Tigris and Euphrates, after Utu had cast his curse on the roads and highways;
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
so as to obliterate the divine powers of Sumer, to change its preordained plans, to alienate the divine powers of the reign of kingship of Urim, to humiliate the princely son in his house E-kiš-nu-ĝal, to break up the unity of the people of Nanna, numerous as ewes; to change the food offerings of Urim, the shrine of magnificent food offerings; that its people should no longer dwell in their quarters, that they should be given over to live in an inimical place; that Šimaški and Elam, the enemy, should dwell in their place; that its shepherd, in his own palace, should be captured by the enemy, that Ibbi-Suen should be taken to the land Elam in fetters, that from Mount Zabu on the edge of the sea to the borders of Anšan, like a swallow that has flown from its house, he should never return to his city;
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
that on the two parallel banks of the Tigris and of the Euphrates bad weeds should grow, that no one should set out on the road, that no one should seek out the highway, that the city and its settled surroundings should be razed to ruin-mounds; that its numerous black-headed people should be slaughtered; that the hoe should not attack the fertile fields, that seed should not be planted in the ground, that the melody of the cowherds' songs should not resound in the open country, that butter and cheese should not be made in the cattle-pen, that dung should not be stacked on the ground, that the shepherd should not enclose the sacred sheepfold with a fence, that the song of the churning should not resound in the sheepfold;
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
to decimate the animals of the open country, to finish off all living things, that the four-legged creatures of Šakkan should lay no more dung on the ground, that the marshes should be so dry as to be full of cracks and have no new seed, that sickly-headed reeds should grow in the reedbeds and come to an end in a stinking morass, that there should be no new growth in the orchards, that it should all collapse by itself -- so as quickly to subdue Urim like a roped ox, to bow its neck to the ground: the great charging wild bull, confident in its own strength, the primeval city of lordship and kingship, built on sacred ground.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
An frightened the very dwellings of Sumer, the people were afraid. Enlil blew an evil storm, silence lay upon the city. Nintur bolted the door of the storehouses of the Land. Enki blocked the water in the Tigris and the Euphrates. Utu took away the pronouncement of equity and justice. Inana handed over victory in strife and battle to a rebellious land. Ninĝirsu poured Sumer away like milk to the dogs. Turmoil descended upon the Land, something that no one had ever known, something unseen, which had no name, something that could not be fathomed. The lands were confused in their fear. The god of the city turned away, its shepherd vanished.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
The people, in their fear, breathed only with difficulty. The storm immobilised them, the storm did not let them return. There was no return for them, the storm did not retreat. This is what Enlil, the shepherd of the black-headed people, did: Enlil, to destroy the loyal households, to decimate the loyal men, to put the evil eye on the sons of the loyal men, on the first-born, Enlil then sent down Gutium from the mountains. Their advance was as the flood of Enlil that cannot be withstood. The great wind of the countryside filled the countryside, it advanced before them. The extensive countryside was destroyed, no one moved about there.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
The dark time was roasted by hailstones and flames. The bright time was wiped out by a shadow. { (2 mss. add 2 lines:) In the darkness, noses were heaped up, heads were smashed. The storm was a harrow coming from above, the city was struck by a hoe. } On that day, heaven rumbled, the earth trembled, the storm worked without respite. Heaven was darkened, it was covered by a shadow; the mountains roared. Utu lay down at the horizon, dust passed over the mountains. Nanna lay at the zenith, the people were afraid. The city's god left his dwelling and stood aside. The foreigners in the city even chased away its dead. Large trees were uprooted, the forest growth was ripped out. The orchards were stripped of their fruit, they were cleaned of their offshoots. The crop drowned while it was still on the stalk, the yield of the grain diminished. (3 lines fragmentary)
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
They piled …… up in heaps, they spread …… out like sheaves. There were corpses floating in the Euphrates, weapons smashed heads. The father turned away from his wife saying "This is not my wife!" The mother turned away from her child saying "This is not my child!" He who had a productive estate neglected his estate saying "This is not my estate!" The rich man took an unfamiliar path away from his possessions. In those days the kingship of the Land was defiled. The tiara and crown that had been on the king's head were both spoiled. The lands that had followed the same path were split into disunity. The food offerings of Urim, the shrine of magnificent food offerings, were changed for the worse. Nanna traded away his people, numerous as ewes.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
Its king sat immobilised in his own palace. Ibbi-Suen was sitting in anguish in his own palace. In E-namtila, his place of delight, he wept bitterly. The flood dashing a hoe on the ground was levelling everything. Like a great storm it roared over the earth -- who could escape it? -- to destroy the city, to destroy the house, so that traitors would lie on top of loyal men and the blood of traitors flow upon loyal men.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
Kazallu, the city of teeming multitudes, was cast into confusion. Numušda took an unfamiliar path away from the city, his beloved dwelling. His wife Namrat, the beautiful lady, was lamenting bitterly." Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house," she cried bitterly. Its river bed was empty, no water flowed. Like a river cursed by Enki its opening channel was dammed up. On the fields fine grains grew no more, people had nothing to eat. The orchards were scorched like an oven, its open country was scattered. The four-legged wild animals did not run about. The four-legged creatures of Šakkan could find no rest.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
Lugal-Marda stepped outside his city. Ninzuana took an unfamiliar path away from her beloved dwelling." Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house," she cried bitterly. Isin, the shrine that was not a quay, was split by onrushing waters. Ninisina, the mother of the Land, wept bitter tears." Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house," she cried bitterly. Enlil smote Dur-an-ki with a mace. Enlil made lamentation in his city, the shrine Nibru. Mother Ninlil, the lady of the Ki-ur shrine, wept bitter tears." Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house," she cried bitterly.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
Keš, built all alone on the high open country, was haunted. Adab, the settlement which stretches out along the river, { was treated as a rebellious land. } { (1 ms. has instead:) was deprived of water. } The snake of the mountains made his lair there, it became a rebellious land. The Gutians bred there, issued their seed. Nintur wept bitter tears over her creatures." Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house," she cried bitterly. In Zabalam the sacred Giguna was haunted. Inana abandoned Unug and went off to enemy territory. In the E-ana the enemy set eyes upon the sacred Ĝipar shrine. The sacred Ĝipar of en priesthood was defiled. Its en priest was snatched from the Ĝipar and carried off to enemy territory." Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house," she cried bitterly.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
A violent storm blew over Umma and the Šeg-kuršaga. Šara took an unfamiliar path away from the E-maḫ, his beloved dwelling. Ninmul cried bitter tears over her destroyed city." Oh my city, whose charms can no longer satisfy me," she cried bitterly. Ĝirsu, the city of heroes, was afflicted with a lightning storm. Ninĝirsu took an unfamiliar path away from the E-ninnu. Mother Bau wept bitter tears in her E-Iri-kug." Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house," she cried bitterly.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
On that day the word of Enlil was an attacking storm. Who could fathom it? The word of Enlil was destruction on the right, was …… on the left. This is what Enlil, the one who determines destinies, did: Enlil brought down the Elamites, the enemy, from the highlands. Nanše, the noble daughter, was settled outside the city. Fire approached Ninmarki in the shrine Gu-aba. Large boats were carrying off its silver and lapis lazuli. The lady, sacred Ninmarki, was despondent because of her perished goods. On that day he decreed a storm blazing like the mouth of a fire. The province of Lagaš was handed over to Elam. And then the queen also reached the end of her time.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
Bau, as if she were human, also reached the end of her time: "Woe is me! Enlil has handed over the city to the storm. He has handed it over to the storm that destroys cities. He has handed it over to the storm that destroys houses." Dumuzid-abzu was full of fear in the house of Kinirša. Kinirša, the city to which she belongs, was ordered to be plundered. The city of Nanše, Niĝin, was delivered to the foreigners. Sirara, her beloved dwelling, was handed over to the evil ones." Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house," she cried bitterly. Its sacred Ĝipar of en priesthood was defiled. Its en priest was snatched from the Ĝipar and carried off to enemy territory.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
A lament was raised at the dais that stretches out toward heaven. Its heavenly throne was not set up, was not fit to be crowned (?). It was cut down as if it were a date palm and tied together. Aššu, the settlement that stretches out along the river, was deprived of water. At the place of Nanna where evil had never walked, the enemy walked. How was the house treated thus? The E-puḫruma was emptied. Ki-abrig, which used to be filled with numerous cows and numerous calves, was destroyed like a mighty cattle-pen. Ningublaga took an unfamiliar path away from the Ĝa-bura. Ninigara wept bitter tears all alone." Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house," she cried bitterly. Its sacred Ĝipar of en priesthood was defiled. Its en priestess was snatched from the Ĝipar and carried off to enemy territory.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
Ninazu deposited his weapon in a corner in the E-gida. An evil storm swept over Ninḫursaĝa at the E-nutura. Like a pigeon she flew from the window, she stood apart in the open country." Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house," she cried bitterly. As for Ĝišbanda, the house filled with lamentation was destroyed among the weeping reeds. Ninĝišzida took an unfamiliar path away from Ĝišbanda. Azimua, the queen of the city, wept bitter tears." Alas, the destroyed city, my destroyed house," she cried bitterly.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
On that day, the storm forced people to live in darkness. In order to destroy Kuara, it forced people to live in darkness. Nineḫama in her fear wept bitter tears." Alas the destroyed city, my destroyed house," she cried bitterly. Asarluḫi put his robes on with haste and ……. Lugalbanda took an unfamiliar path away from his beloved dwelling. { (1 ms. adds:) Ninsumun ……. } "Alas the destroyed city, my destroyed house," she cried bitterly.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
Eridug, floating on great waters, was deprived (?) of drinking water. In its outer environs, which had turned into haunted plains, ……. The loyal man in a place of treachery ……. Ka-ḫeĝala and Igi-ḫeĝala …….
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
"I, a young man whom the storm has not destroyed, ……. I, not destroyed by the storm, my attractiveness not brought to an end, ……. We have been struck down like beautiful boxwood trees. We have been struck down like …… with coloured eyes. We have been struck down like statues being cast in moulds. The Gutians, the vandals, are wiping us out. We turned to Father Enki in the abzu of Eridug. …… whatever we shall say, whatever we shall add, …… whatever we shall say, whatever we shall add, we came out from the …… of Eridug."
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
"While were in charge of …… during the day, the shadows ……. While we were in charge of …… during the night, the storm ……. What do we receive trembling on duty during the day? What do we lose not sleeping on duty during the night? Enki, your city has been cursed, it has been given to an enemy land. Why do they reckon us among those who have been displaced from Eridug? Why do they destroy us like palm trees which we have not tended? Why do they break us up like new boats we have not caulked?"
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
After Enki had cast his eyes on a foreign land, (1 line unclear)…… have risen up, have called on their cohorts. Enki took an unfamiliar path away from Eridug. Damgalnuna, the mother of the E-maḫ, wept bitter tears." Alas the destroyed city, my destroyed house," she cried bitterly. Its sacred Ĝipar of en priesthood was defiled. Its en priestess was snatched from the Ĝipar and carried off to enemy territory.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
In Urim no one went to fetch food, no one went to fetch water. Those who went to fetch food, went away from the food and will not return. Those who went to fetch water, went away from the water and will not return. To the south, the Elamites stepped in, slaughtering ……. In the uplands, the vandals, the enemy, ……. The Tidnum daily strapped the mace to their loins. To the south, the Elamites, like an onrushing wave, were ……. In the uplands, like chaff blowing in the wind, they …… over the open country. Urim, like a great charging wild bull, bowed its neck to the ground.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
Enlil threw open the door of the grand gate to the wind. In Urim no one went to fetch food, no one went to fetch water. Its people rushed around like water being poured from a well. Their strength ebbed away, they could not even go on their way. Enlil afflicted the city with an evil famine. He afflicted the city with that which destroys cities, that which destroys houses. He afflicted the city with that which cannot be withstood with weapons. He afflicted the city with dissatisfaction and treachery. In Urim, which was like a solitary reed, there was not even fear. Its people, like fish being grabbed in a pond, sought to escape. Its young and old lay spread about, no one could rise.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
At the royal station (?) there was no food on top of the platform (?). The king who used to eat marvellous food grabbed at a mere ration. As the day grew dark, the eye of the sun was eclipsing, the people experienced hunger. There was no beer in the beer-hall, there was no more malt for it. There was no food for him in his palace, it was unsuitable to live in. Grain did not fill his lofty storehouse, he could not save his life. The grain-piles and granaries of Nanna held no grain. The evening meal in the great dining hall of the gods was defiled. Wine and syrup ceased to flow in the great dining hall. The butcher's knife that used to slay oxen and sheep lay hungry. Its mighty oven no longer cooked oxen and sheep, it no longer emitted the aroma of roasting meat. The sounds of the bursaĝ building, the pure …… of Nanna, were stilled. The house which used to bellow like a bull was silenced. Its holy deliveries were no longer fulfilled, its …… were alienated. The mortar, pestle and grinding stone lay idle; no one bent down over them.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
The Shining Quay of Nanna was silted up. The sound of water against the boat's prow ceased, there was no rejoicing. Dust piled up in the unuribanda of Nanna. The rushes grew, the rushes grew, the mourning reeds grew. Boats and barges ceased docking at the Shining Quay. Nothing moved on your watercourse which was fit for barges. The plans of the festivals at the place of the divine rituals were altered. The boat with first-fruit offerings of the father who begot Nanna no longer brought first-fruit offerings. Its food offerings could not be taken to Enlil in Nibru. Its watercourse was empty, barges could not travel.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
There were no paths on either of its banks, long grass grew there. The reed fence of the well-stocked cattle-pen of Nanna was split open. The garden's fence was vioilated and breached. The cows and their young were captured and carried off to enemy territory. The munzer-fed cows took an unfamiliar path in an open country that they did not know. Gayau, who loves cows, dropped his weapon in the dung. Šuni-dug, who stores butter and cheese, did not store butter and cheese. Those who are unfamiliar with butter were churning the butter. Those who are unfamiliar with milk were curdling (?) the milk. The sound of the churning vat did not resound in the cattle-pen. Like mighty coals that once burnt, its smoke is extinguished. The great dining hall of Nanna …….
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
…… approached Urim. The trees of Urim were sick, its reeds were sick. Laments sounded all along its city wall. Daily there was slaughter before it. Large axes were sharpened in front of Urim. The spears, the arms of battle, were prepared. The large bows, throw-sticks and shields gathered together to strike. The barbed arrows covered its outer side like a raining cloud. Large stones fell toegether with great thuds. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) Daily the evil wind returned in the city. } Urim, confident in its own strength, stood ready for the murderers. Its people, oppressed by the enemy, could not withstand their weapons.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
In the city, those who had not been felled by weapons succumbed to hunger. Hunger filled the city like water, it would not cease. This hunger contorted people's faces, twisted their muscles. Its people were as if drowning in a pond, they gasped for breath. Its king breathed heavily in his own palace. Its people dropped their weapons, their weapons hit the ground. They struck their necks with their hands and cried. They sought counsel with each other, they searched for clarification: "Alas, what can we say about it? What more can we add to it? How long until we are finished off by this catastrophe? Inside Urim there is death, outside it there is death. Inside it we are to be finished off by famine. Outside it we are to be finished off by Elamite weapons. In Urim the enemy oppresses us, oh, we are finished."
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
The people took refuge (?) behind the city walls. They were united in fear. { The palace that was destroyed by onrushing water was defiled, its doorbolts were torn out }{ (1 ms. has instead:) At its main gate the bolts were opened, the storm disloged its door }. Elam, like a swelling flood wave, left (?) only the ghosts. In Urim weapons smashed heads like clay pots. Its refugees were unable to flee, they were trapped inside the walls. { (1 ms. adds 3 lines:) Like fish living in a pond, they tried to escape. The enemy seized the E-kiš-nu-ĝal of Nanna. They ripped out its heavy ……. } The statues that were in the shrine were cut down. The great stewardess Ninigara ran away from the storehouse. Its throne was cast down before it, she threw herself down into the dust.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
Its mighty cows with shining horns were captured, their horns were cut off. Its unblemished oxen and grass-fed sheep were slaughtered. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) They were cut down as date palms and were tied together. } The palm-trees, strong as mighty copper, the heroic strength, were torn out like rushes, were plucked like rushes, their trunks were turned sideways. Their tops lay in the dust, there was no one to raise them. The midribs of their palm fronds were cut off and their tops were burnt off. Their date spadices that used to fall (?) on the well were torn out. The fertile reeds, which grew in the sacred ……, were defiled. The great tribute that they had collected was hauled off to the mountains.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
The house's great door ornament fell down, its parapet was destroyed. The wild animals that were intertwined on its left and right lay before it like heroes smitten by heroes. Its gaping-mouthed dragons and its awe-inspiring lions were pulled down with ropes like captured wild bulls and carried off to enemy territory. The fragrance of the sacred seat of Nanna, formerly like a fragrant cedar grove, was destroyed. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) Its architrave …… gold and lapis lazuli. } The glory of the house, whose glory was once so lovely, was extinguished. Like a storm that fills all the lands, it was built there like twilight in the heavens; its doors adorned with the heavenly stars, its ……. Great bronze latches …… were torn out. Its hinges ……. Together with its door fittings it (?) wept bitterly like a fugitive. The bolt, the holy lock and the great door were not fastened for it. The noise of the door being fastened had ceased; there was no one to fasten it. The …… and was put out in the square.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
The food offerings …… of his royal dining place were altered. In its sacred place (?) the tigi, šem and ala instruments did not sound. Its mighty tigi …… did not perform its sacred song. There was no eloquence in the Dubla-maḫ, the place where oaths used to be taken. The throne was not set up at its place of judgment, justice was not administered. Alamuš threw down his sceptre, his hands trembling. In the sacred bedchamber of Nanna musicians no longer played the balaĝ drum. The sacred box that no one had set eyes upon was seen by the enemy. The divine bed was not set up, it was not spread with clean hay. The statues that were in the shrine were cut down. The cook, the dream interpreter, and the seal keeper did not perform the ceremonies properly. They stood by submissively and were carried off by the foreigners. The priests of the holy uzga shrine and the sacred lustrations, the linen-clad priests, forsook the divine plans and sacred divine powers, they went off to a foreign city.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
In his grief Suen approached his father. He went down on his knee in front of Enlil, the father who begot him: "O father who begot me, how long will the enemy eye be cast upon my account, how long ……? The lordship and the kingship that you bestowed ……, Father Enlil, the one who advises with just words, the wise words of the Land ……, your inimical judgment ……, look into your darkened heart, terrifying like waves. O Father Enlil, the fate that you have decreed cannot be explained, as for my hairstyle (?) of lordship and the diadem with which I was crowned." …… he put on a garment of mourning.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
Enlil then provided a favourable response to his son Suen: "My son, the city built for you in joy and prosperity was given to you as your reign. Destroying the city, overthrowing its great wall and battlements: all this too is part of that reign. …… the black, black days of the reign that has been your lot. As for dwelling in your home, the E-temen-ni-guru, that was properly built -- indeed Urim shall be rebuilt in splendour, the people shall bow down to you. There is to be bounty at its base, there is to be grain. There is to be splendour at its top, the sun shall rejoice there. Let an abundance of grain embrace its table. May Urim, the city whose fate was pronounced by An, be restored for you." Having pronounced his blessing, Enlil raised his head toward the heavens: "May the land, south and highland, be organised for Nanna. May the roads of the mountains be set in order for Suen. Like a cloud hugging the earth, they shall submit to him. By order of An and Enlil it shall be conferred."
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
Father Nanna came into his city of Urim with head raised high. The youth Suen could enter again into the E-kiš-nu-ĝal. Ningal refreshed herself in her sacred living quarters. { (1 ms. adds 1 line:) In Urim she could enter again into her E-kiš-nu-ĝal. }
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
O bitter storm, retreat, O storm, storm return to your home. O storm that destroys cities, retreat, O storm, storm return to your home. O storm that destroys houses, retreat, O storm, storm return to your home. Indeed the storm that blew on Sumer, blew also on the foreign lands. Indeed the storm that blew on the land, blew on the foreign lands. It has blown on Tidnum, it has blown on the foreign lands. It has blown on Gutium, it has blown on the foreign lands. It has blown on Anšan, it has blown on the foreign lands. It levelled Anšan like a blowing evil wind. Famine has overwhelmed the evildoer; those people will have to submit.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
May An not change the divine powers of heaven, the divine plans for treating the people with justice. May An not change the decisions and judgments to lead the people properly. To travel on the roads of the Land: may An not change it. May An and Enlil not change it, may An not change it. May Enki and Ninmaḫ not change it, may An not change it. That the Tigris and Euphrates should again carry water: may An not change it. That there should be rain in the skies and on the ground speckled barley: may An not change it. That there should be watercourses with water and fields with grain: may An not change it. That the marshes should support fish and fowl: may An not change it. That old reeds and fresh reeds should grow in the reedbeds: may An not change it. May An and Enlil not change it. May Enki and Ninmaḫ not change it.
The lament for Sumer and Urim: c.2.2.3
That the orchards should bear syrup and grapes, that the high plain should bear the mašgurum tree, that there should be long life in the palace, that the sea should bring forth every abundance: may An not change it. The land densely populated from south to uplands: may An not change it. May An and Enlil not change it, may An not change it. May Enki and Ninmaḫ not change it, may An not change it. That cities should be rebuilt, that people should be numerous, that in the whole universe the people should be cared for; O Nanna, your kingship is sweet, return to your place. May a good abundant reign be long-lasting in Urim. Let its people lie down in safe pastures, let them reproduce. O mankind ……, princess overcome by lamentation and crying! O Nanna! O your city! O your house! O your people!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
After the cattle pen had been built for the foremost divine powers -- how did it become a haunted place? When will it be restored? Where once the brick of fate had been laid -- who scattered its divine powers? The lamentation is reprised: how did the storeroom of Nibru, the shrine Dur-an-ki, become a haunted place? When will it be restored? After Ki-ur, the great place, had been built, after the brickwork of E-kur had been built, after Ubšu-unkena had been built, after the shrine Egal-maḫ had been built -- how did they become haunted? When will they be restored?
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
How did the true city become empty? Its precious designs have been defiled! How were the city's festivals neglected? Its magnificent rites have been thrown into disorder! In the heart of Nibru, where the divine powers were allotted and the black-headed people prolificly multiplied, the city's heart no longer revealed any sign of intelligence -- there where the Anuna used to give advice! In Ubšu-unkena, the place for making great judgments, they no longer impart decisions or justice!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Where its gods had established their dwellings, where their daily rations were offered, their daises erected, where the sacred royal offering (?) and the evening meal in their great banquet hall were destined for the pouring out of choice beer and syrup -- Nibru, the city where the black-headed people used to cool themselves in its spreading shade -- in their dwellings Enlil fell upon them as if they were criminals. It was he who sent them scattering, like a scattered herd of cattle. How long until its lady, the goddess Ninlil, would ask after the inner city, whose bitter tears were overwhelming?
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
As though it were empty wasteland, no one enters that great temple whose bustle of activity was famous. As for all the great rulers who increased the wealth of the city of Nibru -- why did they disappear? For how long would Enlil neglect the Land, where the black-headed { people } { (1 ms. has instead:) Land } { (another ms. has instead:) city }ate rich grass like sheep? Tears, lamentation, depression and despair! How long would his spirit burn and his heart not be placated? Why were those who once played the šem and ala drums spending their time in bitter lamenting? Why were the lamenters sitting in its brick buildings? They were bewailing the hardship which beset them.
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
The true temple gave you only tears and lamentation -- it sings a bitter song of the proper cleansing-rites that are forgotten! The brickwork of E-kur gave you only tears and lamentation -- it sings a bitter song of the proper cleansing-rites that are forgotten! It weeps bitter tears over the splendid rites and most precious plans which are desecrated -- its most sacred food rations neglected and …… into funeral offerings, it cries "Alas!". The temple despairs of its divine powers, utterly cleansed, pure, hallowed, which are now defiled! The true temple, which it is bitter to enter on one's own, passes the time renewing its tears.
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Because the sealings of the abundant materials stored in the temple have been broken open, they have placed the loads on the ground. Because the property in its well-tended storehouses has been sent back, it says "What will they weigh out for me now?"; because the enemies who do not know good from evil have cut off all good things, it sings a bitter dirge; because they have finished off its populace there like animals, it cries "Oh my Land!". Because they have piled up the young women, young men and their little children like heaps of grain, it cries "Woe!" for them. Because they have splashed their blood on the ground like a rain-storm, there is no restraint to its crying.
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
The temple, like a cow whose calf is cut off, groans bitterly to itself; it is grief-stricken, and the sweet-voiced lamenters, like nursemaids singing a lullaby, respond tearfully with its name. In anguish they bewail the fact that the city's lord has smashed heads there, that he has looked away from it and toward a foreign land instead. The true temple of all the countries, which had come before him -- what have the black-headed people, who had taken a true path, done regarding what have they forsaken, that their lord has become enraged with them and walks in anger?
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
It voices bitter cries because he has removed the great divine powers from within it.
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
How long will the city's lord who became angry with it not turn to it, not say "Alas!" for it? Why did he cut off the road to its brickwork? He made the noisy pigeons fly away from their windows. Why did he transform the appearance of the temple which knew voices, where they used to while away the days in sweet playing of tigi drums in the brick buildings? The temple, once a place to offer salutations in humility, is now as deathly silent as a temple which no one reveres!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
As though its purification priest's equipment were not utterly sacred, as though its cleansing-rites did not bring calm in all countries, he has abandoned it, turned his breast away from it, among dejection and lamentation he has made it a sacrilege. After its fate, how long till his face would be streaked with teardrops? He rejected it thus as though it were a blasphemy! Why has joy left its brickwork? Night and day he has filled its heart with tears! Even now, he has made it foreign and a sacrilege!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
He made its mind wander! He threw its intelligence into disorder and made it haunted! He took away its food and its water! He brought to an end its days of familiarity with milk and with beer! The temple which he has made a sacrilege utters bitter lamentations; he has made its eyes blurred with tears. The lamenters who perform the dirges respond to it sorrowfully. No one touches the arm of the city's lord who has removed its divine powers! No one intercedes!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
How did Enlil make all his greatest divine powers fly away! No one ever touches his arm! No one ever intercedes!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
I am going down to my dirge singer of bitter fates and I shall weep tearfully to him. Even now the lamenters who are expert in song make ululating wails over me! Now my people who are overcome by hardship voice laments for me one by one! Even now the places of refuge of my people whose hearts are burning in dark distress have been made known to me! My people whose hearts have been broken on the bitter way perform the lullabies of my young ones for me in tears!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
The well-built houses, ladies' dwellings, were falsely founded, and they have been eroded by the winds! They are making a lament for me of how the foe has finished off my Land! They are addressing the cries of my heart, overwhelmed with bitterness, in order to soothe it! They are beginning their laments about my lord Enlil! He will have mercy and compassion on me -- Enlil, father of the black-headed people, he who will give the order to restore me!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
My heart is dark, I am destroyed, I am in chaos, I have been devastated!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
In the foremost brick buildings they sing that your fate is bitter! Even now, to Enlil who will accept your tears for you, weeping bitter tears of your own accord, speak supplications to your lord himself concerning what he did to you, concerning that fate! Say to him "My lord, how long? Look upon me with favour, my lord!" Say "Why ……?" Say "May your heart be soothed for me -- overturn this sacrilege for your own good! The day is ……!" Say "Re-enter for me your dwelling in my darkened shrines!" Say "Like a bright, cleansed, sacred day, give …… for your own good!" Say "……!" Say "Your misfortunes …… will rebuild it!"
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Perhaps by this means I can make him have compassion and mercy for you. Depression has weakened your heart, but I am the one who has established good cheer for you. He will fix it forever as your lot that you shall lift your head high, he will make good again the hostilities he is directing against you.
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Even now your lord has smitten the enemy fury for you! He has had mercy on you and decreed your fate! He has said "Enough", so that he has removed lamentation from your brick buildings! In good mood and with a joyful heart he has entered in there again for you! Ninurta, the mighty commissioner, has looked after things! He stood there before the hero, his provider Išme-Dagan, and issued the command to him to completely rebuild the E-kur, the most precious shrine! He has restored its ancient property! Enlil has ordered Išme-Dagan to restore its ziggurat temple, to make it shine like the day, to make fitting the dais upon its platform!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
He has put back in their place the rites which the enemy disordered and desecrated, along with the scattered divine powers! He has given him his sacred unchangeable decision that they should sanctify and purify again the cleansing-rites which the enemy had put a stop to! He has told Išme-Dagan, his beloved shepherd, that faultless bulls and faultless bucks should be slaughtered! When decrees the fate of the sacred royal offering place (?), he will offer salutations and stand there daily in supplication and prayer. (2 lines fragmentary)
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
How long before you will rest at ease?
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
How long will the brickwork strain its eyes upwards in tears and lamentations? Even now your lord, the Great Mountain Enlil, supreme in the universe, has removed lamentation from your brick buildings and made favourable your humour!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Now, city, your lord who has had compassion and mercy for you, Father Enlil, lord of all countries, who has commanded that you be restored, and the great mother Ninlil, who entreated him in prayer there, and the brickwork itself which said to him "Steady the trembling of Nibru!" and said to him "Rebuild my women's quarters for me! Re-establish my temples for me!" -- he who mulled things over so that he came to a decision about them, Enlil, who found agreeable his command of true words, who beneficently entered the true temple which had suffered destruction -- he himself is removing what he turned upon you in distress.
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Just as he silenced you, when he made joy enter again he decreed as your fate the sound of choice beer and syrup being poured out to overflowing." Enough! It is time to stifle the lament" he said to you himself. Because you have been living in a state of neglect, Enlil who has decreed your fate has said "My city, you have placated my sacred heart towards you." He has returned to you!" Nibru, you have placated my sacred heart towards you." He has returned to you! True city, he has decreed your great fate and made your reign long! Nibru, he has decreed your great fate and made your reign long!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Enlil himself has commanded Išme-Dagan that the E-kur should shine like the day! Steady sunlight shines into the Ki-ur; he has brought daylight in there again for you! Ninlil has decreed your fate in the Ĝaĝiššua! Enlil and Ninlil together founded daises in the E-kur! They dined there and enjoyed choice beer! They deliberated how to make the black-headed people secure in their dwellings! They have brought back to you the people who had been completely devastated! They have gathered back together the children whom they turned away from their mothers! The populace goes with you in their strongholds! Shrine Nibru, the Great Mountain Enlil has returned to you!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Even now, they command Išme-Dagan that Sumer and Akkad should be restored at your feet, that their scattered people should be returned to their nests! They have brought the news that the magnificent rites of Eridug would not be forgotten, its heart sending forth wisdom, so that good sense should be allotted! The Anuna, the lords who decree fates, order that Adab should be rebuilt, the city whose lady fashions living things, who promotes birthing!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
An and Enlil have advised that Urim should be restored, founded in a pasture, its divine powers distinct from the rest! They command the prince of the city Larsam, the herald of the universe, the judge of the numerous people, to secure its foundations, to follow the proper path! They have taken a decision concerning Unug-Kulaba, the sacred city, the handiwork of the gods, and restored it. They have brought news of the removal of all foes and enemies from the region of Zabalam, the city where the mistress of heaven concentrated her forces.
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
An and Enlil have looked with their beneficent gaze on Lagaš, the mooring-pole of heaven, and the shrine Ĝirsu, established long ago. They have removed the treacherous Tidnum from that temple in Umma, Šeg-kuršaga, which had been ill treated! It is the great gods who have commanded that the foundations of Kiš should be secured, at the edge of Sumer and Akkad, its dominion superlative! Marda, the city in whose river water flows, in whose fields is fine grain -- the Anuna who took those things away from it returned them to it again!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Isin, the provisioner of the Anuna, rising high since times of old -- An, Enlil, Enki and Ninmaḫ have made its reign long! By their command they have handed it over and expressed their approval! They have entrusted it to Ninurta, the champion, the strong hero! They have told Ninisina, the exalted child of An, the incantation priest of the Land, to rest calmly in her sacred dwelling, Egal-maḫ! They have told Damu, the chief barber of Nunamnir, healer of the living, to make the foreign countries bow at the feet of his father and mother!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Now see! Enlil has fixed a good day in the land! He has even now ordered the day for Nibru to raise its neck to heaven! He himself has provided a good day for the E-kur to shine! He himself has raised up the day for the Ki-ur's magnificent manifestation! He himself has restored the day for Sumer and Akkad to expand! He himself has set aside the day for houses to be built and storerooms to be enclosed! He himself has brought out the day for seeds to sprout and living things to be born! He has brought out the day for building cattle pens and founding sheepfolds!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
{ The ewes which bore lambs have filled the pens! } { (1 ms. has instead the line:) Ewes have given birth in the folds, their lambs have filled the pens! } The goats which bore kids have filled the folds! The ewes which flocked with their lambs have swelled the sheepfold! The goats which flocked with their kids have caused the pens to be widened! He himself has set the day for turning destruction to the good! He has …… the day …… evil! He has brought in Išme-Dagan as assistance for the day for establishing justice in the land!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Although Sumer and Akkad had been desecrated by the foe, afterwards hearts were appeased, spirits soothed! All the great gods thus had compassion! They looked upon those sunk in exhaustion and brought them up out of it! They restored your city which had been razed to ruins! Enlil, king of all countries, restored its shining property which had been scattered, which had been devastated! There where the populace rested in the cool after building their nests, in Nibru, the mountain of the greatest divine powers, from where they had taken an unfamiliar path -- at Enlil's word the Anuna, those very lords who determine the fates, ordered that the temples which they had forsaken and the jewels, put there long ago, which had been carried off by the wind, should all be restored!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
He has established there dining in joy within! Enlil has given the command to Išme-Dagan, his joyous, reverent sacral officiant, who daily serves, to sanctify its food, to purify its water! He has commanded him to purify its defiled divine powers! He has put in order its disordered and scattered rites, he has put back in their place the most sacred things, neglected and defiled. He decrees as a fate the offering of daily rations and the grinding up of fine meal and flour. He has decided to make bread plentiful on the table, to make loaves numerous!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Father Enlil, the lord whose command cannot be altered, prince of all countries, has fixed among the black-headed people, and commanded for their benefit, a time when no one is to speak hostile words to another, when a son is to respect his father, a time to establish humility in the Land, for the inferior to be as important as the mighty, a time when the younger brother, fearing his big brother, is to show humility, a time when the elder child is to treat the younger child reasonably and to pay heed to his words, a time to take neither weak nor strong away into captivity, but to serve with great acts of good, a time to travel the disordered roadways, to extirpate evil growths, { a time when anyone is to go where they will, to hurl no insults at one's fellow, } { (1 ms. has instead the line:) a time when anyone is to go where they will, to carry oneself humbly in the plain, to perform no sacrilege, } { a time no one is to speak hostile words to another, to perform no sacrilege, } { (1 ms. has instead the line:) a time to go from one's own city to a foreign city, to have no fear on the plain, to perform no sacrilege, } a time to remove bitterness from the Land, to establish light therein, a time when darkness is to be lifted in the Land, so that living things should rejoice.
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Now, see! After that time, Enlil, the prince who is full of pity, has been beneficent to his hero who had laid the …… brick! He put in order again for him the divine powers which had been desecrated by the enemy! He sanctified again the defiled rites for him! He purified its ziggurat temple and made it resplendent for him! Within he made abundance plentiful, he filled it with choice beer and syrup! He established there at that time the pleasing of hearts, the appeasing of spirits, the ameliorating of moods!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
Išme-Dagan himself stood in prayer to Enlil and offered salutations! When he had begun the lament and spoken the supplication, the prince of all countries treated his body with oil of abundance as if it were the sweetest syrup! And his prayer was heard -- Enlil looked upon him with favour, Išme-Dagan whose words bring Enlil pleasure! Enlil's constant attendant, with whose thoughts he agrees! Because the humble one prostrated himself in his devotions and served there, because he will entreat him in supplication and will do obeisance, because he will complete and honour the royal offering and will return, because he will keep watch over everything and will not be negligent, Enlil has promised to Išme-Dagan his dominion of extended years!
The lament for Nibru: c.2.2.4
He promised him that he will be a man of pre-eminent kingship! He promised him that he will be a king whose reign is good! He promised him that he shall have the people inhabit safe dwellings! Enlil found agreement in what he had said to the numerous people! On the day for decreeing fates, every part of Sumer and Akkad, among the black-headed people flocking like sheep, among their well-tended people, will praise forever the majesty of the Great Mountain Nunamnir, enkar weapon of the universe! It is his awe-inspiring way!
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
The …… which had developed -- its wiping clean (?) was to be accomplished (?). The …… of heaven and earth put their divine powers …… to sleep (?). (1 line fragmentary)
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
When together An and Enlil had created it, that one resembled ……. When Ninlil had given it features, that one was fit for ……. When together Aruru, Suen and Enki had fashioned its limbs, that one turned pitch black, as at night, halfway through the watch, ……. All the great gods paled at its immensity and …… was brought about. Like a great wild bull which bellows mightily, that one filled the world with its roar.
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
As its gigantic horns reached up to heaven, who trembled in his very core? As it was piled up over the mountains like a battle-net, who turned away? Who caused wailing and lamenting in those streets and ……? Unug, like a loyal citizen in terror, set up an alarm (and exclaimed) "Rise up!" Why did its hand seize Unug? Why did the benevolent eye look away? Who brought about such worry and lamenting and ……?
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
That one drew nearer. That one settled upon the ground. Why would he withdraw? Who distorted Unug's good sense and deranged its good counsel? Who smashed its good udug deity? Who struck its good lamma deity too? Who desecrated the fearsome radiance which crowned it? Who brought about mob panic in Unug? Who …… sickness too? Along with the city, the foreign lands ……, who …… in the temple of Unug? That one ……. (small no. of lines missing)
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
(1 line fragmentary) Who made ……? Why was …… expanded? Who made the black-headed people become so numerous? Who overthrew ……? …… was destroyed -- who restored ……? Who confronted ……? That one crushed ……. That one ……. (small no. of lines missing)
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
(1 line fragmentary) …… and Utu, who in human form renders judgment at the law court of heaven, set and did not rise again. …… bore a heavy burden of sin. …… the altered verdicts of Lord Nunamnir. …… who can smite ……? …… and they approach (?). …… he brings …… forth. …… of Enlil ……. He …… and puts an end to ……. (small no. of lines missing)
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
(1 line fragmentary) …… each and every one ……. …… its ways were ……. …… its destruction and demolition, ……. The …… of the gods …… attention. ……, who neglected ……, …… the city watched as the evil ghost approached. …… breathed painfully, he wept bitterly. …… there was no nodding of the head.
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
He consoled himself with tears and laments -- the city trembled. A defiled hand smote him and flattened his skull -- the city collapsed. The fearsome radiance overwhelmed like ……. The proud city of all the lands became like one who spreads havoc. The faithful cowherds themselves overturned every single cattlepen. The chief shepherds themselves burned (?) every sheepfold. They built them up like grain heaps, they spread them out like grain piles, they were convulsed. …… they drenched the fields with water, they turned the city into a swamp. They did all that. Like reeds in a wasteland, life could not be revived. They brought ruination. Evil things menaced (?) the city. A hush settled over the awed hearts of its people like a cloak.
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
Its good udug deities went away, its lamma deities ran off. Its lamma deity (said) "Hide in the open country" and they took foreign paths. The city's patron god turned against it and its shepherd abandoned it. Its guardian spirit, though not an enemy, was exiled (?) to a foreign place. Thus all its most important gods evacuated Unug, they kept away from it. They hid out in the hills and wandered (?) about in the haunted plains. In the city built upon peace, food and drink were overturned like a saman vessel. In the pasture lands a tumultuous noise arose, the asses and sheep were driven away. Elderly people and babies, taking their rest, …… in front ……. They saw …… and slaughtered (?) ……. (3 lines fragmentary) (small no. of lines missing)
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
He …… and opened his clenched fist. He …… and reached out his hand. The …… of Sumer, the city whose king crossed over to an enemy land, to ……. -- he smote it with the might of his weapon. He …… and turned the place into dust. He …… and piled the people up in heaps. ……, how long until its charms are restored?
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
The …… of heaven …… and the people …… to the limits of heaven.
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
He ……, stretched forth his hand and induced terror in the land. Enlil struck out with great ferocity. He announced: "A deluge dashing the hoe on the ground shall be invoked. At its front war shall be a …… axe, at its rear it shall be a ……. Its overgrown hair shall be a harrow, its back shall be flames. Its countenance shall be a malevolent storm that enshrouds heaven and earth. The glint of its eyes shall be lightning that flashes far like the Anzud bird. Its mouth shall rage -- a blazing fire that extends as far as the nether world. Its tongue shall be an inferno, raining embers, that sunders the Land. Its arms shall be the majestic Anzud bird that nothing can escape when it spreads wide its talons."
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
"Its ribs shall be crowbars that let light pass inside like the sun's rays. Knotted at both its hips shall be city-destroying slingstones. Its great haunches shall be dripping knives, covered with gore, that make blood flow. Its muscles shall be saws that slash, its feet those of an eagle. It shall make the Tigris and Euphrates quaver, it shall make the mountains rumble. At its reverberation the hills shall be uprooted, the people shall be pitched about like sheaves, Sumer and Akkad shall shiver, they shall be flooded like a harvest crop. The foolish shall rejoice, they shall exclaim (?): "Let it come -- we shall be seeing war and battle in the city, how the sacred precinct (?) is destroyed, how the walls are battered down, how the city's peace is disrupted, how among the loyal families honest men are transformed into traitors.""
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
"But the sensible shall beat their breasts and droop (?) their heads. At midnight they shall be afraid and tearful, and suffer insomnia. In bed, under the covers, they shall be unable to sleep soundly, they shall wander about the city. They shall be immobilised, their courage shall run out: "May our allies serving in times of war raise their forces for peace. May the word of Enlil be sent back, may it turn tail. May the venom of Nunamnir's anger become exhausted. May those vicious men who have seized the E-kur be punished. May those who have set their sight upon Nibru be swept away.""
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
My heart is filled with sorrow, I am tear-stricken.
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
Oh, Sumer! Alas -- your spirit! Alas -- your structure! Alas -- your people! The word of An, having been assigned its place, has destroyed the sacred precinct (?). The pronouncement of Enlil, having been set in motion, ……. The deluge dashing the hoe to the ground ……. The great and fierce ……, Lord Nergal ……. …… like Gibil, Nergal ……. (1 line fragmentary)
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
War …… enemy lands …… echoed. Like arrows in a quiver ……. Evildoers in Sumer ……. Gutium, the enemy, overturned ……. Sumer, caught in a trap, ……. Its people were thrown into turmoil ……. The mighty heroes of Sumer ……. …… the heart of a hurricane ……. They advanced like the front rank of troops, ……. Like …… they were crushed, every one of them ……. Their war veterans gave up, their brains were muddled. The troop leaders, the most outstanding of the men, were viciously hewn down. Gutium, the enemy, …… weapons ……. Not looking at each other …… Like a swelling flood, like ……, Subir poured into Sumer.
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
They …… like stampeding goats, they tore apart the corpses of the population. They mutilated Sumer and Akkad, they pulverised it as with a pestle. They destroyed its settlements and habitations, they razed them to ruin mounds. The best of Sumer they scattered like dust, they heaped up ……. They massacred its populace, they finished off young and old alike. They destroyed the city of the Anuna gods, they set it aflame. They put out both Unug's eyes, they uprooted its young shoots. They wandered all through the libation places of the Anuna gods. And even Kulaba, which is the primeval city, they turned into a place of murder.
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
Unug! They seized your wharf and your borders and ……. At Unug shouts rang out, screams reverberated, its captured men ……. The noise reached to the south. The south was destroyed and ……. The impact forced its way to the uplands. The uplands were struck and ……. To the right and left no people moved about, no habitations were built. There was no …… and the mobilisation of troops did not ……. …… rose up to heaven. Heaven perished and its strength did not ……. …… upon the earth. The earth was scattered, and it did not ……. All the settlements were dispersed -- Unug stood all alone. It was a bull, it was a champion, it was immense with pride, but it …… to the weapons. All night and even until midday battle was waged, and afterwards it did not …….
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
Battering rams and shields were set up, they rent its walls. They breached its buttresses, they hewed the city with axes. They set fire to its stations, they …… the city's dwellings. They destroyed it, they demolished it. Unug, the good place, was …… with dust. Like a great wild bull wounded with an arrow, ……. Like a wild cow pierced with a spear, ……. The mighty one rushed with his weapons and …… implements of war. Subir, rising up like a swelling floodwave, ……. They trampled (?) through the streets and ……. They let the blood of the people flow like that of a sacrificial cow, they tore out everything that had been built.
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
The citizens of Unug ……. They …… and threw down ……. They …… and put an end to ……. They seized ……. They struck ……. They destroyed ……. They …… They demolished ……. They set up ……. They heaped up ……. They put an end to …… and did not leave behind ……. …… Subir entered …….
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
…… cried out "…… has been created" and he smeared dust …….
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
…… reached …… (19 fragmentary lines) (unknown no. of lines missing)
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
All the great gods ……. The Anuna gods ……. (1 line fragmentary) Sovereigns ……. (1 line fragmentary) (unknown no. of lines missing)
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
Lady Inana whose greatness is vaster than the mountains, hovering like An, vested with grandeur like Enlil, like her father, perfect by night and in the heat of the day, like Utu, surpassing in vigour, singularly exalted in all the four regions -- let Išme-Dagan take pleasure in relaxing in your temple, let him murmer to you in your temple, let him raise his head to you in your E-ana.
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
Let Išme-Dagan serve you as your steward. Let him prepare great bulls for you. Let him dedicate great offerings to you. Let him make the beer, fat and oil plentiful for you. Let him make syrup and wine flow for you as from stone jars. Let Išme-Dagan, son of Enlil on the king's pedestal, bow in homage to you. May he make the ub and ala drums resound grandly for you. May the tigi sound sweetly for you, and may the zamzam play for you. May they play …… on the tigi for you, expressing your prayers and supplications before you.
The lament for Unug: c.2.2.5
If the Anuna gods emerge tearfully, let them promise to us that as it was when heaven and earth came about, nothing of that time shall be changed. If An looks kindly upon that man and at the well-built city, the place of determining fate, proclaim "Man and city! Life and well-being!" for him. Let praise ring out. Let him be made surpassing above all, to his right or left. Tireless lamma deity, take hold of his head, pronounce his fate in charitable words -- by the command of An and Enlil it will remain unaltered for a long time.
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
(4 lines missing) The roaring storm covered it like a cloak, was spread over it like a sheet. It covered Eridug like a cloak, was spread over it like a sheet. In the city, the furious storm resounded ……. In Eridug, the furious storm resounded ……. Its voice was smothered with silence as by a gale. Its people ……. Eridug was smothered with silence as by a gale. Its people …….
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
Its king stayed outside his city as if it were an alien city. He wept bitter tears. Father Enki stayed outside his city as if it were an alien city. He wept bitter tears. For the sake of his harmed city, he wept bitter tears. Its lady, like a flying bird, left her city. The mother of E-maḫ, holy Damgalnuna, left her city. The divine powers of the city of holiest divine powers were overturned. The divine powers of the rites of the greatest divine powers were altered. In Eridug everything was reduced to ruin, was wrought with confusion.
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
The evil-bearing storm went out from the city. It swept across the Land -- a storm which possessses neither kindness nor malice, does not distinguish between good and evil. Subir came down like rain. It struck hard. In the city where bright daylight used to shine forth, the day darkened. In Eridug where bright daylight used to shine forth, the day darkened. As if the sun had set below the horizon, it turned into twilight. As if An had cursed the city, alone he destroyed it. As if Enlil had frowned upon it, Eridug, the shrine Abzu, bowed low.
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
A second time the storm destroyed the city -- its song was plaintive. …… was trampled (?). …… intensified the lament. It cut the lock from its main gate. The storm dislodged its door. …… It stacked the people up in heaps. …… on its own destroyed it. It turned …… into tears. …… defiled …… (1 line missing)
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
…… It distorted its appearance. …… It distorted its appearance. It circled its …… wall. It overturned its foundations. Throughout his city, the pure, radiant (?) place, the foundations were filled with dust. It cast down its ziggurat, the shrine which reaches up to heaven, into a heap of debris. The loftiness of its elevated door-ornament, befitting a house, was stripped down (?). It cut down the gate, its Great-Ziggurat-of-Heaven-and-Earth-Covered-with-Terrible-Awesomeness, its shining door, and it broke through its bolt. It ripped out its doorframe. The house was defaced.
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
At its lion-faced gate, the place where fates are determined, it mutilated the copse (?) forming the ornament of the house ……. Ka-ḫeĝala and Igi-ḫeĝala, the doorkeepers of the house, ……. Prematurely they destroyed it utterly. They completely altered ……. At the gate of the uzga precinct, the animal-fattener …… the great offerings. Its birds and fish were neglected there. Destruction ……. Throughout his house, radiant (?) in silver and lapis lazuli, tears …….
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
The hired man and the governor ……. The festivals …… grandly ……. Holy songs, songs of all kinds ……. The šem drum and ala drum ……. The great divine powers, all the divine powers ……. The place of the gods of heaven and earth ……. The judgment by the king, the holy sceptre at his right side, ……. The en priestess, lumaḫ priest and nindiĝir priestess …….
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
The minister Isimud ……. Strangers to the house …… its side. Eridug, the shrine Abzu, …… silently. The enemy …… cleansed in a magnificent robe. …… a man …… the people ……. Along with the fluids spilled from his guts, his blood spilled forth. The ……, which like the azure sky was embellished forever, …… grasped …….
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
…… distressed and anxious …… like a pigeon ……. (1 line fragmentary) The birds of the destroyed city …… a nest. The ukuku bird, bird of heart's sorrow, …… the place. Pain ……. The area became entangled in wild thornbushes. It …… wild thornbushes. The Šimaškians and Elamites, the destroyers, looked at the holy kettles which no one may look at. In the House of Nisaba's Wisdom, the house of understanding, …… covered over ……. The divine powers which embellish the Abzu ……. When the holy treasures stored in the treasury were put ……, when, like a mist lying heavily on the earth, ……, they went like small birds shooed from their hiding places. (7 lines fragmentary) (unknown no. of lines missing)
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
Because of this, Enki, king of the abzu, stayed outside his city as if it were an alien city. It bowed its neck down to the ground. Eridu's lady, holy Damgalnuna, the faithful cow, the compassionate one, clawed at her breast, clawed at her eyes. She uttered a frenzied cry. She held a dagger and a sword in her two hands -- they clashed together.
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
She tore out her hair like rushes, uttering a bitter lament: "You, my city whose woman does not dwell there, whose charms do not satisfy her -- where is a lament uttered bitterly for you? Eridug! You, my city whose woman does not dwell there, whose charms do not satisfy her -- where are tears wept for you? I fall like a bull in your lofty …… falls ……. I am ……. My heart …… queen ……." (unknown no. of lines missing)(incorporating end of 5th kirugu)
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
(1 line fragmentary) …… far away …… the great gods. Lord Enlil, king of the lands, looked maliciously at Sumer. He demolished it. He destroyed the Ki-ur, the great place. He razed with the pickaxe all of the shining E-kur. He destroyed it but did not abandon it -- at the lunches, in his great dining hall, they call his name.
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
Aruru, the sister of Enlil, destroyed her city Iri-saĝ-rig. In Keš, the creation place of the Land, the people saw inside its holy sanctuary where daylight had been unknown. She destroyed it but did not abandon it -- at the lunches, in her great dining hall, they call her name. Lord Nanna, Lord Ašimbabbar, destroyed his city Urim. He decimated the Land with famine. He committed a sacrilege against the E-kiš-nu-ĝal. He struck at its heart. He destroyed it but did not abandon it -- at the lunches, in his great dining hall, they call his name.
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
Inana, the queen of heaven and earth, destroyed her city Unug. Fleeing from the E-ana, the house of seven corners and seven fires ……, she destroyed it but did not abandon it -- at the lunches, in her great dining hall, they call her name.
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
(Damgalnuna speaks:) "My beloved, who has ever seen such a destruction as that of your city Eridug!"
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
"Lord Enki, who has ever seen such a destruction as that of your city Eridug? Who has ever seen such a misfortune as that of the shrine Abzu, your house?" No one goes up to his offering terrace. At the lunches, in his great dining hall, they do not call his name. Enki, king of the abzu, felt distressed, felt anxious. At the words of his spouse, he himself began to wail. He lay down and fasted.
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
My king, you must not be distressed, you must not be anxious. Father Enki, you must not be distressed, you must not be anxious. Son of An, return your heart to your Ki-ur and your attention to your city. Living in an alien city is miserable -- return your attention to your city. Living in an alien house is miserable -- return your attention to your house. What can anyone compare with this city? -- Return your attention to your city. What can anyone compare with this house? -- Return your attention to your house. Eridug's day is long. Its night is over.
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
May your throne say to you "Sit down". May your bed say to you "Lie down". May your house say to you "Be rested". May your holy dais also say joyfully to you "Sit down". May your father An, the king of the gods, satisfy your heart. A person, a humble man, brings you a lament over your wife's faithful house. When he sings it before you, may that person soothe your heart. When he recites a prayer, look kindly upon him.
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
At the giguna shrine, the sacred house, evildoers ……. The E-unir -- the shrine raises its head as high as heaven. Its shadow …….
The lament for Eridug: c.2.2.6
At the great gate, the lion-faced gate, the place where fates are determined, evildoers ……. They set fire to its door. Ka-ḫeĝala and Igi-ḫeĝala, the doorkeepers of the house, ……. …… Enki, at the …… place, …… its people. …… the destroyed place, the Abzu …… the powers of the Anuna gods. (3 lines fragmentary) (unknown no. of lines missing)(continuation of 3rd kirugu)
An adab to Bau for Luma (Luma A): c.2.3.1
Child of An, he has chosen you in his holy heart in the great sky and on the great earth and made you worthy of the ladyship of the Land. Bau, child of An, he has chosen you in his holy heart in the great sky and on the great earth and made you worthy of the ladyship of the Land. Enlil has looked at you with favour, young woman, Mother Bau, from the shining E-kur, and made you eminently fit for Lord Ninĝirsu. The Great Mountain Enlil has looked at you with favour, young woman, Mother Bau, from the shining E-kur and made you eminently fit for Lord Ninĝirsu.
An adab to Bau for Luma (Luma A): c.2.3.1
In the E-tar-sirsir, founded for you by An, you decide the fate of all the countries; you, my lady, render verdicts and decree judgments. Bau, in the E-tar-sirsir, founded for you by An, you decide the fate of all the countries; you, Bau, render verdicts and decree judgments. The …… protective genius directs your black-headed people before you in your courtyard in Iri-kug. Bau, the …… protective genius directs your black-headed people before you in your courtyard in Iri-kug.
An adab to Bau for Luma (Luma A): c.2.3.1
Lady whose horns are perfect (?), Bau, nobody can learn what you are; child of An, with …… An, grandiloquent one.
An adab to Bau for Luma (Luma A): c.2.3.1
My lady, what you say is trustworthy, your lofty words are enduring. Bau, what you say is trustworthy, your lofty words are enduring. Your holy words are devoted to the god, they are as clear as daylight for the king. Bau, your holy words are devoted to the god, they are as clear as daylight for the king, Luma. Your joyous countenance is as clear as daylight for the king; Bau, your joyous countenance is as clear as daylight for the king, Luma. Your words, which …… the pleasant place, are as clear as daylight for the king; Bau, your words, which …… the pleasant place, are as clear as daylight for the king, Luma.
An adab to Bau for Luma (Luma A): c.2.3.1
You have given a lofty name to Luma, the king …… by An, you have spoken to him with friendly words. Bau, you have given a lofty name to Luma, the king …… by An, you have spoken to him with friendly words. Lady who loves his city, you have made him pre-eminent; Bau, lady who loves his city, you have made him pre-eminent. In the holy place you have treated the king graciously.
A tigi to Bau for Gudea (Gudea A): c.2.3.2
My lady, gracious woman, child of holy An, adorned with attractiveness, Enlil's beloved one, who is imbued with great fearsomeness and issues from the interior of heaven, the cherished lady of the gods. Bau, gracious woman, child of holy An, adorned with attractiveness, Enlil's beloved one, who is imbued with great fearsomeness and issues from the midst of heaven, the cherished lady of the gods.
A tigi to Bau for Gudea (Gudea A): c.2.3.2
My lady, you have brought the divine powers from the interior of heaven. Your own father, An, the king, has presented you with perfect divine powers, so you inspire respect among the Anuna gods. Bau, you have brought the divine powers from the midst of heaven. Your own father, An the king, has presented you with perfect divine powers, so you inspire respect among the Anuna gods.
A tigi to Bau for Gudea (Gudea A): c.2.3.2
After you had chosen the shepherd in the assembly for his attractiveness, you recognised him in ……, his lofty place, gave him ……, and ……. Bau, after you had chosen Gudea for his attractiveness in the divine assembly, you recognised him in ……, his lofty place, gave him ……, and …….
A tigi to Bau for Gudea (Gudea A): c.2.3.2
My lady, imbued with great fearsomeness, ……, Lord Ninĝirsu has looked at you approvingly. He …… you with allure and has made your …… table in the E-tar-sirsir lavishly famous. Bau, imbued with great fearsomeness, ……, Lord Ninĝirsu has looked at you approvingly. He …… you with allure and has made your …… table in the E-tar-sirsir lavishly famous.
A tigi to Bau for Gudea (Gudea A): c.2.3.2
You are the lady who renders verdicts, who decrees judgments and ……. You are the righteous one among the gods, the wife of the warrior. Bau, you are cherished in the heaven and on the earth. Bau, you are the lady who renders verdicts, who decrees judgments and ……. You are the righteous one among the gods, the wife of the warrior. Bau, you are cherished in heaven and on earth.
A tigi to Bau for Gudea (Gudea A): c.2.3.2
My lady, you have looked up in the divine assembly and …… him (?) with charms. You have chosen with your heart a worthy man, the true shepherd Gudea. Mother Bau, he will duly praise you in your city, Lagaš! Bau, you have looked up in the divine assembly and …… him (?) with charms. You have chosen with your heart a worthy man, the true shepherd, Gudea. Mother Bau, he will duly praise you in your city, Lagaš!
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
…… entire land ……, …… struck, the palace was devastated. …… panic spread rapidly among the dwellings of the black-headed people. …… abandoned places …… in Sumer. …… the cities were destroyed in their entirety; the people were seized with panic. Evil came upon Urim and made the trustworthy shepherd pass away. It made Ur-Namma, the trustworthy shepherd, pass away; it made the trustworthy shepherd pass away.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
Because An had altered his holy words completely, …… became empty, and because, deceitfully, Enlil had completely changed the fate he decreed, Ninmaḫ began a lament in her ……. Enki shut (?) the great door of Eridug. Nudimmud withdrew into his bedchamber and lay down fasting. At his zenith, Nanna frowned at the …… words of An. Utu did not come forth in the sky, and the day was full of sorrow.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
The mother, miserable because of her son, the mother of the king, holy Ninsumun, was crying: "Oh my heart!". Because of the fate decreed for Ur-Namma, because it made the trustworthy shepherd pass away, she was weeping bitterly in the broad square, which is otherwise a place of entertainment. Sweet sleep did not come to the people whose happiness ……; they passed their time in lamentation over the trustworthy shepherd who had been snatched away.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
As the early flood was filling the canals, their canal-inspector was already silenced (?); the mottled barley grown on the arable lands, the life of the land, was inundated. To the farmer, the fertile fields planted (?) by him yielded little. Enkimdu, the lord of levees and ditches, took away the levees and ditches from Urim. (1 line fragmentary)As the intelligence and …… of the Land were lost, fine food became scarce. The plains did not grow lush grass any more, they grew the grass of mourning. The cows ……, their …… cattle-pen has been destroyed. The calves …… their cows bleated bitterly.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
The wise shepherd …… does not give orders any more. …… in battle and combat. The king, the advocate of Sumer, the ornament of the assembly, Ur-Namma, the advocate of Sumer, the ornament of the assembly, the leader of Sumer, …… lies sick. His hands which used to grasp cannot grasp any more, he lies sick. His feet …… cannot step any more, he lies sick. (1 line fragmentary)The trustworthy shepherd, king, the sword of Sumer, Ur-Namma, the king of the Land, was taken to the …… house. He was taken to Urim; the king of the Land was brought into the …… house. The proud one lay in his palace. Ur-Namma, he who was beloved by the troops, could not raise his neck any more. The wise one …… lay down; silence descended. As he, who was the vigour of the Land, had fallen, the Land became demolished like a mountain; like a cypress forest it was stripped, its appearance changed. As if he were a boxwood tree, they put axes against him in his joyous dwelling place. As if he were a sappy cedar tree, he was uprooted in the palace where he used to sleep (?). His spouse …… resting place; …… was covered by a storm; it embraced it like a wife her sweetheart (?). His appointed time had arrived, and he passed away in his prime.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
His (?) pleasing sacrifices were no longer accepted; they were treated as dirty (?). The Anuna gods refused his gifts. An did not stand by an "It is enough", and he could not complete his (?) days. Because of what Enlil ordered, there was no more rising up; his beloved men lost their wise one. Strangers turned into (?) ……. How iniquitously Ur-Namma was abandoned, like a broken jar! His …… with grandeur like (?) thick clouds (?). He does not …… any more, and he does not reach out for ……." …… Ur-Namma, alas, what is it to me?" Ur-Namma, the son of Ninsumun, was brought to Arali, the pre-eminent place of the Land, in his prime. The soldiers accompanying the king shed tears: their boat (i.e. Ur-Namma) was sunk in a land as foreign to them as Dilmun. …… was cut. It was stripped of the oars, punting poles and rudder which it had. ……; its bolt was broken off. …… was put aside; it stood (?) in saltpetre. His donkeys were to be found with the king; they were buried with him. His donkeys were to be found with Ur-Namma; they were buried with him. As he crossed over the …… of the Land, the Land was deprived of its ornament. The journey to the nether world is a desolate route. Because of the king, the chariots were covered over, the roads were thrown into disorder, no one could go up and down on them. Because of Ur-Namma, the chariots were covered over, the roads were thrown into disorder, no one could go up and down on them.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
He presented gifts to the seven chief porters of the nether world. As the famous kings who had died and the dead išib priests, lumaḫ priests, and nindiĝir priestesses, all chosen by extispicy, announced the king's coming to the people, a tumult arose in the nether world. As they announced Ur-Namma's coming to the people, a tumult arose in the nether world. The king slaughtered numerous bulls and sheep, Ur-Namma seated the people at a huge banquet. The food of the nether world is bitter, the water of the nether world is brackish. The trustworthy shepherd knew well the rites of the nether world, so the king presented the offerings of the nether world, Ur-Namma presented the offerings of the nether world: as many faultless bulls, faultless kids, and fattened sheep as could be brought.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
To Nergal, the Enlil of the nether world, in his palace, the shepherd Ur-Namma offered a mace, a large bow with quiver and arrows, an artfully made barbed dagger, and a multicoloured leather bag for wearing at the hip.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
To Gilgameš, the king of the nether world, in his palace, the shepherd Ur-Namma offered a spear, a leather bag for a saddle-hook, a heavenly lion-headed imitum mace, a shield resting on the ground, a heroic weapon, and a battle-axe, an implement beloved of Ereškigala.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
To Ereškigala, the mother of Ninazu, in her palace, the shepherd Ur-Namma offered a …… which he filled with oil, a šaĝan bowl of perfect make, a heavy garment, a long-fleeced garment, a queenly pala robe, …… the divine powers of the nether world.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
To Namtar, who decrees all the fates, in his palace, the shepherd Ur-Namma offered perfectly wrought jewellery, a golden ring cast (?) as a …… barge, pure cornelian stone fit to be worn on the breasts of the gods.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
To the valiant warrior Ninĝišzida, in his palace, the shepherd Ur-Namma offered a chariot with …… wheels sparkling with gold, …… donkeys, thoroughbreds, …… donkeys with dappled thighs, ……, followed …… by a shepherd and a herdsman. To { Dimpimekug } { (1 ms. has instead:) Dimpikug }, who stands by his side, he gave a lapis-lazuli seal hanging from a pin, and a gold and silver toggle-pin with a bison's head.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
To his spouse, Ninazimua, the august scribe, denizen of Arali, in her palace, the shepherd Ur-Namma offered a headdress with the august ear-pieces (?) of a sage, made of alabaster, a …… stylus, the hallmark of the scribe, a surveyor's gleaming line, and the measuring rod …….
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
To ……, the great …… of the nether world, he gave (2 lines fragmentary)
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
After the king had presented properly the offerings of the nether world, after Ur-Namma had presented properly the offerings of the nether world, the …… of the underworld, the ……, seated Ur-Namma on a great dais of the nether world and set up a dwelling place for him in the nether world. At the command of Ereškigala all the soldiers who had been killed by weapons and all the men who had been found guilty were given into the king's hands. Ur-Namma was ……, so with Gilgameš, his beloved brother, he will issue the judgments of the nether world and render the decisions of the nether world.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
After seven days, 10 days had passed, lamenting for Sumer overwhelmed my king, lamenting for Sumer overwhelmed Ur-Namma. My king's heart was full of tears, he …… bitterly that he could not complete the wall of Urim; that he could no longer enjoy the new palace he had built; that he, the shepherd, could no longer …… his household (?); that he could no longer bring pleasure to his wife with his embrace; that he could not bring up his sons on his knees; that he would never see in their prime the beauty of their little sisters who had not yet grown up.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
The trustworthy shepherd …… a heart-rending lament for himself: "I, who have been treated like this, served the gods well, set up chapels for them. I have created evident abundance for the Anuna gods. I have laid treasures on their beds strewn with fresh herbs. Yet no god stood by me and soothed my heart. Because of them, anything that could have been a favourable portent for me was as far away from me as the heavens, the ……. What is my reward for my eagerness to serve during the days? My days have been finished for serving them sleeplessly during the night! Now, just as the rain pouring down from heaven cannot turn back, alas, nor can I turn back to brick-built Urim."
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
"Alas, my wife has become a widow (?)! She spends the days in tears and bitter laments. My strength has ebbed away ……. The hand of the fate demon …… bitterly me, the hero. Like a wild bull ……, I cannot ……. Like a mighty bull, ……. Like an offshoot ……. Like an ass ……, I died. …… my …… wife ……. She spends the days in tears and bitter laments. Her kind protective god has left her; her kind protective goddess does not care for her any more. Ninsumun no longer rests her august arm firmly on her head. Nanna, Lord Ašimbabbar, no longer leads (?) her by the hand. Enki, the lord of Eridug, does not ……. Her …… has been silenced (?), she can no longer answer. She is cast adrift like a boat in a raging storm; the mooring pole has not been strong enough for her. Like a wild ass lured (?) into a perilous pit she has been treated heavy-handedly. Like a lion fallen into a pitfall, a guard has been set up for her. Like a dog kept in a cage, she is silenced. Utu …… does not pay heed to the cries "Oh my king" overwhelming her."
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
"My tigi, adab, flute and zamzam songs have been turned into laments because of me. The instruments of the house of music have been propped against the wall. Because I have been made to …… in a soil-filled pit instead of my throne whose beauty was endless; because I have been made to lie down in the open, desolate steppe instead of my bed, the sleeping place whose …… was endless, alas, my wife and my children are in tears and wailing. My people whom I used to command (?) sing like lamentation and dirge singers because of her (?). While I was so treated, foremost Inana, the warlike lady, was not present at my verdict. Enlil had sent her as a messenger to all the foreign lands concerning very important matters."
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
When she had turned her gaze away from there, Inana humbly entered the shining E-kur, she …… at Enlil's fierce brow. (Then Enlil said:) "Great lady of the E-ana, once someone has bowed down, he cannot …… (?) any more; the trustworthy shepherd left E-ana, you cannot see him any more." My lady …… among the people { …… } { (1 ms. has instead:) like …… }. Then Inana, the fierce storm, the eldest child of Suen, ……, made the heavens tremble, made the earth shake. Inana destroyed cattle-pens, devastated sheepfolds, saying: "I want to hurl insults at An, the king of the gods: Who can change the matter, if Enlil elevates someone? Who can change the import of the august words uttered by An, the king? If there are divine ordinances imposed on the Land, but they are not observed, there will be no abundance at the gods's place of sunrise. My holy ĝipar, the shrine E-ana, has been barred up { like (?) a mountain } { (some mss. have instead:) like the heavens }. If only my shepherd could enter before me in it in his prime -- { I will not enter it otherwise! } { (some mss. have instead:) Why should I enter it otherwise? } If only my strong one could grow for me like greenery in the desert. If only he could hold steady for me like a river boat at its calm mooring." This is how Inana { gave vent (?) to a lament over him } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… Ur-Namma …… }
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
Lord Ninĝišzida ……. Ur-Namma, my …… who was killed, (1 line fragmentary)Among tears and laments, …… decreed a fate for Ur-Namma: "Ur-Namma ……, your august name will be called upon. From the south to the uplands, …… the holy sceptre. Sumer …… to your palace. The people will admire …… the canals which you have dug, the …… which you have ……, the large and grand arable tracts which you have ……, the reedbeds which you have drained, the wide barley fields which you ……, and the fortresses and settlements which you have ……. Ur-Namma, they will call upon …… your name. Lord Nunamnir, surpassing ……, will drive away the evil spirits ……"
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
After shepherd Ur-Namma ……, Nanna, Lord Ašimbabbar, ……, Enki, the king of Eridug ……. { …… devastated sheepfolds …… } { (the other ms. has instead:) …… the foremost, the flood …… }. { …… holy ……, lion born on high } { (the other ms. has instead:) …… basket (?) …… }. …… your city; renders just judgments. ……, Lord Ninĝišzida be praised! My king …… among tears and laments; …… among tears and laments.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
The mother, wretched (?) because of her son, …… the mother of the king, holy Ninsumun, was crying: "Oh my heart!". She was weeping bitterly in the broad square, which is otherwise a place of entertainment, that the fate of Ur-Namma had been overturned and that the trustworthy shepherd had been made to pass away. She spent the day in lamentation over the trustworthy shepherd who had been snatched away. Sweet sleep did not (?) come to the people whose happiness had come to an end.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
As the early flood was filling the canals, their canal-inspector ……. The mottled barley come forth on the arable lands, the life of the land, ……. To the farmer, the fertile fields ……. Enkimdu, the lord of levees and ditches, ……. …… its numerous people ……. …… of the Land ……. The plains …… fine grass ……. …… heavy cows …… (approx. 4 lines missing)
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
Ur-Namma ……. His hands which used to grasp, cannot ……. His feet which used to tread, ……. (1 line unclear)The trustworthy shepherd, the king, the …… of Sumer, Ur-Namma, ……. As he himself was going to Urim, Ur-Namma …… house. The proud one lying in the palace, Ur-Namma, who …… by the troops (?), ……. He could not rise any more, the wise one of the countries lay down; silence ……. As he, who was the vigour of the Land, has fallen, the land became demolished like a mountain. As he, a cypress forest, was felled, the state of the Land became confused. As he, the cedar tree of the Land, was uprooted, the state of the Land became altered. Axes (?) were set against him, a boxwood tree, in his joyous dwelling place. His appointed time arrived, and he passed away in his prime.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
His (?) pleasing sacrifices were no longer accepted; they were treated as dirty (?). The Anuna gods did not reach out for his gifts any more. …… did not stand by an "It is enough", his (?) days were not prolonged. ……, there was no more rising up. Ur-Namma, a broken jar, was abandoned at ……. (3 lines unclear) "……, what is it to me?" (approx. 5 lines missing)
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
(3 lines unclear) …… the bolt ……. …… sat (?) in saltpetre. ……, the roads were thrown into disorder, no one could go up and down on them; ……, the roads were thrown into disorder, no one could go up and down on them. …… is a long route. …… the way ……. …… the journey to the nether world …….
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
…… gifts ……. …… chief porters ……. …… who died ……, …… dead nindiĝir priestesses, chosen by extispicy, (1 line unclear)…… raised a tumult ……; …… raised a tumult ……. The king knew well the rites of the nether world, Ur-Namma knew well the rites of the nether world: so he brought magnificent bulls, faultless kids, and fattened sheep.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
To Nergal, the Enlil of the nether world, in his palace, the shepherd Ur-Namma offered a mace, a large bow with quiver and arrows, a large barbed dagger, and a multicoloured leather bag for wearing at the hip.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
To Gilgameš, the king of the nether world, in his palace, the shepherd Ur-Namma offered a spear, a leather bag for (?) the saddle-hook ……, a heavenly lion-headed mitum mace, a shield resting on the ground, and a battle-axe, an implement beloved of Ereškigala.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
To …… Ninazimua, …… denizen of Arali, and to Ĝeštin-ana, the king's sister, in her palace, the shepherd Ur-Namma offered a ……, the hallmark of the scribe, ……, a peg and the measuring rod …….
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
To Dimpimekug, who stands at the right and the left (?), the shepherd Ur-Namma …… and offered in her (?) palace a golden and silver toggle-pin with a bison's head, and a lapis-lazuli seal with a golden edge and a pin of refined silver.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
To ……, the great ensi of the nether world he brought the magnificent bulls, faultless kids, and fattened sheep that he had; in his palace the shepherd Ur-Namma offered them.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
After the offerings were presented to the great …… of the underworld, the Anuna, they (?) seated Ur-Namma on a great dais of the nether world and set up a dwelling place for him in the nether world. At the command of Ereškigala, with (?) Gilgameš, his beloved brother, he will pass the judgments of the nether world and render the …… decisions concerning (?) all the men who fell by weapons and all the men who …… guilty.
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
After five days, 10 days had passed, lamenting for Sumer overwhelmed my king, lamenting for Sumer overwhelmed Ur-Namma. As he could not complete the wall of Urim; as he could no longer enjoy the new palace he had built; as he, the shepherd, could no longer protect (?) his household; as he could no longer bring pleasure to his wife with his embrace; as he could not bring up his sons on his knees; as he would never see in their prime the beauty of their little sisters, who are yet to grow up, the trustworthy shepherd uttered a heart-rending lament for himself: "I, who have experienced, who have experienced fear, …… for the great gods, I have set up chapels for them. I have created evident abundance for the Anuna gods. I have …… treasures to their …… shining thrones. …… a favourable portent for me, was …… as the nether world or the heavens ……. (1 line fragmentary) (approx. 7 lines missing)"
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
"…… guard ……. …… silence ……. …… adab, flute and zamzam songs …… laments. …… have been propped against the wall. Because I have been made to sit on …… whose beauty was endless; because I have been made to fall in …… was endless, (1 line fragmentary)Maiden Inana, the warlike lady, ……. Enlil had sent her as a messenger to all the great mountains."
The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A): c.2.4.1.1
When she had turned her gaze away from there, the trustworthy shepherd had left the E-ana, and she (?) could not see him any more. She …… at Enlil's fierce brow. Antagonistically (?) she insulted An, the king of the gods: "When An, the king speaks, his words cannot be changed! …… Ur-Namma ……. There will be no …… at the gods' place of sunrise. …… holy ĝipar, shrine E-ana ……. …… not enter ……."
A tigi to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma B): c.2.4.1.2
Exalted Enlil, …… fame ……, lord who …… his great princedom, Nunamnir, king of heaven and earth ……, looked around among the people. The Great Mountain Enlil chose Ur-Namma the good shepherd from the multitude of people: "Let him be the shepherd of Nunamnir!" He made him emanate (?) fierce awesomeness.
A tigi to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma B): c.2.4.1.2
The divine plans of brick-built E-kur were drawn up. The Great Mountain Enlil made up his mind, filled with pure and useful thoughts, to make them shine like the sun in the E-kur, his august shrine. He instructed the shepherd Ur-Namma to make the E-kur rise high; the king made him the mightiest in the Land, he made him the first among the people. The good shepherd Ur-Namma, …… whose trust in Nunamnir is enduring, the knowledgeable judge, the lord of great wisdom, prepared the brick mould. Enlil brought order in his rebellious and hostile lands for the shepherd Ur-Namma, and made Sumer flourish in joy, in days filled with prosperity. The foundations were laid down firmly and the holy foundation pegs were driven in. The enkum and ninkum priests praised it duly and Enki made the temple rejoice with his artful incantations.
A tigi to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma B): c.2.4.1.2
The shepherd Ur-Namma made the lofty E-kur grow high in Dur-an-ki. He made it to be wondered by the multitude of people. He made glittering the eyebrow-shaped arches of the Lofty Gate, the Great Gate, the Gate of Peace, the Ḫursaĝ-galama and the Gate of Perpetual Grain Supplies, by covering them with refined silver. The Anzud bird runs there and an eagle seizes enemies in its claws (?). Its doors are lofty; he filled them with joy. The temple is lofty, it is surrounded with fearsome radiance. It is spread wide, it awakes great awesomeness. Within it, he made the Ḫursaĝ-galama, the raised temple (?), the holy dwelling stand fast for the Great Mountain like a lofty tower (?).
A tigi to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma B): c.2.4.1.2
In the Gagiššua of the great palace, where she renders verdicts with grandeur, he made the great mother Ninlil glad. Enlil and Ninlil relished it there. In its great dining hall, the trustworthy hero chosen by Nunamnir made them enjoy a magnificent meal: the E-kur was rejoicing. They looked with approval at the shepherd Ur-Namma, and the Great Mountain decreed a great destiny for Ur-Namma for all time, making him the mightiest among his black-headed people.
A tigi to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma B): c.2.4.1.2
"I am Nunamnir, whose firm commands and decisions are immutable! You have made my lofty E-kur shine gloriously, you have raised it high with a brilliant crenellation. Trustworthy hero, you have made it shine gloriously in the Land. Ur-Namma, mighty lord, may your (?) kingship be unparalleled, may your fame spread to heaven's borders, as far as the foot of the mountains!"
A tigi to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma B): c.2.4.1.2
"I am the Great Mountain, Father Enlil, whose firm commands and decisions are immutable! You have made my lofty E-kur shine gloriously, you have raised it high with a brilliant crenellation. Trustworthy hero, you have made it shine gloriously in the Land. Ur-Namma, mighty lord, may your (?) kingship be unparalleled, may your fame spread to heaven's borders, as far as the foot of the mountains!"
A tigi to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma B): c.2.4.1.2
Lord Nunamnir gave to my king the lofty mace which heaps up human heads like piles of dust in the hostile foreign countries and smashes the rebellious lands; he gave to the shepherd Ur-Namma the lofty mace which heaps up human heads like piles of dust in the hostile foreign countries and smashes the rebellious lands, so now he beats down the foreign lands and tramples them underfoot. Lord Nunamnir gave it to the shepherd Ur-Namma, so now he beats down the foreign lands and tramples them underfoot.
A tigi to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma B): c.2.4.1.2
He destroys the cities of the wicked, and with heavy oppression he turns (?) them into haunted places. The shepherd Ur-Namma destroys the cities of the wicked, and with heavy oppression he turns (?) them into haunted places. He has a terrible fame in the houses of the rebellious lands, his storming …… the wicked. The shepherd Ur-Namma has a terrible fame in the houses of the rebellious lands, his storming …… the wicked.
A tigi to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma B): c.2.4.1.2
He has made the royal dais stand firmly, he has made Urim resplendent. The shepherd Ur-Namma has made it exude awesomeness, and he, as king of the Land, has lifted his head high there. All this was granted to him in the place of his king, Enlil: a fate was decreed and then it was duly fulfilled. There is now joy and abundance in Urim because (?) of Ur-Namma.
A praise poem of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma C): c.2.4.1.3
City of the finest divine powers, lofty royal throne-dais! Shrine Urim, pre-eminent in Sumer, built in a pure place! City, your well-founded great wall has grown out of the abzu! City, beautiful as the sky, endowed with beauty, colourfully decorated in a great place! Shrine Urim, well-founded ĝipar, dwelling of An and Enlil! Your lofty palace is the E-kiš-nu-ĝal, in which the fates are determined! Your pilasters heavy with radiance tower over all the countries! Its terrace like a white cloud is a spectacle in the midst of heaven. Its …… like flashing lightning shines (?) inside a shrine. Like a single bull under the yoke, ……. Suen's beloved pure table; E-kiš-nu-ĝal, Suen's beloved pure table. The king, ornament of the royal offering place, occupies the august courtyard; Ur-Namma the exalted, whom no one dare oppose, ……. Urim, the wide city ……. (1 line unclear)
A praise poem of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma C): c.2.4.1.3
……, the authoritative, praised himself exultantly: Under Ur-Namma, king of Urim, for whom a favorable destiny was determined, the roads have been made passable. An opens his holy mouth, and because of me rain is produced. He directs it downward into the earth, and abundance is brought for me. Enlil treats me kindly, ……. Enki treats me kindly, bestowing early floods, grain and dappled barley. Nintur formed me; I am peerless. …… brought me up well; I am the king of the Land. I am ……; under my rule the cattle-pens and sheepfolds are extended wide. Utu endowed me with eloquence (?); my judgments create concord in Sumer and Akkad. Ningublaga has given me strength. In the whole extent of heaven and earth, no one can escape from a battle with me.
A praise poem of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma C): c.2.4.1.3
I am Ur-Namma, king of Urim, the protecting genius of my city. I strike against those guilty of capital offences, and make them tremble. The fear I cause ……. My judgments make Sumer and Akkad follow a single path. I place my foot on the necks of thieves and criminals. I clamp down on evildoers, who will be caught like snakes. I …… fugitives, and their intentions will be set right. I make justice apparent; I defeat wickedness. As if I were fire, even my frowning is enough to create concord. My word ……. …… the lands, the foreign countries …… Urim ……. Their food offerings make Nanna rejoice in E-kiš-nu-ĝal.
A praise poem of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma C): c.2.4.1.3
After my seed had been poured into the holy womb, Suen, loving its appearance (?), made it partake of Nanna's attractiveness. Coming forth over the Land like Utu, Enlil called me by an auspicious name, and Nintur assisted at my birth. As I came forth from the womb of my mother Ninsumun, a favorable allotted destiny was determined for me.
A praise poem of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma C): c.2.4.1.3
In me, Ur-Namma, the lands of Sumer and Akkad have their protecting genius. I am a source of joy for the Land; my life indeed creates! ……, the fields are resplendent (?) under my rule. In the fields growing with ……, …… did not multiply under my rule. In the desert, the roads are made up as for a festival, and are passable because of me. The owner of the fields ……; it rises (?) up to his chest. I have freed the sons of the poor from their duty of going to fetch firewood.
A praise poem of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma C): c.2.4.1.3
I, Ur-Namma, born on high, …… shining. The people line up in front of me. Enlil has given me the task of keeping the Land secure, with unscathed (?) troops. I am clad in linen in the ĝipar. I lie down on the splendid bed in its delightful bedchamber. I cause the people to eat splendid food; I am their Enkimdu (i.e. the god of irrigation and cultivation). I am the good shepherd whose sheep multiply greatly. I open the …… of the cattle-pens and sheepfolds. I am peerless. …… the pastures and watering-places of shepherds (?).
A praise poem of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma C): c.2.4.1.3
Since I have been adorned (?) with their rulership, no one imposes taxes on my abundant crops which grow tall. My commands bring about (?) joy in the great fortresses of the mountains. The joy of my city and the territory (?) of Sumer delights me. I release water into the canals of Sumer, making the trees grow tall on their banks. I have lifted the yoke of its male prostitutes. (1 line unclear)
A praise poem of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma C): c.2.4.1.3
I returned …… to Urim. I made …… return (?) to his country …… like ……. I loaded its grain on barges, I delivered it to its storehouses. I returned its …… citizens to their (?) homes. I …… their earth-baskets. I …… the savage hands of the Gutians, the ……. After I had made the evil-doers return (?) to their ……, I restored (?) the walls that had been torn down; my outstanding mind ……. …… the shrine of Urim ……. I am the foremost workman (?) of Enlil; I am the one who …… food offerings. (7 lines fragmentary or missing)
A praise poem of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma C): c.2.4.1.3
…… at a banquet with me in the city. …… joyful dance ……. I have brought abundance to Enlil's temple on the king's canal: I have directed ships both to Kar-ĝeština of Enlil and to the lapis-lazuli quay of Nanna. Alcohol and syrup have been poured out before Enlil. To me, the shepherd Ur-Namma, let life be given as a reward! For Nanna, my master, I have built his temple; as if it were a verdant hillside, I have set up the E-kiš-nu-ĝal in a great place. I have surrounded (?) its terrace with a gold and lapis-lazuli fence.
A praise poem of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma C): c.2.4.1.3
I am the creature of Nanna! I am the older brother of Gilgameš! I am the son borne by Ninsumun, a princely seed! For me, kingship came down from heaven! Sweet is the praise of me, the shepherd Ur-Namma!
Ur-Namma the canal-digger (Ur-Namma D): c.2.4.1.4
……, …… Ašimbabbar you are on your …… because of Enlil. The watercourse of …… is full of fish, and the air above is full of birds. The fresh water of …… is full of fish, the air above is full of birds. …… honey-plants are planted, and the carp grow fat. …… honey-plants are planted, and the carp grow fat. The gizi reed of …… is so sweet that the fish eat them. The gizi reed of …… is so sweet that the fish eat them. Since my …… was founded, it is teeming with fish and birds. Since …… was founded, it is teeming with fish and birds.
Ur-Namma the canal-digger (Ur-Namma D): c.2.4.1.4
Who will dig it? Who will dig it? Who will dig the canal? Who will dig the Keše-kug canal? Who will dig the canal? Who will dig the Pabi-luḫ canal? Who will dig the canal? Wealthy Ur-Namma will dig it. The trustworthy, prosperous youth will dig it.
Ur-Namma the canal-digger (Ur-Namma D): c.2.4.1.4
My king, Lord Ašimbabbar, you are on your throne because of Enlil. Youthful Suen, Lord Ašimbabbar, you are on your throne because of Enlil. I, the king, whose fate was already decreed in the true womb, who raises his head in authority, Ur-Namma, the youth who caught the eyes of the Great Mountain Enlil, was chosen by Nunamnir in Sumer and Akkad. He decreed my fate in Nibru, in the mountain of life. He beamed at me approvingly and bestowed the kingship on me. In Urim, in the E-mud-kura, he made the foundation of my throne firm. He …… the holy sceptre to guide the numerous people in my hand. He …… the staff and the shepherd's crook to …… the expanding and teeming people. Lord Ašimbabbar …… a long-lasting life. Enlil …… of the four quarters of the world. He …… a lasting name, a name worthy to be praised. Enki presented me with my broad wisdom.
Ur-Namma the canal-digger (Ur-Namma D): c.2.4.1.4
ln my city I dug a canal of abundance and named it the Keše-kug canal; in Urim, I dug a canal of abundance and named it the Keše-kug canal. I named it the Pabi-luḫ canal, a lasting name worthy to be praised. The watercourse of my city is full of fish, and the air above it is full of birds. The watercourse of Urim is full of fish, and the air above it is full of birds. In my city honey-plants are planted, and the carp grow fat. In Urim honey-plants are planted, and the carp grow fat. The gizi reed of my city is so sweet that the cows eat them. The gizi reed of Urim is so sweet that the cows eat them. Since my ……, it is teeming with fish and birds. In Urim ……. May the watercourse bring them (the fish) into my canal, may they be carried in baskets to him. May the watercourse bring them into Urim, into my canal, may they be carried in baskets to him.
Ur-Namma the canal-digger (Ur-Namma D): c.2.4.1.4
(unknown no. of lines missing) (1 line fragmentary)Who will dig it? Who will dig the …… canal? Who will dig the canal? Who will dig the Ĝisala-ĝara canal? Who will dig the canal? Wealthy Ur-Namma will dig it. Who will dig the canal? Prosperous Šulgi will dig it. Who will dig the canal?
Ur-Namma the canal-digger (Ur-Namma D): c.2.4.1.4
I, the king, whose fate was already decreed in the true womb, who raises his head in authority, Ur-Namma, the youth who caught the eyes of the Great Mountain Enlil, was chosen by Nunamnir in Sumer and Akkad. He decreed my fate in Nibru, in the mountain of life. In Urim, in the E-mud-kura, he made the foundation of my throne firm. He placed the awesome crown, the adornment of kingship, on my head. He put (?) the holy staff to guide the numerous people in my hand. He …… the staff, the shepherd's crook into my hand, and the nose-rope to lead the living. He …… the amazing house ……. (2 lines fragmentary) (1 line missing) …… strengthened the roots of E-kiš-nu-ĝal, ……, E-temen-ni-guru, a delightful residence. (1 line unclear)…… standing in silver …….
Ur-Namma the canal-digger (Ur-Namma D): c.2.4.1.4
……, and I named it the Keše-kug canal. I named it the Pabi-luḫ canal, a lasting name worthy to be praised. The watercourse of my city is full of fish, and the air above it is full of birds. The city of the Keše-kug canal is full of fish, and the air above it is full of birds. The watercourse of the Pabi-luḫ canal is full of fish, and the air above it is full of birds. Its abundance brings fish and birds for me to the E-kiš-nu-ĝal. Its banks are lush with licorice, a honey-sweet plant to eat. Its arable tracts grow fine grain sprouting abundantly like a forest.
A šir-namšub (?) to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma E): c.2.4.1.5
Those who leave through your gate are an uncontrollable flood. Shrine Urim, your interior is a mountain of abundance, your exterior a hill of plenty. No one can learn the interior of the E-kiš-nu-ĝal, the artfully fashioned mountain. Your place of marvel is …… of cedar, your name makes the Land rejoice. Your lord is the one called as the beautiful lord, the child of Ninsumun, the ornament of all the lands. Urim, your great divine power is the gods's shackle on the Land. Your name be praised indeed!
A šir-namšub (?) to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma E): c.2.4.1.5
Your gate is the blue sky imbued with fearsomeness; only when it is open does Utu illuminate from the horizon. Your platform is where the fates are determined by the gods; you make just decisions. Your name be praised indeed!
A šir-namšub (?) to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma E): c.2.4.1.5
In your interior, the evildoer dare not lay hold of the holy statutes. E-kiš-nu-ĝal, the evil-doer cannot even come to know your interior, which is a dragon. House, your terrace …… Enlil …… your offerings. At your Dubla-maḫ, the place where the fates are determined, the great gods determine the fates. Worthy of the E-temen-ni-guru, born ……, your name be praised indeed!
A šir-namšub (?) to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma E): c.2.4.1.5
The beautiful lord …… the true shepherd Ur-Namma, …… Urim ……. The silent house …… like Utu. Your name be praised indeed! Ur-Namma ……, adorned with a lapis lazuli beard …….
A šir-namšub (?) to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma E): c.2.4.1.5
In his pure heart Ašimbabbar has chosen Ur-Namma, the king endowed with allure, the radiance covering the nation. Wickedness cannot pass unnoticed before his eyes. Ur-Namma has accomplished an achievement, justice! The king, who knows (?) the spreading branches, Ur-Namma acts (?) as constable. The eloquent one of the lord, who knows (?) the spreading branches, Ur-Namma acts (?) as constable. The king, Ur-Namma, refreshes himself at the house of Suen.
A šir-namšub (?) to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma E): c.2.4.1.5
She has determined a fate for the king, for the Tigris and the Euphrates and for Ur-Namma. Its lady, the lady of possessions, the lady of ……, has determined a fate for Ur-Namma. The woman of the princely seed has treated him kindly. Ur-Namma …….
A šir-namšub to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma F): c.2.4.1.6
Imbued with allure from the shining rooftops, Urim, your foundation rests on abundance. City, your lord rides high in joy, Ur-Namma rides high indeed; the one adorned with a lapis-lazuli beard rides high indeed! He is the tallest among all the lords, appearing as the noblest among them.
A šir-namšub to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma F): c.2.4.1.6
Those who leave through your gate are an uncontrollable flood. Shrine Urim, your interior is a mountain of abundance, your exterior a hill of plenty. No one can learn the interior of the E-kiš-nu-ĝal, the artfully fashioned hill. Your temple is a shimmering mountain; your very name is merciful. Your lord is the one called as the beautiful lord, the child of Ninsumun, the ornament of all the lands.
A šir-namšub to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma F): c.2.4.1.6
House, your great divine power is the shackle of the gods put on the Land. Your gate is named by your god, the beautiful god; only when it is is open does Utu illuminate from the horizon. Your platform, the place where the fates are determined by the gods, in order to make just decisions, is where the Anuna, the gods of heaven and earth, take counsel.
A šir-namšub to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma F): c.2.4.1.6
Your …… makes (?) the faithful woman joyous, the father proud. In your interior the evildoer dare not lay hold of the holy statutes. House whose offerings of the temple terrace devastate the rebel lands. At your Dubla-maḫ, the place where the fates are determined, the great gods determine the fates. Suen chose Sumer and Akkad, the black-headed people, and Ur-Namma in his heart.
A šir-namšub to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma F): c.2.4.1.6
Let me give praise to the king endowed with allure, the radiance covering the nation, Lord Ur-Namma! In his heart Ašimbabbar has chosen Ur-Namma, Ur-Namma who is endowed with allure, the radiance covering the nation, placing thereby a shackle on all the lands and blocking the way with a strong bolt. The king is worthy of Suen! Wickedness cannot pass unnoticed before his eyes. Ur-Namma has accomplished an achievement, justice! He fills the wicked land with his battle-cry. The rebellious land is overthrown, Ur-Namma acts (?) as the constable.
A šir-namšub to Nanna for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma F): c.2.4.1.6
The shepherd Ur-Namma is elevated; in the house of Suen, he is the one adorned with a lapis lazuli beard. May he pass ……! …… is good, is sweet in its luxuriance. Like Ninlil who gives birth in a storm, child of Ninsumun, she has given birth to you. May holy An sit with the shepherd! …… with the shepherd Ur-Namma.
A balbale to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma G): c.2.4.1.7
(6 lines missing) Enlil …… to Ur-Namma. He bestowed on him (?) early floods, grain and speckled barley.
A balbale to Enlil for Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma G): c.2.4.1.7
My king, when you have finished with all the work on the fields of Enlil; Ur-Namma, when you have finished with all the work on the fields of Enlil, may the rains of heaven make the furrows that you laid out sprout abundantly. King, faithful farmer, you have …… the levees and ditches in the wide fields; Ur-Namma, faithful farmer, you have …… the levees and ditches on the wide fields. Like the rising Utu, the levees and ditches ……. My king, ……; Ur-Namma, ……. (2 lines missing) (2 lines fragmentary)
A praise poem of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma I): c.2.4.1.a
He is the …… of his god; all the foreign countries are full (?) of his fame. He carries out his plans, and Sumer is …… by his greatness. Utu marches before the king. (1 line unclear) (unknown no. of lines missing)
A praise poem of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma I): c.2.4.1.a
King, white meš tree growing in a pleasant spot in Urim, a shady canopy of numerous large branches facing the sky, years of abundance extending over all foreign countries for those who keep close (?) to your shade. An looks with favour at ……, …… with joy …….
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
I, the king, was a hero already in the womb; I, Šulgi, was born to be a mighty man. I am a fierce-looking lion, begotten by a dragon. I am the king of the four regions; I am the herdsman and shepherd of the black-headed people. I am a respected one, the god of all the lands.1
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
I am a child born of Ninsumun. I am the choice of holy An's heart. I am the man whose fate was decided by Enlil. I am Šulgi, the beloved of Ninlil. I am he who is cherished by Nintur. I am he who was endowed with wisdom by Enki. I am the powerful king of Nanna. I am the growling lion of Utu. I am Šulgi, who has been chosen by Inana for his attractiveness.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
I am a mule, most suitable for the road. I am a horse, whose tail waves on the highway. { I am a stallion of Šakkan, eager to run. } { (1 ms.:) I am a donkey of Šakkan, who loves running. }
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
I am a knowledgeable scribe of Nisaba; I have perfected my wisdom just as my heroism and { my strength } { (1 ms. has instead:) my distinction }. Reliable words can reach (?) me. I cherish righteousness but do not tolerate wickedness. I hate anyone who speaks wickedly.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
Because I am a powerful man who enjoys using his thighs, I, Šulgi, the mighty king, superior to all, strengthened (?) the roads, put in order the highways of the Land. I marked out the double-hour distances, built there lodging houses. { I planted gardens by their side and established resting-places } { (1 ms. has instead:) I established gardens (?) and resting-places by their side }, and installed in those places experienced men. Whichever direction one comes from, one can refresh oneself when the time is cool; and travellers and wayfarers who arrive at night can seek haven there as in a well-built city.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
So that my name should be established for distant days and never fall into oblivion, so that my praise should be { uttered } { (1 ms.:) spread } throughout the Land, and my glory should be proclaimed in the foreign lands, I, the fast runner, summoned my strength and, to prove my speed, my heart prompted me to make a return journey from Nibru to brick-built Urim as if it were only the distance of a double-hour.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
I, the lion, never failing in his vigour, standing firm in his strength, fastened the small niĝlam garment firmly to my hips. Like a pigeon anxiously fleeing from a …… snake, I spread my wings; like the Anzud bird lifting its gaze to the mountains, I stretched forward my legs. The inhabitants of the cities which I had founded in the Land lined up for me; the black-headed people, as numerous as ewes, looked at me with sweet admiration.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
I entered the E-kiš-nu-ĝal like a mountain kid hurrying to its habitation, when Utu spreads broad daylight over the countryside. I filled with abundance the temple of Suen, a cow-pen which yields plenty of fat. I had oxen slaughtered there; I had sheep { offered there lavishly } { (some mss.:) butchered there }. I had šem and ala drums resound there { and caused tigi drums play there sweetly. } { (1 ms. has instead the line:) I …… the balaĝ player (?). } I, Šulgi, who makes everything abundant, presented food-offerings there and, like a lion, spreading fearsomeness from (?) the royal offering-place, I bent down (?) and bathed in flowing water; I knelt down and feasted in the Egal-maḫ of Ninegala.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
Then I arose like an owl (?), like a falcon to return to Nibru in my vigour. But a storm shrieked, and the west wind whirled around. The north wind and the south wind howled at each other. Lightning together with the seven winds vied with each other in the heavens. Thundering storms made the earth quake, and Iškur roared in the broad heavens. { The rains of heaven mingled with the waters of the earth. } { (1 ms. has instead:) The rains of heaven competed with the waters of the earth. } Small and large hailstones drummed on my back.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
I, the king, however, did not fear, nor was I terrified. I rushed forth like a fierce lion. I galloped like an ass in the desert. With my heart full of joy, I ran (?) onward. Trotting like a solitary wild ass, I traversed a distance of fifteen double-hours by the time Utu was to set his face toward his house; { my saĝ-ursaĝ priests looked at me with admiration. } { (1 ms. has instead:) …… numerous (?) ……; I prayed in the …… of Enlil and Ninlil. } I celebrated the ešeš festival in both Nibru and Urim on the same day!
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
I drank beer in the palace founded by An with my brother and companion, the hero Utu. My singers praised me with songs accompanied by seven tigi drums. My spouse, the maiden Inana, the lady, the joy of heaven and earth, sat with me at the banquet.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
Truly I am not boasting! Wherever I look to, there I go; wherever my heart desires, I reach. { (1 ms. adds at least 10 lines:) By the life of my father holy Lugalbanda, and Nanna the king of heaven and earth, I swear that the words written on my tablet are ……. (at least 4 lines missing or unclear) …… since the days of yore, since ………, no king of Sumer as great as I has existed for the people. } An placed a { legitimate and lofty } { (some mss. have:) golden } { (1 ms. has:) good silver } { (1 ms. has:) silver } crown firmly on my head.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
In the lustrous E-kur, I seized the holy sceptre and I lifted my head towards heaven on a shining dais, a throne with firm foundation. I consolidated my kingship, subdued the foreign lands, fortified the Land. May my name be proclaimed among the well-guarded people of the four regions! May they praise it in holy hymns about me! May they glorify my majesty, saying:
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
"The one provided with lofty royal power; the one given heroism, power and happy life by Suen of the E-kiš-nu-ĝal; the one endowed with superior strength by Nunamnir; Šulgi, the destroyer of foreign lands, the fortifier of the Land, the purification priest of heaven and earth, who has no rival; { Šulgi, who is cared for by the respected child of An! }"
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi A): c.2.4.2.01
{ Nisaba be praised! } { (1 ms. has instead:) Šulgi, be praised (?) by An's respected son! }
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I am a king, offspring begotten by a king and borne by a queen. I, Šulgi the noble, have been blessed with a favourable destiny right from the womb. When I was small, I was at the academy, where I learned the scribal art from the tablets of Sumer and Akkad. None of the nobles could write on clay as I could. There where people regularly went for tutelage in the scribal art, I qualified fully in subtraction, addition, reckoning and accounting. The fair Nanibgal, Nisaba, provided me amply with knowledge and comprehension. I am an experienced scribe who does not neglect a thing.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
When I sprang up, muscular as a cheetah, galloping like a thoroughbred ass at full gallop, the favour of An brought me joy; to my delight Enlil spoke favourably about me, and they gave me the sceptre because of my righteousness. I place my foot on the neck of the foreign lands; the fame of my weapons is established as far as the south, and my victory is established in the highlands. When I set off for battle and strife to a place that Enlil has commanded me, I go ahead of the main body of my troops and I clear the terrain for my scouts. I have a positive passion for weapons. Not only do I carry lance and spear, I also know how to handle slingstones with a sling. The clay bullets, the treacherous pellets that I shoot, fly around like a violent rainstorm. In my rage I do not let them miss.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I sow fear and confusion in the foreign land. I look to my brother and friend, youthful Utu, as a source of divine encouragement. I, Šulgi, converse with him whenever he rises over there; he is the god who keeps a good eye on my battles. The youth Utu, beloved in the mountains, is the protective deity of my weapons; by his words I am strengthened and made pugnacious (?). In those battles, where weapon clashes on weapon, Utu shines on me. Thus I broke the weapons of the highlands over my knees, and in the south placed a yoke on the neck of Elam. I make the populations of the rebel lands -- how could they still resist my weapons? -- scatter like seed-grain over Sumer and Akkad.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
Let me boast of what I have done. The fame of my power is spread far and wide. My wisdom is full of subtlety. Do not my achievements surpass all qualifications?
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I stride forward in majesty, trampling endlessly through the esparto grass and thickets, capturing elephant after elephant, creatures of the plain; and I put an end to the heroic roaring in the plains of the different liona, the dragons of the plains, wherever it approaches from and wherever it is going. I do not go after them with a net, nor do I lie in wait for them in a hide; it comes to a confrontation of strength and weapons. I do not hurl a weapon; when I plunge a bitter-pointed lance in their throats, I do not flinch at their roar. I am not one to retreat to my hiding-place but, as when one warrior kills another warrior, I do everything swiftly on the open plain. In the desert where the paths peter out, I reduce the roar at the lair to silence. In the sheepfold and the cattle-pen, where heads are laid to rest (?), I put the shepherd tribesmen at ease. Let no one ever at any time say about me," Could he really subdue them all on his own?" The number of lions that I have despatched with my weapons is limitless; their total is unknown.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
Let me boast of what I have done. The fame of my power is spread far and wide. My wisdom is full of subtlety. Do not my achievements surpass all qualifications?
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I am Šulgi, god of manliness, the foremost of the troops. When I stretch the bowstring on the bow, when I fit a perfect arrow to it, I shoot the bow's arrow with the full strength of my arms. The great wild bull, the bull of heaven, the wild cow and the bison bellow. As they pass across the foothills of the mountains, I shoot barbed arrows at them with my powerful strength. (1 line unclear)As they collapse (?) on the plain, I topple them like old towers. I make their heads plunge to the ground like crushing pestles. For the wild asses I set no snares, dig no pits, shoot no arrows against them. But I race after them as against my own rivals; I do not try to surround them to kill their young, as people kill slim ass foals.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
When a burly wild boar (?) is running across the plain, I pierce its lungs with an arrow. With only one shot of mine I bring it to the ground; no single clansman from my regiments can surpass me in archery. I am a man with sharp eyes. When I lead the …… of the crack troops, I know best of all how to cast the throw-stick, running as quick as light radiating from heaven. What I hit no longer rises from its place. (1 line unclear)I can throw a ball (?) as high in the air as if it were a rag. I can bring down quadrupeds lightning-quick with the sling. I, Šulgi, can catch a goat with a quick pace; nothing checks my power. …… has been given to me. Wherever I direct my steps, I always achieve something; when I return from the desert, I always bring something more for her -- for Ninsumun, my own mother, I am her son of five things, of 10 things (= of everything).
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
Let me boast of what I have done. The fame of my power is spread far and wide. My wisdom is full of subtlety. Do not my achievements surpass all qualifications?
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I, the king, am the Land's most excellent fighter against the enemy. I, Šulgi, am respected for my immense bodily strength. I am mighty; nothing resists me; I know no setbacks. My barges on the river do not sink (?) under me (alludes to a proverb (?)); my teams of asses do not collapse under me. Striding forward like my brother and friend, the youth Utu, as if with the legs of a lion, I am the good groom of my dust-making asses that bray like lions roaring. Like that of a stallion, my strength is unwavering during the running-race; I come first in the race, and my knees do not get tired. I am fearless; I dance with joy. My words shall never be forgotten. Praise for me because of my reliable judgments is on everyone's lips.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I am a ritually pure interpreter of omens. I am the very Nintur (creator deity) of the collections of omens. These words of the gods are of pre-eminent value for the exact performance of hand-washing and purification rites, for eulogy of the en priestess or for her enthronement in the ĝipar, for the choosing of the lumaḫ and nindiĝir priests by sacred extispicy, for attacking the south or for defeating the uplands, for the opening of the emblem house, for the washing of lances in the "water of battle" (blood), for the taking of subtle decisions about the rebel lands. After I have determined a sound omen through extispicy from a white lamb and a sheep, water and flour are libated at the place of invocation. Then, as I prepare the sheep with words of prayer, my diviner watches in amazement like an idiot. The prepared sheep is placed at my disposal, and I never confuse a favourable sign with an unfavourable one. I myself have a clear intuition, and I judge by my own eyes. In the insides of just one sheep I, the king, can find the indications for everything and everywhere.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
Let me boast of what I have done. The fame of my power is spread far and wide. My wisdom is full of subtlety. Do not my achievements surpass all qualifications?
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I, Šulgi, king of Urim, have also devoted myself to the art of music. Nothing is too complicated for me; I know the full extent of the tigi and the adab, the perfection of the art of music. When I fix the frets on the lute, which enraptures my heart, I never damage its neck; I have devised rules for raising and lowering its intervals. On the gu-uš lyre I know the melodious tuning. I am familiar with the sa-eš and with drumming on its musical soundbox. I can take in my hands the miritum, which ……. I know the finger technique of the alĝar and sabitum, royal creations. In the same way I can produce sounds from the urzababitum, the ḫarḫar, the zanaru, the ur-gula and the dim-lu-magura. Even if they bring to me, as one might to a skilled musician, a musical instrument that I have not heard before, when I strike it up I make its true sound known; I am able to handle it just like something that has been in my hands before. Tuning, stringing, unstringing and fastening are not beyond my skills. I do not make the reed pipe sound like a rustic pipe, and on my own initiative I can wail a šumunša or make a lament as well as anyone who does it regularly.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I bestow joy and gladness, and I pass my days in pomp and splendour. But people should consider for themselves -- it is a matter to keep in one's sights -- that at the inescapable end of life, no one will be spared the bitter gall of the land of oppression. But I am one who is powerful enough to trust in his own power. He who trusts in his own exalted name may carry out great things. Why should he do less? Since it was for my true mother Ninsumun that my mother together with her actually bore me to bestow joy and gladness, lovingly she cherished my unborn fruit. She did not endure scandal from anyone's mouth. Before she released her little one, this lady passed her time in my palace in the greatest joy.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
Before Utu son of Ningal, I, Šulgi, declare that in my long life in which I have achieved great things since the day that my kingly destiny was determined, in my life in which everything was richly provided in contentment, I have never lacked anything. Until the distant future may this song bless the name of me, the king, with a life of long days. As I am musical, as I am eloquent, I am a heavenly star of steadfastness. It is an awe-inspiring brow that establishes palaces, just as a peg and a measuring cord are the builders of cities. With the awesomeness that radiates from my forehead, which I make the foreign lands wear like a nose-rope, and the fear-inspiring lustre, my personal weapon, which I impose on the Land like a neck-stock, I am able to root out and undo crime. I have the ability to reconcile great matters with one word.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
When I …… like a torrent with the roar of a great storm, in the capture of a citadel in Elam ……, I can understand what their spokesman answers. By origin I am a son of Sumer; I am a warrior, a warrior of Sumer. Thirdly, I can conduct a conversation with a man from the black mountains. Fourthly, I can do service as a translator with a man of Martu, a man of the mountains ……. I myself can correct his confused words in his own language. Fifthly, when a man of Subir yells ……, I can even distinguish the words in his language, although I am not a fellow-citizen of his. When I provide justice in the legal cases of Sumer, I give answers in all five languages. In my palace no one in conversation switches to another language as quickly as I do.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
When I pronounce a completed verdict, it is heartily welcomed, since I am wise and exalted in kingship. So that my consultative assemblies, sitting together to care for the people, inspire respect in their hearts when the chief herald sounds the horn, they should deliberate and debate; and so that the council should decide policy properly, I have taught my governors to deliberate and to debate. While the words at their dining tables flow like a river, I tackle crime, so that the foundations are securely established for my wide dominions. I vanquish a city with words as weapons, and my wisdom keeps it subjected just as violence with burning torches would. I have taught them the meaning of the words "I have no mother". My words can be words smooth as the finest quality oil; I know how to cool hearts which are hot as fire, and I know how to extinguish a mouth set on fire like a reedbed. I weigh my words against those of the braggart. I am a man of the very highest standards of value. The importance of the humble is of particular value to me, and they cannot be counter-productive to any of my activities. By command of An and by command of Enlil, prayers are said for the life of the Land and for the life of the foreign lands, and I neither neglect them nor allow them to be interrupted.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I also know how to serve the gods, and I can cool the hearts of the Anuna gods. I am Šulgi, whose thick neck becomes fat (?) in majesty. Grand achievements that I have accomplished which bring joy to my heart I do not cast negligently aside; therefore I give pride of place to progress. I give no orders concerning the development of waste ground, but devote my energies to extensive building plots. I have planted trees in fields and in agricultural land; I devote my powers to dams, ……, ditches and canals. I try to ensure a surplus of oil and wool. Thanks to my efforts flax and barley are of the highest quality. The thirst and hunger of the gods are a cause of the greatest anxiety to me; I, Šulgi, am the life of Sumer.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I have no equal among even the most distant rulers, and I can also state that my deeds are great deeds. Everything is achievable by me, the king. Since the time when Enlil gave me the direction of his numerous people in view of my wisdom, my extraordinary power and my justice, in view of my resolute and unforgettable words, and in view of my expertise, comparable to that of Ištaran, in verdicts, my heart has never committed violence against even one other king, be he an Akkadian or a son of Sumer, or even a brute from Gutium.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I am no fool as regards the knowledge acquired since the time that mankind was, from heaven above, set on its path: when I have discovered tigi and zamzam hymns from past days, old ones from ancient times, I have never declared them to be false, and have never contradicted their contents. I have conserved these antiquities, never abandoning them to oblivion. Wherever the tigi and the zamzam sounded, I have recovered all that knowledge, and I have had those šir-gida songs brilliantly performed in my own good house. So that they should never fall into disuse, I have added them to the singers' repertoire, and thereby I have set the heart of the Land on fire and aflame.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
Whatever is acquired is destined to be lost. What mortal has ever reached the heavens? At some time in the distant future, a man of Enlil may arise, and if he is a just king, like myself, then let my odes, prayers and learned songs about my heroic courage and expeditions follow that king in his good palace. He should take to heart the benefit that has been conferred on him; he should exalt the power of my odes, absorb the exuberance of my songs, and value highly my great wisdom. Just as a strong person can consider on an equal basis even those things which he has not brought about by his own efforts, let him applaud and welcome my achievements. Let him call upon my good name.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
But if his heart devises treason against me, and he commits violence against anything of mine, may Nanna then adjudicate against this rebel, and let Utu the torch catch him. Wherever that king's path may lead, his word shall be wiped out. Until he has completed the days of his life, he shall do everything in his power to keep the hymns in their proper form. Through becoming familiar thereby with me, the king, he will speak of me in awed amazement. Because of my extraordinary wisdom and my ancient fame as a master, he should choose my hymns as examples, and himself beget heavenly writings.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
In the south, in Urim, I caused a House of the Wisdom of Nisaba to spring up in sacrosanct ground for the writing of my hymns; up country in Nibru I established another. May the scribe be on duty there and transcribe with his hand the prayers which I instituted in the E-kur; and may the singer perform, reciting from the text. The academies are never to be altered; the places of learning shall never cease to exist. This and this only is now my accumulated knowledge! The collected words of all the hymns that are in my honour supersede all other formulations. By An, Enlil, Utu and Inana, it is no lie -- it is true!
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
Furthermore no one will assert under oath that to this day there is any mention in my inscriptions of a single city that I have not devastated, or wall that I have not demolished, or land that I have not made tremble like a reed hut, or praise that I have not completely verified. Why should a singer put them in hymns? An eminent example deserves eternal fame. What is the use of writing lies without truth? For me, the king, the singer has recorded my exploits in songs about the strength of the protective deity of my power; my songs are unforgettable, and my words shall not fall into oblivion. I am the best king of the Land. From the very first origins until the full flourishing of mankind, there will never be any king who can measure himself against my achievements whom An will let wear his crown or wield his sceptre from a royal throne.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I am gifted with power, insight and wisdom. The high point of my great deeds is the culling of lions before the lance as if they were garden weeds, the snapping of fierce felines like reeds as if under the carding-comb, and the crushing (?) of their throats under the axe as if they were dogs. Great powerful wild cows, indomitable bulls, cattle on their way to their mountain pastures, which were killed in the plain, were …… the mountains. That the hills were impenetrable and inaccessible …… -- those are pure lies. Where, in important words on tablets, my wisdom and my power (1 line unclear)He who knows, and does not …… the truth about me as lies, will applaud and praise me.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
I am a warrior whose might is enormous might. I am Šulgi, whose shadow lies over the mountain lands. I am the king, the weapon and the downfall of rebel lands. Thus I have spread far and wide my everlasting renown.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi B): c.2.4.2.02
Now, I swear by Utu on this very day -- and my younger brothers shall be witnesses of it in foreign lands where the sons of Sumer are not known, where people do not have the use of paved (?) roads, where they have no access to the written word -- that the firstborn son is a fashioner of words, a composer of songs, a composer of words, and that they will recite my songs as heavenly writings, and that they will bow down before my words as a …… (8 lines fragmentary)
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
I am the king, a wild bull of acknowledged strength, a lion with wide-open jaws! I am Šulgi, a wild bull of acknowledged strength, a lion with wide-open jaws! I am a great storm let loose from heaven, sending its splendour far and wide! I am good stock, with brindled body, engendered by a breed-bull! I am a king born from a cow, resting amid butter and milk! I am the calf of a thick-necked white cow, reared in the cow-pen! Dressed in a …… royal robe and holding out a sceptre, I am perfect for ……. I am also the good shepherd who takes joy in justice, the scourge and stick of all evil! Strength of lions, hero of battle -- I have no rivals! Handsome of limb, ferocious lion, I am perfection in warfare! Grasping a lapis-lazuli mace and a battle-axe, with long fingers I sharpen a tin knife to untie knots. In the turbulent affray of battle, in the conflict, I shoot out my tongue, a mušḫuš darting out its tongue at the foreign lands, a dragon raging (?) at men.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
I am a hero! Let them appropriately acknowledge my fame! I am a shepherd! Let them repeatedly bless me in prayer according to the heavenly stars! Let them tell in song a perfect recital of all my praiseworthy deeds!
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
Since I first arose in human form, a bull-calf born in a year of plenty and announced at a time of prosperity, nourished on good milk, my head was refulgent with the crown. As I rose over my city like Utu, suspended in its midst, I filled the E-temen-ni-guru, founded with divine powers, with princely cornelian. I touched it and made it perfect with royal hand-washing rituals. I cleansed myself in water of purification from Eridug. Its seven wisdoms attended upon me, and they were not negligent of me, the radiant heart dressed in a robe.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
I am a hero! Let them appropriately acknowledge my fame! I am a shepherd! Let them repeatedly bless me in prayer according to the heavenly stars! Let them tell in song a perfect recital of all my praiseworthy deeds!
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
In the house of wise knowledge of the Land, I, Šulgi, king of Sumer, set a good example. My hand guides the holy reed stylus correctly. (4 lines unclear)…… the fields in the holy …… and the holy agricultural land with a lapis-lazuli measuring line, bringing in plentiful harvests, …… top-quality flax, top-quality barley. I am greatly expert in assigning work with the pickaxe and the brick-mould, in drawing plans, in laying foundations, and in writing cuneiform inscriptions on pedestals; I can make things absolutely clear on tablets of lapis lazuli. I also have a solidly based knowledge of the intelligent implementation of the counting, accounting and planning of the Land.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
I am a hero! Let them appropriately acknowledge my fame! I am a shepherd! Let them repeatedly bless me in prayer according to the heavenly stars! Let them tell in song a perfect recital of all my praiseworthy deeds!
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
I am fair of mouth with well-formed lips. My heart ……. (1 line fragmentary) I also have a solidly based knowledge of ……. In my assembly where grand deliberation takes place, where the black-headed are gathered together, a minister pays attention to messages from foreign lands. Eloquent in the assembly and refined, he (2 lines fragmentary) He roared like a bull. (12 lines missing or fragmentary)
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
I am a shepherd who, apart from being one who always makes the right decisions on what he has sworn, is also fully able to re-establish …… in the Land and to …… forcefully the house of the rebel lands; who grasps hold of the righteous as if they were great bulls, and who darts (?) out his tongue at the wicked like a snake in a terrifying place. I never frighten the just, and I never …… the evil.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
I am a hero! Let them appropriately acknowledge my fame! I am a shepherd! Let them repeatedly bless me in prayer according to the heavenly stars! Let them tell in song a perfect recital of all my praiseworthy deeds!
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
I am the leader living in Sumer! I am engaged in carrying out the planning! When I stand against the cities and territories of the hostile rebel lands, my battle is a hurricane that cannot be overwhelmed. When I surround their contingents from the south and cut the people off, (1 line fragmentary)In the great palace, where I take decisions, when I …… a pure lamb, on the right …… favourable ……, as I …… on my great throne. In my well-established dwelling, I can tell whether to strike with weapons or not to strike with weapons. Since from birth I am also a Nintur (creator deity), wise in all matters, I can recognise the omens of that extispicy in a pure place. I keep a look-out that ……. I am a lord ……, as I range about in my anger. I also have a solidly based knowledge of omens from heaped high censers. My vision enables me to be the dream-interpreter of the Land; my heart enables me to be the Ištaran (god of justice) of the foreign lands. I am Šulgi, good shepherd of Sumer. Like my brother and friend Gilgameš, I can recognise the virtuous and I can recognise the wicked. The virtuous gets justice in my presence, and the wicked and evil person will be carried off by ……. Who like me is able to interpret what is spoken in the heart or is articulated on the tongue?
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
I am a hero! Let them appropriately acknowledge my fame! I am a shepherd! Let them repeatedly bless me in prayer according to the heavenly stars! Let them tell in song a perfect recital of all my praiseworthy deeds!
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
Since I am also wise and highly intelligent, (5 lines fragmentary) Also I know the Martu language as well as I do Sumerian. …… mountain people walking in the hills ……, they greet me and I reply to them in the Martu language. Also I know the Elamite language as well as I do Sumerian. …… in Elam ……, they greet me and I reply in Elamite. (4 lines missing or fragmentary) In wrestling and athletics I am ……. I am the shepherd who with nimbly gripping fingers ……. Who can resist me, on the exercise ground as well as in battle? The greatest heroes of the Land, the notable strong men and athletes from the foreign lands, the swift (?) of Sumer, the totality of combatants, …… at my wrists. (1 line unclear)I am powerful in athletics, and I am strong …… in wrestling. I am Šulgi, the good shepherd of Sumer, and no one can equal me!
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
I am a hero! Let them appropriately acknowledge my fame! I am a shepherd! Let them repeatedly bless me in prayer according to the heavenly stars! Let them tell in song a perfect recital of all my praiseworthy deeds!
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
Lion, feline …… (5 lines fragmentary or unclear) May its glory cover the cities, and its battle-cry smother the foreign lands! May the people be terrified at its roaring, as at a storm in the heavens! I am Šulgi, the good shepherd of Sumer! May he bring me the muscles of a lion, the sinews of a lion! May he receive (?) my spear! (3 lines unclear)The black-headed will look on in amazement, and …… in my city.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
I am a hero! Let them appropriately acknowledge my fame! I am a shepherd! Let them repeatedly bless me in prayer according to the heavenly stars! Let them tell in song a perfect recital of all my praiseworthy deeds!
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
Where I stand, I destroy foreign lands; where I sit, I plunder cities. At my command, ……. Where my weapons strike, ……. (7 lines fragmentary or unclear) Their bricks are dug up from the footings ……. The city which I smash shall not be restored; the houses which I destroy shall be counted as ruin mounds; the walls proudly rising to heaven shall not open ……. (1 line unclear) …… I have been given great strength. (1 line fragmentary) …… arrows of my quiver …… a flying bird. As if ……; …… like a wild bull in a meadow. My spear goes straight. My great emblems are raised at the edge of the mountains. When day breaks and Utu comes forth and looks upon the hills, I shall marvel at them. (2 lines unclear) …… may they be terrified, and may his troops be frightened. (1 line fragmentary) Since I am a king who puts the Land on track, (4 lines fragmentary) Night falls, (2 lines unclear) The rebel lands ……. They are scattered by force, like sheep that have no shepherd. (7 lines fragmentary or unclear) May concord be promoted in the Land. May my attack cause them to collapse, like a wild bull going to its resting place. (1 line unclear)May the numerous people in their well-established dwelling be avenged.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
I am a hero! Let them appropriately acknowledge my fame! I am a shepherd! Let them repeatedly bless me in prayer according to the heavenly stars! Let them tell in song a perfect recital of all my praiseworthy deeds!
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi C): c.2.4.2.03
Since I am also pleasure-loving and a devotee of singing, I can perform tigi, adab and great malgatum compositions. When fixing the frets of the great lutes, I know how to raise and lower them. I am adept enough to play perfectly all the seven instruments. …… balbale on the flute; …… their divergent strings; …… the sa-eš instrument …… (4 lines fragmentary or unclear) a performing musician …… (1 line unclear) I also have a solidly based knowledge of ……. …… praying in a melodious voice, capering joyfully to the sound of the holy balaĝ drum (1 line unclear) …… in song, for my sister Ĝeštin-ana, my own mother Ninsumun …… in wisdom …… (6 lines missing)
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
O my king, great bull with splendid limbs, dragon with a lion's eyes! Shepherd Šulgi, great bull with splendid limbs, dragon with a lion's eyes! Bull-calf born in the cattle-pen of abundance, thriving there! Mighty one fit for heroism, the ornament of his Land! Righteous man, invested with justice by Utu! Fierce leopard who feeds on rich milk, rampant bull who was born to be a great beast! A lapis-lazuli beard, a holy breast -- marvellous to behold! O king, joy of the royal tiara! Šulgi, ornament of the legitimate crown, wearing the diadem of godhead, named by An with a good name! Good shepherd, endowed with strength by Enlil, Šulgi, the beloved of Ninlil's heart!
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
You destroy the offspring of ……. You are mighty, ……. You are brave, ……. When in the E-kur ……, in the hostile foreign lands you plunder cities; like a panting lion, you ……; like a cheetah, you ……; a dragon, you ……; (2 lines missing)You hurl angry words against the people of the foreign lands that are hostile to Nanna. You are adorned with splendid horns, like a virile wild bull born to be a great wild bull. You are a chariot, a waggon set on the road. Like a noble ass, by your vigorous running you bring joy to Enlil.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
You are as strong as an ildag tree planted by the side of a watercourse. You are a sweet sight, like a fertile meš tree laden with colourful fruit. You are cherished by Ninegala, like a date palm of holy Dilmun. You have a pleasant shade, like a sappy cedar growing amid the cypresses.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
Shepherd Šulgi, when your seed was placed in the holy womb, your mother Ninsumun gave birth to you; your personal god, holy Lugalbanda, fashioned you; Mother Nintur nurtured you; An named you with a good name; Enlil lifted your head; Ninlil loved you. The princely son of the E-kur ……. The king, the holy barge which traverses the sky, Nanna, the lord ……, Suen ……. (2 lines fragmentary)
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
Nudimmud …… like small trees. He cherished you like an ildag tree ……, like a meš tree or a palm-tree. At that time, …… An …… wrote a tablet for you and decreed a fate for you. Ninlil's heart was soothed with prayers and supplications. The gods of heaven, with their ready approval, came to heaven, where the fates are decreed. Enlil, the king of all the lands, gave you shepherdship over the Land, in the south and in the highlands.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
You hero, after stepping on the ……, you roared at the foreign land hostile to Nanna. Hurl your battle-cry at the …… of Enlil! My king, …… (approx. 10 lines missing)……, great bull …….
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
"I, the king, …… upon the foreign lands a mighty yoke …… of heroism ……, I subject their people to destruction. After setting my foot on the neck of the foreign lands, I make …… on the rebel lands. After knocking down …… like ……, and placing my foot on his head, I make him die amid dripping blood ……. Against their ……, my battle-axe gnashes and gnashes its teeth like a sharp-toothed beast. Against their ……, which are well fitted with …… axes of meteoric iron and …… gold ore, like a …… snake my mouth brings forth venom. I cut off from his strength the strong one who resorts to his strength. My …… against their warriors as if they were fish. …… the small net over their runners, I catch them like gazelles in the woods. Having …… like fire (?) against their tireless runners, I make them fall violently into a trap set with a net like wild asses. I place …… on their boastful ones in the battle. My fierce weapons pour forth venom into them like a serpent ready to bite. After tearing out the entrails of its …… who are still alive, I make the man coiling like an attacking …… snake sink his head in the dust, like an ailing, neglected (?) bull. I make their little ones who survive eat bitter dust as long as they live, like the locust which consumes everything."
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
"I raise my spear against the ……, I set up my emblems at the border of the foreign lands. I fill my quiver, and my bow is stretched, ready to shoot, like a raging serpent. Barbed arrows flash before me like lightning. Like scudding bats, …… arrows fly into the mouth of battle. Slingstones rain down on their people; clay bullets clatter on their backs like hammerstones. With my throw-stick and sling I catch like swallows the crushed people of the rebel lands. My …… weapon sharpens its teeth at the head of the Land."
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
"My …… battle-axe sheds the blood of the people like water. My double-edged axe weapon …… in their …… blood, which covers the ……, spilled on the hills like the contents of a broken wine jug. I …… the people in their meadows; the blood …… like water in their wadis; the blood …… into the cracks of the earth."
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
"Its ……, in the foreign land ……. The rebel land ……. The foreign land ……. (7 lines missing)The heart ……. Having filled the ……, …… his prosperous ……; I give them as a gift to ……."
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
"I, the king, shall avenge my city. Whatever has been destroyed in Sumer, I shall destroy in the foreign lands. I shall make the gods of their cities turn away (?) from them; I shall cause their male and female protective deities, their good eyes, to stand aside. I shall let long grass grow in their fertile fields of shining barley. I shall uproot their small trees. With the axe I shall destroy their thick and tall trees, and I shall tear down by the crown their valuable trees. In their irrigated gardens, where honey and fig trees used to grow, I shall make weeds grow, so that …… plants and …… herbs break through the soil."
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
"After I, the king, have destroyed the cities and ruined the city walls, have terrified the …… foreign lands like a flood, have scattered the seed of Gutium like seed-grain, have established Enlil's triumph, have crushed the populations as if with a pestle, have …… my heart ……, then I shall load the pure lapis lazuli of the foreign lands into leather pouches and leather bags." (approx. 5 lines missing)
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
The king ……. On that day, in the foreign land ……. His roar …… the hills ……. The city which Enlil has ……, which An has ……, which Nintur has ……, which Enki has …… good wisdom. Nanna has …… the heights of heaven, Utu has …… on the horizon; Inana the lady of battle has frowned (?) on it. The people of the rebel lands, like old reeds ……. The great and terrible battle of Šulgi …….
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
Zagar, the god of dreams, …… as their beneficent protective spirit, …… in a dream, (2 lines fragmentary) (approx. 31 lines missing)
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
The king of the holy heavens, adorned with a wide crown, the lord, the bright luminary of the gods, Father Nanna, …… by him on his right side; and he walks along the road together with Šulgi, the good shepherd of Sumer.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
Born to a great wild bull, like a lion standing firm in his strength, mighty heir of youthful Suen, heroic son of Ašimbabbar, the vigorous bull (Ningublaga) …… by him on his left side; and he walks along the road together with Šulgi, the good shepherd of Sumer.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
When he arrives at Enegir, ……, the fierce serpent, ready to bite ……, the lord of ……, Ninazu ……, and he walks along the road together with Šulgi, the good shepherd of Sumer.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
At the same time, King Enki emerges from the abzu; he has but to raise one eye from the abzu to destroy for him the foreign lands from where he stands, to destroy for him their cities from where he sits -- he of the trustworthy command, whose utterances are firmly established, Nudimmud, the great lord of Eridug; and he walks along the road together with Šulgi, the good shepherd of Sumer.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
After the king had destroyed the cities and ruined the city walls, had terrified the …… foreign lands like a flood, had scattered the seed of Gutium like seed-grain, had …… his heart ……, then he loaded the pure lapis lazuli of the foreign lands into leather pouches and leather bags. He heaped up all their treasures and amassed (?) all the wealth of the foreign lands. He invoked the name of Enlil and invoked the name of Ninlil on their fattened cattle and fattened sheep.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
After carrying out a noble revenge in the foreign lands, the hero had his brilliant royal barge caulked. Imbued with terrible splendour on the Exalted River, it was adorned with holy horns, and its golden ram symbol (?) gleamed in the open air. Its bitumen was the …… bitumen of Enki provided generously by the abzu; its cabin was a palace. It was decorated with stars like the sky. Its holy ……, (1 line fragmentary)
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
The king ……, Šulgi, the good shepherd of Sumer, …… his feet upon ……; he took his seat on a throne of ……. The sim and ala drums resounded for him, and the tigi drums played music for him.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
"My king, ……, you have destroyed the foreign lands and plundered their cities ……; like a wild bull …… the hills ……", sang the singers for him in a song. His boatmen, in tireless effort, (1 line unclear)These, citizens of Enegir and citizens of Urim, thrust forth their …… oars at the command of the lord. He moored the boat at the temple area of Nibru, the temple area Dur-an-ki, at Enlil's Kar-ĝeština. He entered before Enlil with the silver and lapis lazuli of the foreign lands loaded into leather pouches and leather bags, all their heaped-up treasures, and with the amassed (?) wealth of the foreign lands.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi D): c.2.4.2.04
……, the king ……. Enlil decrees a destiny for Šulgi: "O king, I will decree a destiny for you, I will decree a good destiny for you! O Šulgi, I will decree a destiny for you, I will decree a good destiny for you! I will decree heroism as your destiny! I will decree long-lasting office as ruler and king as your destiny! May you raise your head in terrifying splendour! May no man stand his ground before your fierce gaze! May your royal crown shine radiantly! May your sceptre be a princely sceptre, and may its shining branches provide shade! May there be joy in your heart, and may you never grow weary! May you be the life-giving king of your assembly! May your life flourish like herbs, may it flourish like grain! May it flourish like a fertile meš tree in a broad plot!" (1 line fragmentary) (unknown no. of lines missing)
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi E): c.2.4.2.05
Enlil, foundation platform of heaven and earth, who holds the crook that makes the Land firm, whose beard flows over the mountains, who reveres his own divine powers -- Enlil, the everlasting shepherd of the Land, has addressed me, Šulgi, king of Urim, favourably, looking at me with wide-open eyes. In the overflowing of his heart, the lord bestowed the sceptre on me.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi E): c.2.4.2.05
Everywhere the word of Enlil has brought benefits to me, who was specially crowned in brick-built Eridug; to me, who was invested with the lapis-lazuli diadem in Unug; to me, the beloved shepherd of Nanna, fit for the throne. When I bring firewood (?), he looks at me and speaks gladly to me.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi E): c.2.4.2.05
I, Šulgi, the king whose name is very suitable for songs, intend to be praised in my prayers and hymns. At the command of my sister Ĝeštin-ana, my scholars and composers of …… have composed adab, tigi and malgatum hymns about my being the Nintur of all that is, about how wise I am in attending upon the gods, about how the god of intercession has given me favourable signs that years of abundance will elapse for me in due course.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi E): c.2.4.2.05
They have composed šir-gida songs, royal praise poetry, šumunša, kunĝar and balbale compositions about how I carried warfare across the sea to the south, how I jerked up the hostile land of Elam as if it were grass by a gateway, how in the uplands I …… the people like grain, how I trekked the length of the mountains in battle, how I travel about indefatigably in the mountain uplands like an old donkey on the road, and about my expeditions …….
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi E): c.2.4.2.05
They composed for me gigid and zamzam songs about my manual skill, ever reliable for the finest task of the scribal art; about my ability to unravel the calculating and reckoning of the waxing of the new moon; about my causing joy and happiness; about how I know exactly at what point to raise and lower the tigi and zamzam instruments, and how I have complete control of the plectra of the great stringed instruments; how I cannot be stopped by anything insurmountable, about my being a runner tireless when emerging from the race.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi E): c.2.4.2.05
In the name of An, the pre-eminent king; and of Enlil, who never changes his utterances; and in the name of Suen, the brickwork of cities cursed by whom shall rise no more, and the people cursed by whom will get leprosy; and in the name of Utu, the constable of the gods: I swear no one has ever put anything mendacious about me in my hymns; no one has embellished my prayers with achievements that I have not matched; I, Šulgi, have never allowed exaggerated praise of power to be put in a song.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi E): c.2.4.2.05
In the cult-places, let no one neglect the songs about me, whether they are adab, whether they are tigi or malgatum, šir-gida or praise of kingship, whether they are šumunša, kunĝar or balbale, whether they are gi-gid or zamzam -- so that they shall never pass out of memory and never lapse from people's mouths. Let them never cease to be sung in the shining E-kur! Let them be played for Enlil in his Shrine of the New Moon! When at the ešeš festival they serve the clear beer endlessly like water, may they be offered repeatedly before Enlil as he sits with Ninlil.
A praise poem of Šulgi (Šulgi E): c.2.4.2.05
But if …… removes my name from my hymns, and …… his name, and does not call upon my name in brick-built E-kur, and if that man commits enmity and violence against the temple, then whether that man is a king or a governor, Enlil shall curse him ……. May enmity and violence come forth against him from the house of Enlil. Let him be given enmity as his companion. May an asag demon, as causer of the plague, deprive his city of contentment. Because of famine in years of hunger, may he find no favour in the eyes of the Land. May Ezina produce no grain in sheaves. May fair Nanibgal, Nisaba, make no clay covering for his grain piles. …… the troops ……. His chief merchant …… silver ……. May the hunger and the thirst of the gods …… the city during his reign …… grain.
A praise poem of Šulgi (&#